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De Thermis Andreae Baccii.libri septem

BACCI, Andrea FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. (lxxii) 509 (i). Roman letter with Italic, occasional Greek. Printer’s device to t-p, double-page woodcut plan of the Baths of Diocletian. T-p very slightly thumbed, two tiny worm trails at foot of first and last couple of ll., light water stain to some upper outer corners, including woodcut, very largely marginal. A very good, clean, large-margined copy in most handsome C16 Roman crimson goatskin, covers expertly laid onto modern morocco, blind-tooled to a triple-ruled panel design, second border with gilt double fillet, interlinked circles, and demi-dragons to outer corners, central panel with arabesque cornerpieces and gilt cartouche with arms of Giacomo Boncompagni surmounted by coronet, edges with diagonal dashes in blind, a.e.g. Spine in four compartments, blind- tooled double-ruled border and stamped demi-dragon to each, double raised bands, modern eps, green cloth ties. Armorial library stamp of Boncompagni to t-p. The superb binding was made for Giacomo Boncompagni (1548-1612), Duke of Sora, Arpino, Arce and Aquino, Marquess of Vignola and illegitimate son of Gregory XIII, elected Pope in 1572. Twenty books have been traced to his collection, 17 of which feature a double- ruled blind-tooled panel design, an outer border of gilt interlaced-circles tools, solid gilt cornerpieces and a stamped oval with Boncompagni’s arms flanked by two angels supporting a coronet (Wittock, 105-6). Together with a copy of Mambrino Roseo’s ‘Supplemento delle Historie del Mondo’ (Venice, 1583), this is the only Boncompagni binding in crimson morocco, the others being olive. This binding features the same cornerpieces and demi-dragons (e.g., Arrianus, ‘Ponti Euxini periplus’, Genève, 1577), and gilt border (e.g., Plotinus, ‘De rebus philosophicis libri’, Bâle, 1559) as those from one of the two Roman ateliers employed by Boncompagni. His arms in this binding bear a stamped demi-dragon in the lower half and gilt hand-tooled keys surmounted by a pavilion, a heraldic symbol of the temporal power of the Church used by papal families (Galbreath, ‘Papal Heraldry’, 31). In 1576, Boncompagni was appointed to the patriciate of Venice, hence the coronet. This is the only extant instance with a centrepiece in which the coronet is outside the cartouche—probably an early experiment leading to the more famous design. Very good, clean copy of this ground-breaking study of thermal waters and their medical uses. A protégé of Cardinal Ascanio Colonna in Rome, Andrea Bacci (1524-1600) was an Italian doctor, philosopher and polyhedral author of works on natural science (studies of wines and elks) and medicine (on medicaments, poisons and antidotes). L2528
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CICERO, Marcus Tullius. M.T. Ciceronis ad Quintum Fratrem dialogi De Oratore liber primus et secundus (with) CICERO, Marcus Tullius. M.T. Ciceronis Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino, oratio, Barpt. Latomi artificio rhetorico explicata (with) SUETONIUS, Tranquillus. C. Svetonii Tranquilli E XII Caesaribus C. Iulius Caesar (with) OVID. Metamorphoseon Liber secundus (with) CASSANDER, George. Tabulae breues (with) QUINTILIAN. De Institutione Oratoria liber III (with) GUILLON, René. Tabulae perbreues (with) MURMELLIUS, Johannes. Tabulae Joannis Murmellij (with) VIRGIL. Georgicon Liber IIII (with) DESPAUTÈRE, Jean. Compendium Joannis Despauterij.

CICERO, Marcus Tullius (with) SUETONIUS, Tranquillus (with) OVID (with) CASSANDER, George (with) QUINTILIAN (with) GUILLON, René (with) MURMELLIUS, Johannes (with) VIRGIL (with) DESPAUTÈRE, Jean 4to. Ten works in one, separate t-p to each. I) [t-p and first two pp. missing] pp. 188; II) FIRST EDITION, ff. 27 (i); III) FIRST EDITION, pp. 64; IV) FIRST EDITION, ff. 16; V) FIRST EDITION, ff. 16; VI) ff. 30; VII) FIRST EDITION, ff. 20 unnumbered, A-E 4 (i); VIII) FIRST EDITION, ff. 16; IX) [t-p and first 36 ll. missing] ff. 11; X) FIRST EDITION, pp. 32. Italic letter, occasional Roman and Greek. Printer’s device to a couple of t-p, decorated initials and headpieces. Light age yellowing, t-p and last dusty, a couple of small wormholes touching a few letters, occasional mostly marginal spotting, intermittent faint water stain to lower part, large tear to t-p and last of II, former slightly affecting introduction. A good copy in contemporary vellum, yapp edges, old stains and minor loss in places, a bit worn but sound. Autograph of Johannes du Tartre to front and rear pastedown and a few t-p, autograph of Guillaume du Tartre to last of VI, probably C16 autographs of Johannes and Pierre Fleur (?) to t-p of X, early drawings throughout (foliage, swords, hands), arms of Du Tartre to t-p of VI, extensive early annotation. Curious collection of very uncommon C16 editions of Cicero, Suetonius, Ovid, Quintilian and Virgil, accompanied by Cassander, Guillon, Murmellius and Despautère’s didactic manuals of Latin and Greek. It covers the fundamentals of the Renaissance ‘studia humanitatis’ concerned with Greek and Latin rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history and moral philosophy. The texts were probably chosen by an experienced teacher; he singled out the most important genres and several of the same sections which are still used for teaching classics today. From Cicero’s (106-43BC) vast production, he picked an epistle (‘ad Quintum Fratrem’), a dialogue (‘De Oratore’) and an oration (‘Pro Roscio Amerino’). Suetonius’s (69-122AD) biography of Julius Caesar, drawn from ‘De Vita Caesarum’, introduces historical material in an engaging style, with references to the emperor’s appearance and quotes. Ovid’s (43BC-17/18AD) ‘Metamorphoses’ is presented through Book II, renowned for the myth of Phaeton and the masterful description of the Palace of the Sun (Regia Solis). Virgil (70BC-19BC) is introduced through Book IV of the ‘Georgics’—a work which, unlike the ‘Aeneid’, could be easily read in parts—its famous discussion of beekeeping and the qualities of bees. The three accompanying manuals served to integrate and guide the pupil. The ‘Tabulae breues’ by the Flemish theologian George Cassander (1513-66) presented short answers to questions on rhetoric such as ‘what is eloquence?’ and ‘what is invention?’ as well as schematic compendia of figures of speech. In his ‘Tabulae prebreues’, René Guillon summarised Greek declensions and conjugations with plain diagrams. Jean Despautère’s (1420-1520) ‘Compendium’ presented a thorough study of metres and the quantity of syllables, and Johannes Murmellius’s (1480-1517) ‘Tabulae’ showed how to apply this knowledge to the ‘rudimentary’ composition of Latin verse. This fascinating compendium was used by Johannes and Guillaume du Tartre, who inscribed their names. Originating in Franche-Comté, the family, whose arms were drawn on the t-p of VI, owned a very important library, now partially preserved at the BNF; their earliest surviving documentation dates from the 1650s. The annotations, mostly made by Johannes, include glosses summarising the meaning of crucial passages; detailed ‘argumenta’ introducing a text (with references to specific passages as with Ovid’s description of the Regia Solis); and interlinear notes highlighting rhetorical structures and figures of speech. II) No copies recorded in the US. Not in BP16, BM STC Fr. or Brunet. III) No copies recorded in the US. USTC 196152; BP16 113752; Pettigree and Walsby, French Books, 87095. Not in BM STC Fr. or Brunet. IV) No copies recorded in the US. Not in BP16, BM STC Fr. or Brunet. V) No copies recorded in the US. L2773
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Orationes tres

ISOCRATES 8vo. ff. (i) 51. Roman and Greek letter on opposing pages. Printer’s woodcut device to t-p and verso of penultimate leaf. Slight age yellowing, outer margins generally thumbed, a few faint water stains, small marginal loss to fol. 24. A well-read but attractive copy in unrestored contemporary Florentine calf, a few small wormholes, traces of ties, one loose, double endbands. Small holes to final leaf, printer name erased. Triple-ruled panel design, outer border with blind-tooled fleurons to corners, rosettes and small round tools, central panel divided diagonally into compartments, each with blind-tooled rosettes and mudejar knotwork, double rule to inner edges. Spine in three compartments decorated with horizontal rules, raised bands. Extensive early annotation, bookplate of Carlo Chiassa to fep, faded circular stamp to t-p, contemporary autograph ‘Nicolai Zanj’ and small inscriptions to t-p. In folding box. The remarkably unrestored binding was probably made in Florence, where small blind- tooled round tools were often used alongside mudejar decoration (e.g., de Marinis I, 1006). Through its allusive Greek-style appearance, with double endbands and knotwork, it sought, like luxury ‘alla greca’ bindings in the libraries of wealthy humanists, to create a material connection with the greatness of classical antiquity. Well-read and apparently unrecorded second edition of the first Greek-Latin text of Isocrates’s ‘Orationes tres’. One of the greatest Greek rhetoricians, Isocrates (436-338BC) worked as a writer of judicial speeches and established a successful, prestigious and expensive school of rhetoric in Athens. He saw expression and rhythm as fundamental stylistic principles, rhetoricians as professionals with wide-ranging knowledge, and rhetoric as a discipline concerned not solely with theoretical speculation and political debates but also practical questions, including judicial and civil matters. The stylistic quality and thematic breadth of his orations—only 21 of which were available in the mid-C16—made them ideal texts for classical studies. First printed in 1549, this collected edition featured three orations. The first, ‘To Demonicus’, advises youth on how to cultivate the best and most virtuous aspirations and bear a fair yet disenchanted demeanour towards the world. The second, ‘To Nicocles King of Cyprus’, is a defence of monarchy as a form of government which exalts the best and expects rulers to treat the state as something which concerns them personally and not, like democracy, as something which concerns others. The third, ‘To Nicocles’, is a ‘mirror for princes’ advising the king on how to rule wisely, creating, for instance, laws that are ‘just, expedient and consistent’. The meticulous annotator, Nicola Zani, was a student of Latin and Greek. He glossed the texts highlighting important passages and providing Latin translations to difficult Greek words. He also noted the meaning of two unusual words: ‘bubo’, the barn owl, and ‘inguinis’, where ‘pudenda’ are located—probably a schoolboy. Rare. Only Catholic University of America copy recorded in the US. Unrecorded in standard bibliographies. N. Pickwoad, ‘How Greek is Greek: Western European Imitations of Greek-Style Bindings’, in To biblio sto Byzantio: Byzantine kai metabyzantine bibliodesia Biblioamphiastes (Athens, 2008), 177-200. L2739
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Libro de la regla y constituciones generales de la orden de nuestro padre sant Francisco.

REBOLLEDO, Louis de.] Folio. ff. (ii) 140 (ii). Roman letter, some Italic. Attractive engraved Franciscan device dated 1603 to t-p; guide letters within woodcut frames; decorated tailpieces. Light age browning, faint water stain to some margins, heavier to first few gatherings, occasional slight foxing, small spots in places. A good copy in contemporary Spanish polished sheep, traces of ties, some repair to extremities. Blind-tooled to a double-ruled panel design, outer and second border with male heads within roundels, leafy curls and rosettes, centre panel tooled in silver with fleurons to each corner and small centrepiece tool with spiral lines and floral decorations, all oxydized. Rebacked, joints cracked. Early bookplate of Monastery of St Francis (Mexico City) to front pastedown, bookplate of Los Angeles Law Library to front ep, branded ex-libris of the Mexican Monastery of St Francis to upper fore-edge. The panel design and border decorations of the handsome binding closely resemble those on BL c64g4, produced in Spain in the late C16. Good copy of this second edition of the statutes of the Franciscan Order in Castilian, compiled by Louis de Rebolledo. Rebolledo (fl. early C17) was provincial superior in Andalusia; in 1603, he oversaw the establishment of the first Franciscan theological school in Spain at the Casa Grande de San Francisco monastery in Seville. Originally published in 1600 with no specification of place and printer, ‘Libro de la regla’ was the official book of regulations for the religious life of Franciscan communities. The work is prefaced by St Francis’s testament and an epitome of the rule of the Order in Latin, detailing the code of behaviour concerning admission, itinerant preaching (e.g., among the Saracens), work, penance, and the ban from entering nuns’ convents if not with a special licence in order to avoid rumour and ‘scandalum’. The rest of the work, written in ‘romance’, is devoted to papal decrees concerning the Franciscan rule—e.g., the admission of novices and taking of the habit—and to compendia of general meetings of the Order in France, Italy and Spain in the C16. One section is devoted to friars ‘en las Indias’, who had a dedicated ‘Commissario general’ representing their interests in Spain. This copy was in the possession of the Convent of St Francis in Mexico City, founded in 1525. Only St Bonaventure copy recorded in the US. Iberian Books Volumes II & III, 27276; Domínguez Guzmán, Sevilla 97; Palau 137944; Palau 252102. Not in Alden. A. Martínez Ripoll, La iglesia del colegio de San Buenaventura (Sevilla, 1996). L2732
Statuta Patavina.

Statuta Patavina.

PADUA] Folio. ff. 6 inserted blanks, (xxiv) 142, 20 inserted blanks. Roman letter, t-p in red and black within woodcut cartouche surrounded by foliage, attractive printer’s device to centre; another within woodcut border with putti, grotesques, urns and foliage; decorated initials. T-p slightly browned with early repair to lower margin, first gathering a bit thumbed, ink burn to fol. xvi touching a few letters, occasional small marginal water stains, two tiny wormholes to first few gatherings, slight browning to a few ll. A very good, clean, well-margined copy in contemporary Italian (probably Veneto) goatskin, three of four clasps, fine brass bosses, corner and centre pieces. Blind-tooled to a triple-ruled panel design, outer border with floral branches, second with vine leaves and rosettes, third with cross-hatched central panel with stamped title and vine leaf to each corner. Spine in six compartments, triple-ruled cross- hatched decoration, raised bands, joints a bit cracked, ms binding material just visible within. Occasional early marginalia in red crayon and black ink. The remarkable binding, with very fine brass bosses, clasps, corner and centre pieces, resembles bindings produced in the Veneto in the late C15 influenced by the contemporary Venetian style (de Marinis II, 1556, 1592). A very good, crisp copy of this uncommon second edition of the ‘Statuta Patavina’, the legislative corpus of the city of Padua, based on the Roman ‘ius commune’. First published in Vicenza in 1482, the ‘Statuta’ was reprinted in 1528 with revisions by Bartolomeo Abborario, jurist and professor of law, and dedicated to Leonardo Aymo, the ‘potestas’ of Padua appointed by the Republic of Venice. Like all other medieval and Renaissance civic statutes in Italy, it encompassed decrees on criminal, civil, tax, estate, agricultural and commercial law first codified in the early thirteenth century, when Padua gained a solid political and civic status, and later revised or integrated during the rule of the Ezzelini, the Carraresi and, after 1405, the Serenissima. The extensive table of contents is divided into broad sections—e.g., types of cases and procedures in civil courts, obligations for debt and usury, or the purchase of goods and estates in the district of Padua. Following the structure of juridical manuals, each section details regulations concerning specific circumstances within its area of interest: e.g., the non-validity in civil courts of legal documents styled on ‘charta bombicina’ (cotton or silk paper), situations in which contracts are considered fraudulent or novices entering monasteries may or may not purchase goods. As customary in civic statutes, criminal law and punishment seeking to control the social order played a crucial part, with long sections devoted to prisons, fugitives, the office of the ‘iudex maleficiorum’ and criminal procedures for offences like murder, manslaughter, verbal abuse of the wounded and religious, blasphemy, adultery, vagrancy, prostitution, incest, rape, theft, arson and false testimony. Only Harvard and Wisconsin at Madison copies recorded in the US. BM STC It., p. 483; USTC 846009. L2801
Le cose vulgari di messer Francesco Petrarcha

Le cose vulgari di messer Francesco Petrarcha

PETRARCA, Francesco FIRST COUNTERFEIT LYONNAISE EDITION. 8vo. Three works in one, ff. 188 unnumbered, a-y 8 z 4 A 8 , separate t-p to each. Italic letter, little Roman. Slight age browning, first gathering with small grease stain, occasional minor spots. A fine, well-margined copy, on thick paper, in contemporary polished vellum, yapp edges. Bookplates of Eduardo J. Bullrich and Pierre Bergé to front pastedown, ‘A Barber 136 d’ and ‘674’ ms to first t-p. In folding box. Although the colophon at the end of the ‘canzoni and sonetti’ states that the edition was printed by Aldus in 1501, it was actually published by Baldassare Gabiano in Lyon, probably between 1501 and 1502. It is typographically superior to Aldus’s edition (Brunet IV, 543), which was the first to feature his trademark italic type. Although Gabiano’s edition lacks Aldus’s letter to the reader and the ‘errata’, the latter were incorporated into the text. The lack of any information on the printer and city of publication suggests that it was intended for sale on the Italian market in the Veneto and the Papal states, where Aldus’s typographical privilege was in force. This first counterfeit with unnumbered leaves differs from a second one published c.1502, with page numbers in both Roman and Arabic type. Fine copy of the first Lyonnaise counterfeit Aldine edition of Petrarch’s vernacular works—foundational texts for the establishment of Italian as a prestigious literary language. Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca, 1304-74) has been called ‘the father of Humanism’ and the initiator of the Renaissance due to his ground-breaking rediscovery of classical texts like Cicero’s letters. A prolific author of verse, epistles and essays, Petrarch lived between Italy and France, where he allegedly fell in love with Laura, an inspirational muse of whom little is known, except the fact that she was probably married. This edition is devoted to his ‘cose vulgari’—his texts in the vernacular—as found in a holograph ms preserved by the humanist Pietro Bembo. The ‘canzoniere’ is a collection of over 300 poems written for Laura, whose name reprises the ‘laurel’ of great poets. The author looks back to his unrequited love, his ‘sighs’ and ‘first error of youth’, for a lady who is physical, holy and ethereal at the same time. Inspired by the triumphal progresses of ancient Rome, ‘Trionfi’ celebrates in verse the allegorical figures of Love, Chastity, Death, Fame, Time and Eternity, providing reflections on the fleetingness of human existence which also permeate Petrarch’s entire production. Together with Dante and Boccaccio, Petrarch became one of the three models for the Italian literary language based on its Tuscan variant. Rénouard 308:17; Brunet IV, 543; Bibliographie Lyonnaise VII, 15 ; Shaw, 2. Not in BM STC Fr. W. Kemp, ‘Counterfeit Aldines and Italic-Letter Editions Printed in Lyons 1502- 1510: Early Diffusion in Italy and France’, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada 35 (1997), 75-100. K117
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Commento di Ser Agresto da Ficaruolo

CARO, Annibale, MOLZA, Francesco Maria.] FIRST EDITION? 8vo. ff. 56. Italic letter, little Roman. Small, amusing woodcut of female genitalia as Medusa. Light age yellowing, t-p and a few ll. slightly thumbed, the odd faint small water mark, mostly marginal, a couple of tiny wax stains to fol. 53. A very good, well-margined copy in C18 Italian red goatskin, marbled pastedowns, bordered with gilt single rule and gilt leafy curls and circles with rosettes, gilt Greek key design to inner edges, gilt pointillé to outer corners of fore-edge. Spine in seven compartments with gilt fleurons, minor loss at head, a couple of tiny holes at foot, joints a bit worn. Very good copy of this scarce first edition (?) of a successful and hilarious work which epitomises the bawdy intellectualism of the Italian Renaissance. Annibale Caro (1507-66) studied ‘humanae litterae’ and philosophy in Florence, spent some time in Venice where he met the controversial author Pietro Aretino, and later moved to Rome where he joined the Accademia dei Vignaioli. Best known for his translation of the ‘Aeneid’, Caro also published some bawdy poems which turned Aretino’s strongly graphic sexual language into a humanist intellectual game in the style of the Roman author Bernia. The ‘Commento’ is a scholarly disquisition by Ser Agresto (Caro’s persona) on the ‘Ficheide’ or ‘Ficaide’, an unpublished fictional poem by Padre Siceo (the author Francesco Maria Molza). Its theme is the half- literal/half-metaphorical concept of ‘fico’ (fig tree or fruit, and here male genitalia) and ‘fica’—a feminine form which troubled, according to Agresto, even great philologists like Valla—normally unrelated to fruit and signifying ‘female genitalia’ in its most vulgar sense. Whilst rejecting the ‘Petrarchistic’ and ‘Boccacistic’ language in favour of plain Tuscan, within a world in which laureate poets are crowned with fig leaves, the work explores through philology, etymology, rhetoric and literature the ‘hermaphrodite’ dimension of ‘fico’/‘fica’. This is identified as a quasi-Aristotelian principle of generation and the essence of Nature and all sublunary matter which philosophers had long researched. It is a tour-de- force of doubles entendres (bordering on tongue-in- cheek Malapropisms) whereby nouns, adjectives and verbs continuously flesh out the concepts of penetrating, coming, spreading, fondling, sucking and licking. As explained in a ‘revised’ Virgilian passage, Carthage was destroyed by Aeneas’s ‘fico’ and Dido’s ‘fica’; similarly, Homer’s war of Troy—the Italian ‘troia’ meaning ‘prostitute’—was started by Helen’s ‘fica’. The commentator also reports dialogues with Lombard workers who answer that the sweetest thing is certainly the ‘figa’—a regional variation still used as a common, not necessarily too vulgar exclamation in Milanese dialect. Eventually, after hearing a Florentine gentleman wishing for a ‘fica’ so big he might enter it in his mantel, hood and all, Agresto yearns for a political utopia in which the ‘great minds leading our Republics’ may learn, like this gentleman, to maintain their civilisation and master its greatness. This 1538 octavo edition, which ends with ‘Nasea’, another work by Ser Agresto focusing on the noses of the great, bears no information on the printer or place of publication. As suggested by the initial printer’s dedication, it was probably published, like another 1538 octavo edition, by Antonio Blado (Barbagrigia) in Rome, but no priority has been established. The ‘Commento’ was printed four times; later it became part of a collection of bawdy works including Aretino’s ‘Ragionamenti’, also published in London in 1584. Rare. No copies recorded in the US. USTC 819039; Brunet I, 1589: ‘ouvrage fort licencieux’; Graesse I, 43 ; Gay I, 635. Not in BM STC It, Gamba or Bernoni. L2839
La Hecuba

La Hecuba, Tragedia. (with) Didone, Tragedia.

DOLCE, Lodovico FIRST EDITIONS. 8vo. Two works in one, ff. 47, 42, separate t-p to each, first with blind stamp of Wigan Public Library (sold). Printer’s device to titlepages and recto of last. Occasional very light age browning, outer margins of titlepages and a few ll. a bit thumbed, slight marginal foxing to a couple of gatherings, the odd small marginal mark. A very good, well-margined copy in C18 red morocco, marbled pastedowns, covers bordered with gilt dentelles and palmettes, centrepiece with gilt arms of Doge Marco Foscarini to covers, fronds surrounding, coronet above. Spine in six compartments, gilt double-ruled dentelle border, cornerpieces and acorn tools to each, joints a bit worn and cracked at head, minor loss to corners. Bookplate of Sir Philip Mansfield and C19 label ‘G FS 3’ to front pastedown, C19 bibliographical inscriptions in ink tracing the copy to William Beckford’s library to verso of first and in pencil to recto of second front ep, the odd early annotation. The handsome binding was produced for the bibliophile Marco Foscarini (1696-1763), a poet and diplomat who served as 117th Doge of Venice between 1762 and 1763, when his office was cut short by illness and death. The binding is an almost exact match with Folger PA6278 A3 1575, dated 1761, except for the gilt cornerpieces on the spine and decoration on the raised bands. The provenance can be traced to William Thomas Beckford (1760-1844), famous author of an important Gothic novel, ‘Vathek’ (1786). A great art collector, Beckford amassed an enormous library at Fonthill Abbey. This copy was part of the Hamilton Palace sale run by Sotheby’s in 1883 (n.708). Very good copies of the first editions of these two important Renaissance tragedies in Italian. Lodovico Dolce (c.1508-68) was a Venetian humanist and prolific author of essays, historical biographies of classical and contemporary writers, dozens of translations and editions of classics, and literary works of all genres. In the 1540s and 1550s, Dolce wrote several successful verse tragedies in the vernacular on subjects adapted from the works of classical authors. Following the example of ancient drama, the tragic world of the protagonists is populated by shadows of murdered characters, unreliable and often absent gods and a ‘choir’ lamenting the evils of fate. Inspired by Euripides’s namesake play, translated into the vernacular by Matteo Bandello in 1539, ‘Hecuba’ tells the story of King Priam’s wife, once Queen of Troy and now enslaved by the Greek victors, and her revenge for the death of her son Polydorus. It was published by Gabriele Giolito, with whom Dolce collaborated as editor and translator for some time. ‘Didone’ narrates the Queen of Carthage’s star-crossed love for Aeneas and her tragic death, famously told in Virgil’s ‘Aeneid’. In the dedicatory letter, Paolo Manuzio explained how he had wanted to be the first to publish the play so that people could enjoy reading it as much as he had enjoyed performing in it as a boy in the role of Ascanius (Cupid’s clever disguise). I) USTC 827058; BM STC It. p. 239; Brunet II, 791; Annali di Giolito I, 51. Catalogue of the Beckford Library (London, 1882). II) USTC 827065; Rénouard 141:8; BM STC It. p. 220; Brunet II, 791. L2876
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In meteora Aristotelis commentarii Scholia in I. Meteorum Aristotelis.

OLYMPIODORUS, JOHANNES PHILOPONUS FIRST EDITION. Folio. Two works in one, ff. (iv) 139 (i). Roman letter, little Greek. Printer’s device to t-p and last, 18 woodcut geometrical schemas, decorated initials. Marginal staining to some ll. where an attempt has been made to wash cut early marginalia, affecting text in places. Very good, well-margined copy in half purple roan over pink pasteboards, c.1800, usual rubbing. Casemark to fly, ecclesiastical library stamps (C18-C19) to lower margin of t-p (‘Bibl[ioteca] S[an] Silve[stro]’ and one illegible), early marginalia in places generally legible, the odd pencil annotation. Very good, well-margined copy of the first Latin translations of Olympiodorus’s commentary and Johannes Philoponus’s ‘Scholia’ to Aristotle’s ‘Meteorologica’. Translated by Giovanni Battista Camozzi and dedicated to Pope Julius III, this composite work was sometimes bound with the Greek ‘editio princeps’ of the same year. Sixteenth-century editions and translations of Greek commentaries sought to recover ancient interpretations of Aristotelian natural philosophy and thus divest it of the Averroistic and Scholastic readings of the medieval period. Olympiodorus the Younger (c.495-570) was a philosopher and astrologer at the School of Alexandria, and the author of numerous commentaries to Plato and Aristotle based on his lectures. Written after 565, ‘In meteora Aristotelis commentarii’ is the only ancient commentary on ‘Meteorologica’ which has survived in its entirety. Based on theories already expounded in ‘De caelo’, ‘De physica’ and ‘De generatione et corruptione’, ‘In meteora’ generally agreed with Aristotle on the interaction of the four constitutive elements of terrestrial matter (fire, water, air and earth) plus a celestial fifth, and their influence on geological, hydrological, physical and natural phenomena including the movements of rivers and the sea, weather, the nature of stars, tornadoes and lightning. Johannes Philoponus (c.490-570) was a Christian philosopher, later declared a heretic, and commentator of Aristotle. His ‘Scholia’ was ignored by traditional philosophy for its radical rejection of many Aristotelian cosmological and physical theories. The joint publication of these clashing commentaries provided fresh and varied views on Aristotelianism which influenced the thought of philosophers and scientists like Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei. The annotator of this copy was a scholar who added marginalia with cross-references to other Aristotelian texts and highlighted the ‘dubitationes’ and solutions to specific questions, and comparisons to the theories of other philosophers like Ptolemy or Theophrastus. He was also interested in the physiology of the salamander—an animal with a long history in European folklore, traditionally associated with the element of fire. USTC 845366; Rénouard 151:6; BM STC It. p. 47; Brunet IV, 186. L2850
Il Petrarcha con l'espositione d'Alessandro Vellutello

Il Petrarcha con l’espositione d’Alessandro Vellutello

PETRARCA, Francesco 4to. ff. [viii], 215, [i]. [*⁸, A-2D⁸.] lacking quire S and T1, the Babylonian sonnets, censored as often, text in Italic, commentary in Roman. Fine woodcut architectural title with Giolito’s phoenix device, portraits of Laura and Petrarch on a woodcut funerary urn surmounted by the Giolito phoenix, full page map of the Vaucluse, six woodcuts in the Trionfi, fine historiated initials, woodcut ornaments, Giolito’s woodcut device on recto of last, bookplate of Maurice Burrus on pastedown. Light age yellowing, offsetting and slight smudging to the text at the beginning and towards the end, perhaps partly washed. In a magnificent contemporary Bolognese red morocco binding, covers double gilt ruled in an highly intricate interlaced strap-work border around a central panel with a diapered strap-work design, semé of small tools within borders, four large rose tool to central panels, “Il Petrarcha” gilt lettered at centre of upper cover, cupid device with crossed arrows on lower cover, spine with gilt ruled raised bands, large fleurons gilt in compartments, all edges richly gilt and gauffered to a geometric design, head and tail of spine very expertly restored, end leaves renewed. In many ways the epitome of the Italian Renaissance book; the poetry of Petrarch in a magnificent Bolognese Renaissance binding, beautifully printed with fine woodcut illustration and decoration. The stunning contemporary morocco binding is undoubtedly made by the same binder who made bindings for Nicolas von Ebeleben and his cousin Damian Pflug. De Marinis illustrates two examples, one (Marinis 1372, illustration A17) a three volume set of Pietro Aretino’s letters, bound for Ebeleben, which uses identical tools in a very similar design, and has very similar geometric gauffering of the gilt edges. The second is De Marinis 1368 illustrated on plate CCXXXIII that also has identical tools, and a similar but more simple strap-work design, that belonged to Cardinal del Monte. This binding however is more densely and richly worked than either of those two bindings; the cupid device and the choice of Petrarch’s love poetry perhaps suggest that it was given as a wedding gift. For further information on a similar Bolognese binding made for Ebeleben held at the Landesbibliothek Stuttgart see Isabelle Reichherzer ‘Die Erschließung ausgewählter Einbände aus der „Einbandsammlung“ der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart. One of a hugely popular series of Petrarca editions with the commentary by Vellutello on the Italian works of the great author. This is an almost identical reprint of the first edition printed entirely by Giolito with Vellutello’s commentary printed in 1544. L2803
Rime di Pietro Bembo.

Rime di Pietro Bembo.

BEMBO, Pietro FIRST EDITION. 4to. ff. 54 unnumbered, A-D8 F10 A-C4, first and last blank. Italic letter, occasional Roman. Slight age browning and marginal foxing in places, light oil stain to first couple of gatherings, occasional thumb marks. A very good, well-margined copy, on thick paper, in C18 crimson morocco, gilt double-ruled border with dots and palmettes, gilt arms of Doge Marco Foscarini to covers, roll of palmettes to edges, comb-marbled pastedowns, a.e.g. Spine double gilt ruled in six compartments, roll of fronds, cornerpieces and acorn tool to each, raised bands, a couple of minor cracks to joints, expert repair to upper outer corner of front cover, and joint of lower at head and foot. The odd early annotation. In folding box. The very handsome binding was produced for the bibliophile Marco Foscarini (1696-1763), a poet and diplomat who served as 117th Doge of Venice between 1762 and 1763, when his office was cut short by illness and death. It is an almost exact match with BL C47d10, probably made in Rome where Foscarini was ambassador for Venice between 1736 and 1740 (‘BL Bookbindings Database’). Very good copy of the first edition of Pietro Bembo’s ‘Rime’. Born in Venice, Bembo (1470-1547) was a scholar, poet, critic and later cardinal. After his studies at Messina and Padua, he travelled extensively in Italy; his love for the Tuscan vernacular, which he considered the perfect language for Italian literature, developed during a stay in Florence. In 1525, he published ‘Le prose della volgar lingua’, a ground-breaking work of philology and literary criticism celebrating the cultural value of the vernacular versus Latin and electing Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio—masters of the Tuscan vernacular whose works he also edited—as the highest models for Italian poets. Bembo followed his own advice in ‘Rime’, a collection featuring sonnets and longer poems. A jewel of Renaissance literature, ‘Rime’ pays tributes to the ‘Three Crowns’, especially celebrating the half-angelic/half-earthly ‘gentile’ lady of Dante’s ‘dolce stil novo’, who gives ‘vigour’ to the flowers around her, as well as Petrarch’s fleeting muse Laura, whose look can make the poet feel ‘burning and tied’ and experience ‘joy mixed with torment’. The light-hearted stanzas at the end of the work, focusing on love and its effects, were originally composed to be read at a masquerade organized by the Duchess of Urbino. This first edition of the ‘Rime’ includes the introductory letter to Ottaviano Fregoso dropped from later ones. BM STC It., p. 81; Graesse I, 332; Gamba 141 (only mentioned): ‘prima rara ristampa’. Not in Brunet. L2875
Collectorum medicinalium libri XVII.

Collectorum medicinalium libri XVII.

ORIBASIUS 8vo. ff. 332. Roman letter, occasional Italic, little Greek. Printer’s device to t-p, decorated initial and headpiece. T-p and first a bit dusty with minor loss to fore-edge, faint water stain to upper margin of first gathering, the odd ink spot, upper margin of last leaf a bit dust-soiled. A very good, well-margined copy in contemporary polished vellum, yapp edges, fragments of C14 ms to rear pastedown, rear joint a bit loose but sound. Bookplate of Milltown Park Library SJ and ex-libris Soc. Iesu Prov. Hib. to front pastedown. Very good, well-margined copy of the Latin translation of Oribasius’s fundamental Greek work on medicine by Giovanni Battista Rasario, professor at Pavia and Padua, renowned physician and translator of medical texts. After studying at Alexandria, Oribasius (320-403) was appointed physician to the Emperor Julian the Apostate. At Court, he compiled excerpts from Galen’s work and the ‘Collectiones medicae’ in 70 books, 17 of which appear in Rasario’s translation. ‘Collectiones’ is a monumental compendium of ancient medical authorities—e.g., Archigenes, Agathinus, Philotimus, Possidonius and Xenocrates—whose wisdom would have been otherwise lost forever. The work encompasses the composition and physical effects of specific foods (e.g., polenta, figs, palm dates and lentils), vegetables and herbs (e.g., nettles, asparagus, edible and poisonous mushrooms), meat and fish (e.g., sheep, ostrich and whale); treatments for sundry conditions (e.g., a long study of the benefits and administration of clysters); sleep and physical exercise, including sexual intercourse; bodily functions like the expulsion of faeces or menstrual blood; healing baths; ointments; and an index with hundreds of herbs and stones, their appearance, diffusion and benefits. ‘Collectiones’ famously features the first mention of a string figure used to create a solid knot to recompose dislocated or broken bones. BM STC Fr., p. 330; Brunet IV, 226; Wellcome I, 4647; Durling 3406; Bernoni 414; Rénouard 292:2. Not in Garrison and Morton. L2703
D. Basilii Magni Omnia sive Recens Versa

D. Basilii Magni Omnia sive Recens Versa

BASIL THE GREAT Folio. Two works in one, (xl) 581 (i) + 438. Roman letter, occasional Greek. Printer’s device to t-p and last, decorated initials. Light age yellowing to a few ll., slight foxing, centre of t-p expertly restored, blank except for printer’s device, probably either supplied or in facsimile. An excellent copy, crisp, clean and wide-margined, in contemporary (possibly Swiss) polished calf, lacking clasps, fore-edge painted in black-brown ink with author and title within fine architectural cartouche with foliage and masques. Richly blind-tooled to a double-ruled panel design, first border with two rolls of urns and fleurons, second and third with phoenixes, interlacing cranes and male heads in roundels, central panel with stamped mosaic-style mozarabic corner and centre pieces. Spine in six compartments, raised bands, later repairs to head and foot. Early red ‘P’ stamp and casemark to upper margin of t-p, a few early marginalia and small drawings. The handsome binding with phoenixes and interlaced cranes, the detail of which remains very crisp, reprises early C16 exemplars produced in Lyon (e.g., BL, C66g11). They were based on a t-p produced by the Flemish artist Guillaume II Leroy for the Lyonnaise printer-bookseller Simon Vincent. As proved by a copy of Paulus Venetus’s ‘Summa philosophiae naturalis’ (Lyon, Antoine Du Ry for Simon Vincent, 1525)—present in our web catalogue— where the t-p and matching binding appear together, the latter was probably Vincent’s ‘marque de libraire’. In 1561, Antoine II Vincent (1500-68), one of Simon’s grandsons, was entrusted with the establishment of a branch of the press-bookselling business in Basle. Seen the peculiarity of this binding design, it was probably still in use in Antoine II’s shop. The mozarabic corner and centrepieces were probably added; they resemble the binding on BL, Add. MS 28751, produced in Spain in the C16. The fine painted fore-edge with foliage and masques follows the mid-C16 fashion in Switzerland, where this kind of decoration lingered longer than in the rest of Europe (e.g., Davis II, 224, 225, 226). Excellent, clean copy of the first edition of St Basil’s complete works, edited by the Reformed humanist Wolfgang Musculus, professor of theology at Bern. Basil the Great (d. 379AD), Bishop of Caesarea, was one of the most influential Byzantine Church Fathers, admired for his theological arguments against heresy, his preaching and exegetic skills, theorisation of communal monasticism and ideas on the value of classical education. The ‘Omnia sive Recens Versa’ opens with his key works against heresy, with particular attention to the confutation of Arian theories on the differentiation of the nature of the Holy Trinity and the Holy Spirit. His sermons on psalms, capital sins, drunkenness, luxury and the lives of the early martyrs illuminate his moral exegesis and desire to provide practical guidance for good Christian life. The homily on the usefulness of the study of ‘gentile authors’ like Homer and Hesiod was a landmark in the debates of late antiquity and the early middle ages concerning the spiritual value of classical readings for the education of Christian youth. The last part of the volume is devoted to his numerous works on monasticism and asceticism, with admonitions on the regulations and sacrifices required by communal and solitary life. To this revised edition, based on Erasmus’s Greek editio princeps of 1532, Musculus added a long table of ‘loci communes’ listing key theological and exegetic ‘commonplaces’ for meditative reading and textual interpretation—e.g., ‘the devil’s ways to lure the wealthy’, ‘those who sin by ignorance do not go unpunished’ and ‘the solitude of the soul curbs passions’. For their profound appeal to an all-embracing spirituality and Christian morality, St Basil’s works played a fundamental part in post-Reformation theological controversy. Only Harvard and Washington copies recorded in the US. L2729
De fascino libri tres.

De fascino libri tres.

VAIRO, Leonardo 8vo. pp. (xvi) 375 (xlv). Italic letter, with Roman. Aldine device to t-p, floriated and decorated initials, grotesque headpieces. T-p slightly dusty, original edges untrimmed, slight browning or marginal foxing to a couple of ll. A very good, large, clean copy in early C19 probably French blue straight-grain morocco, gilt ruled to a panel design, outer border with blind-tooled rolls of floral tendrils and ropework, gilt cornerpieces to centre panel with feathery curls, gilt rosette within a circle, and pointillé lunettes in blind outlining corners, gilt Greek-key decoration to inner edges, gilt pointillé to outer corners, and additional vellum eps. Bookplate of Frédéric and Anne Max to front pastedown. A very good copy, with edges uncut in an elegant binding, of this remarkable work on witchcraft by Leonardo Vairo (1523-1603), a Benedictine monk and bishop of Pozzuoli. This is the second edition, originally published in Latin and French in 1583, and the first Aldine. It is entirely devoted to ‘fascinum’ (‘fascination’ or ‘charm’), a ‘pernicious quality summoned through intense imagination, sight, touch, voice, together or separately, as well as the observation of the sky, or inflicted through hate or love’. With the help of authorities like Aristoteles, Plutarch and Heliodorus, Vairo addresses the nature of fascination caused by external action (moral) or inherent qualities (natural). The work seeks to set apart the natural from the supernatural whilst discussing subjects like monstrous births, werewolves, the sabbath, the nature of daemonic powers, basilisks, the faculty of divination pertaining to some animals, supernatural prophecy and daemonic possession which may more frequently affect melancholic people. ‘De fascino’ was still mentioned in C18 theological debates on witchcraft and the supernatural. The edition concludes with a priced catalogue of the ‘libri di stampa d’Aldo’ available for purchase in 1589. BM STC It., p. 706; Brunet V, 1029; Caillet, 10964: ‘Traité fort rare’; Rénouard 242:8. L2856
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Annotationes in Sophoclem et Euripidem

ESTIENNE, Henri FIRST and ONLY EDITION. 8vo. pp. (xvi) 207 (i). Roman letter, with Italic and Greek. Printer’s device to t-p, floriated initials. Light age browning, t-p lightly thumbed, lower outer blank corner of third fol. torn, very faint water stain to lower gutter of a few gatherings, the odd thumb mark. A very good, well-margined copy in contemporary dark brown English calf, C14 ms vellum strip on spine and front pastedown, double blind-ruled border, oval centrepiece gilt, interlacing ribbons, curvy tendrils, leaves and fleurons in contrasting blind, spine in five compartments, raised bands, gilt lettering, some loss at joints and lower edge of rear cover. C18 armorial bookplate of Beilby Thompson of Escrick to front pastedown, early autograph ‘Geo: Seignior’, casemark (?) ‘m/1’, monograms ‘GHS’ (Seignior’s?) and ‘SWF’, little annotations ‘2’ and ‘of’ (?) to t-p, contemporary autograph of William Harrington (?) and monogram ‘TG’ to eps, modern bookplate to rear pastedown. In box. The exquisite binding bears the same centrepiece as fig. 3.37 in Nixon and Foot, ‘English Bookbinding Styles, 1450-1800’, produced in Cambridge in the 1570s. An early owner of this copy was George Seignior (d. 1678), reverend, classical scholar and fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, to which he donated part of his books in 1676. Very good, well-margined copy of the FIRST and ONLY EDITION of Henri Estienne’s commentary on the tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides. Estienne (1528/31-98) was a French printer—the eldest son of Robert—and scholar of Greek and Latin. After being entrusted with his father’s presses in 1559, he published numerous new or revised Latin translations of Greek authors like Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle and Aeschylus, as well as editions of the Greek New Testament. This commentary was intended, as shown by cross-references, as a companion volume to his editions of Sophocles and Euripides’s tragedies of the same year. It begins with a learned ‘tractatus’ on Greek orthography discussing the use and printed reproduction of diacritics like accents and breathings, and word alterations like crasis and elision. In the ‘annotationes’, Estienne makes continuous references to the codex tradition and editions like those of Rancoretus and Turnebus, seeking to redress major ‘lectiones depravatae’—mistranscriptions and philological misinterpretations—made by his predecessors. He also provides sophisticated brief studies of Sophocles’s lexicon and Euripides’s appropriation of Homer’s poetics. A nicely bound and finely printed jewel of classical scholarship.   Beilby Thompson (1742-99) of Escrick, Yorkshire, was a British landowner and politician. Rénouard 131:4; Brunet II, 1082; mentioned in Dibdin II, 411. L2869
Orlando furioso di Messer Lodovico Ariosto. (with) Cinque canti di un nuovo libro di M. Ludovico Ariosto.

Orlando furioso di Messer Lodovico Ariosto. (with) Cinque canti di un nuovo libro di M. Ludovico Ariosto.

ARIOSTO, Lodovico FIRST EDITION of second part, and first Aldine edition of first. 4to. 2 works in one, ff. 247 (i) 28, separate t-ps. Italic letter, occasional Roman. Printer’s device to t-p and last of each. Light browning and marginal spotting to first t-p, small clean loss to blank lower outer corner, upper margins slightly short. An excellent, clean copy in splendid C19 green crushed morocco by Roger Storr, stunning floral silk brocade eps, loose silk bookmark. Gilt to a triple-ruled panel design, outer border with gilt dentelles, roll of lilies, and suns to corners, centre panel bordered with blind-tooled tendril and attractive gilt Aldine device, gilt floral roll to outer and gilt palmettes to inner edges, a.e.g. Spine triple gilt ruled in four compartments, roll of palmettes at head and foot, design with single rule squares to first and last, gilt lettering, raised bands gilt. Bookplate of Syston Park with arms and monogram of Sir John Hayford Thorold to front pastedown, bookplate of William Henry Smith to recto and ex-libris of Pierre Bergé to fly, label ‘Bound by R[oger] Storr Grantham’ to rear pastedown. The odd annotation in red crayon or black-brown ink. The splendid binding was made by Roger Storr of Grantham for Sir John Hayford Thorold of Syston Park, Lincolnshire. Four similar bindings by Storr, dated post-1825, are recorded on Aldines bound for Sir John as nos. 50, 391 and 680 (352, 404, 420 and 941 unsigned) in the Ahmanson-Murphy collection. Excellent copy of these scarce Aldine editions together comprising for the first time Ludovico Ariosto’s complete ‘Orlando furioso’. One of the greatest authors of the Italian Renaissance, Ariosto (1474-1533) studied law and classics at Ferrara before entering the service of Cardinal Ippolito d’Este and later of Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara. For his patrons, he fulfilled diplomatic and political functions, including emissary to Pope Julius II, whilst composing poems, comedies and satires mostly in the Italian vernacular. His masterpiece—‘Orlando furioso’—is a chivalric poem in ottava rima intended as a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo’s ‘Orlando innamorato’ (1483). In Ariosto’s poem, Orlando’s love for Angelica, as narrated by Boiardo, turns into ‘fury’; at her rejection, the paladin loses his mind and abandons the battlefield. The very complex plot interweaves narratives of the paladins’ war against the Turks, Angelica’s flight from the furious Orlando and their adventures, and the love story between the Christian Bradamante and the Saracen Ruggiero. ‘Orlando furioso’ became an instant classic and was extensively reprinted in Italy and France in the C16. The first 40 cantos were published in 1516; the final version in 46 followed in 1532, joined here by five further cantos. Animated by darker overtones, they narrate the destruction of Charlemagne’s army by the sorceress Alcina. Allegedly given to Aldus’s press by his son, Virginio, the ‘Cinque Canti’ appeared for the first time in this edition. Only Pierpont Morgan, Colorado and UCLA copies recorded in the US. Rénouard 133:13: ‘très bonne et l’une des plus rares parmi les éditions Aldines’; Brunet I, 433: ‘bonne et fort rare’; Gamba 54.  Not in BM STC It. K116
semes leson ha-qados

semes leson ha-qados, cioe Sole della lingua santa.

FRANCHI, Guglielmo FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxiv) 415 (i), fold-out table. Italic letter, with Roman and Hebrew, occasional Greek. Printer’s device and architectural headpiece with caryatids to t-p, decorated initials and headpieces. Light age browning to first few ll. and intermittent light foxing, oil stain to upper outer corner of pp. 37-57, light water staining to last few gatherings, outer edges a bit dust-soiled, occasional thumb marks. A good, well-margined copy, untrimmed, in old carta rustica, casemark on spine, ex-libris ‘Biblioteca Cravenna’ and bookplate of Antonia Suardi Ponti to front pastedown. In slipcase. A good, very well-margined copy of the first edition of the first Hebrew grammar in Italian. Guglielmo Franchi (1563-98) was a converted Jew and Vallombrosan monk. Reprinted in 1599 and 1603, Franchi’s work provided the first accessible introduction to Hebrew grammar which used the Italian vernacular as a linguistic reference point instead of Latin or even Hebrew. The Reformation had encouraged the development of a new systematic study of Hebrew among Christian scholars as a fundamental philological tool for biblical exegesis based on traditional knowledge derived from the ancient Masorah and Midrash. Franchi’s grammar was however addressed to the Jews of Italian communities, very few of whom were by then versed in Latin or could read or speak Hebrew. Whilst rabbis opposed the vernacular translation of ancient Hebrew texts for fear of misinterpretation, anti-Jewish polemicists—often converted Jews like Franchi—published their works in the vernacular to reach a broader audience. Franchi begins with the consonantic nature of Hebrew, its orthography and pronunciation, explaining in plain words how, for instance, the Daghès sounds like our ‘b’, but ‘when it has no dot inside’ it sounds like a ‘v’, or the Nghàin is pronounced ‘using the nose down to the end of the throat, almost as if one were choking’. He then moves on to the aspects and conjugations of verbs, declensions, methods to find the root of words and how accents may signify punctuation, concluding with notes on non-biblical Hebrew poetry and metrics. An uncommon edition of this ground-breaking work for Renaissance Hebrew studies in the vernacular, still recorded in the libraries of major C19 Italian intellectuals like the poet Giacomo Leopardi. Only Hebrew Union College copy recorded in the US. USTC 830767; BM STC It., p. 277; Fürst, Bibliotheca Judaica I, 287. Not in Brunet or Adams. L2820
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Theatrum Terrae Sanctae et Biblicarum Historiarum.

ADRICHEM, Christian van Folio. pp. (xii) 286 (xxviii). Roman letter, with Italic, 12 maps (double-page or fold-out). Attractive engraved architectural t-p with allegorical figures and biblical scenes; 7 fold-out and 5 double maps of Palestine and the allotments of the tribes of Israel; decorated initials and grotesque tailpieces. Light browning in places, intermittent light marginal oil stains, occasional spots, small paper flaw to blank section at p. 93, tiny marginal loss at p. 125, gutter of first fol. repaired. Maps generally in very good condition, occasional light spotting, slight marginal soiling or fraying with minor loss mainly at folds to 1, 8, 9 and 12, light browning to 6, 7, 8 and 11, slight offsetting to 4 and 5. A good, well-margined, very large copy in contemporary vellum over pasteboards, spine in five compartments, raised bands, contemporary inked lettering, early shelfmark label at foot, upper joint a bit loose. C17 pasted printed ex-libris ‘Ex Biblio. Miss. Sti Josephi Lugdun.’ and later red library stamp of Seminary Le Puy (Lyon) to t-p, autograph ‘Gaspar Gyrod em[ps]it sibi viginti francis. anno 1681. die 9 februarii’. A good, lavishly illustrated and unusually complete copy, in fine impression, of this superb biblical atlas. Christian van Adrichem (or Adrichomius, 1533-85) was a Catholic theologian who was forced to flee from the Convent of St Barbara in Delft to Cologne to avoid Protestant persecutions. In addition to an historical account of the life of Christ, he published his very successful ‘Theatrum Terrae Sanctae et Biblicarum Historiarum’ (1590), of which this is the sixth edition. ‘Theatrum’ brought together theories dating back to medieval times and late antiquity—i.e., world history as sacred history; maps as texts where history and geography, time and space, coexist—as well as more recent disciplines like chorography, i.e., the illustrated study of the topography and history of specific regions. The first part provides a description of ancient Palestine and the antiquities of Jerusalem, with the visual guidance of handsome depictions of the Holy Land, the allotments of the tribes of Israel (with hundreds of cities) and a bird’s-eye-view plan of Jerusalem. The first and last of these maps are frequently missing in recorded copies but finely preserved in this one. Produced in 1584, the plan of Jerusalem is a magnificent scholarly reconstruction of the city at the time of Christ, which remained unrivalled in accuracy until the archaeological discoveries of the C19. It names walls, gates and buildings, also discussed in the text, and was also the first map to chart the location of the 14 Stations of the Cross. Inspired by ancient historiographic works like Eusebius’s ‘Chronicon’, the second part provides a chronology of world history shaped by the succession of empires and popes, from Adam to Rudolph II of Habsburg and Sixtus V. A masterpiece of Renaissance antiquarian culture. Gaspar Gyrod was professor of theology at the Seminary of St Joseph in Lyon, where this copy was preserved. BL STC Ger. C17, A165. Not in Brunet or Graesse. K. Nebenzahl, Maps of the Holy Land (New York, 1990). L2757
Tractatus de officio gubernationis regni Aragonum (with) Tractatus de officio in criminalibus secundum foros Aragonum.

Tractatus de officio gubernationis regni Aragonum (with) Tractatus de officio in criminalibus secundum foros Aragonum.

BARDAJÍ Y ALMENARA, Juan Ibando de FIRST EDITIONS. Folio. Two works in one, pp. (viii) 1-184 (iv) 185-244 [246] (xxvi), separate t-p to each. Roman letter, with Italic, double column. Attractive armorial device of Kings of Aragon to t-ps, floriated initials. First gathering and a few ll. slightly browned, faint marginal water stains in places, marginal foxing, clean horizontal tear without loss at p. 125, lower outer blank corner of p. 157 torn, inner margin of p. 177 restored, fore-edge of four ll. slightly trimmed. A good copy in contemporary Spanish limp vellum, yapp edges, one gold silk tie, double ink ruled border, large gilt fleurons to corners, centre panel with double ink ruled lozenge, gilt arms of Aragon, crown above, edges sprinkled red. Spine in four compartments, gilt rosette to each, raised bands, inked lettering. C20 presentation inscriptions to fly, early underlining throughout. The elegant armorial binding, unusual for law books, bears the same variation of the Aragon arms (first quarter: Cross of Íñigo Arista, second: St George’s cross with four severed Moors’ heads, third: the Bars of Aragon) as another copy of the same work preserved at the Diputación Provincial de Zaragoza (F.A.49). The archive includes records from the Diputación del Reino de Aragón (1364-1708), an institution concerned with administrative and financial policy. It was heavily involved in the administration of justice, as the king could not pass any laws without its approval, as well as in the settling of legal disputes between social groups. The present copy was used for reference by members of the Diputación (or ‘diputados’) involved in legal administration—one of whom underlined numerous passages throughout—among whom were representatives of the ecclesiastical authorities, the nobility, universities and cities.    Good copy of the first edition of two legal manuals of the Kingdom of Aragon written by Juan Ibando de Bardaxí y Almenara (d.1586), a lawyer from Zaragoza and councillor in the Real Chancillería. After his death, his brother—professor of law—edited and published Juan Ibando’s numerous mss held in the archives of the Diputación del Reino. The ‘Tractati’ were two of many ‘national’ legal manuals produced in C16 Spain by private initiative on the basis of everyday professional practice. The first explains the origins, appointments and duties of the ‘procurator general’ or ‘governor general’, an officer dealing with fiscal, administrative and political questions in the king’s absence and traditionally entrusted to the second in line to the throne. The second part examines the procurator’s authority in the area of criminal justice, and the statutes regulating accusation, capture, interrogation, detention and trial (also in absentia). Both works engaged with long-standing debates on the relationship between royal power and the Aragonese authorities; its legal interpretation, influenced by Castilian custom, had been strongly criticised, especially in Zaragoza. USTC 334925; Palau y Dulcet (2nd ed.) 24115. Not in BM STC Sp. J.M. Arrizabalaga, ‘La edición y constitución de normas en la historia del Derecho de Aragón’, Anuario de Historia del Derecho Español, 80 (2010), 11-56. L2861
Lettres de l'illustrissime et reuerendissime cardinal D'Ossat euesque de Baieux. Au roy Henri Le Grand.

Lettres de l’illustrissime et reuerendissime cardinal D’Ossat euesque de Baieux. Au roy Henri Le Grand.

D’OSSAT, Arnaud FIRST EDITION. Folio. pp. 24, [ii] 313, [i]; 445, [xxi]. [a⁴, e⁴, i⁴, A-2Q⁴, ²A-3K⁴, 3L⁶, 3M⁴.] Roman letter. Woodcut arms of Louis XIII on title, grotesque woodcut initials and headpieces, typographical ornaments, full page portrait of D’Ossat after prefaces, ‘Hen. Osborn’ in a contemporary hand at head and tail of t-p, C19th engraved armorial bookplate on pastedown of the Osborn family with their motto "quantum in rebus inane". Title slightly dusty, light age yellowing, a few quires slightly browned, rare marginal mark or spot. A very good, very well margined copy in contemporary English calf, covers double gilt ruled with a panel border, arms of three martlets gilt at centres, spine with raised bands, double gilt ruled in compartments, red morocco title label gilt, joints restored, head and tail of spine and corners worn, covers a little rubbed.  a.e.r. First edition of this important collection of letters written by Arnaud D’Ossat to Henry the IV of France of great historical significance. “These letters formerly served as models for diplomats, owing not only to the importance of the questions which they treat, but especially to the talent for exposition which d’Ossat displays in them. The French Academy inscribed Ossat among the "dead authors who have written our French language most purely". Wiquefort in his "Mémoires sur les ambassadeurs" finds in them "the clearest and most enlightened judgment ever displayed by any minister", and Lord Chesterfield wrote to his son that the "simplicity and clearness of Cardinal d’Ossat’s letters show how business letters should be written.” Catholic Encyclopaedia D’Ossat was a French diplomat and writer, and a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, whose personal tact and diplomatic skill steered the perilous course of French diplomacy with the Papacy in the reign of Henry IV. He supported the cause of Henry IV at Rome, whose conversion to Catholicism he prepared Pope Clement VIII to accept. In 1593, Henri IV wrote directly to d’ Ossat in Rome that he was sending the Duc de Nevers to negotiate with the Pope, and he instructed d’Ossat to share all of his knowledge of and influence in the Roman Court, as well as his wise counsel, to advance the affairs of France. His letters to the King are filled with detailed information concerning negotiations not only with France but covering most of the major events in Europe. “Still more informative are the editions of the letters of a near French contemporary of Walsingham’s, Arnaud D’Ossat. Cardinal D’Ossat was Henri IV’s representative at Rome, and from a Roman Catholic point of view, a hero in the attempt to reunite Christendom and reconcile Henri with Spain and the Papacy. the letters are gathered as a coherent historical narrative in a book ‘du tout utile & du tout public.’ a book which offers a course of instruction in civil prudence. They exemplify D’Ossat’s moral and political thought: ‘candeur &liberté’, ‘la parfaicte sagesse’, ‘la dexterité admirable qu’il avoit au maniment des affaires’. The reader will not find pages of ‘compliments’ and ‘flatteries’, but ‘un parfait modelle sur lequel tous les ministres des Princes de toute qualité se devront former, soit pour la facon de traitter les affaires de vive voix, ou de les faire entendre par escrit tels qu’ils sont’. They are also, then,literary or rhetorical models. Furthermore, the letters of men such as D’Ossat, men treating the affairs of great Princes, represent the most serious and noteworthy of their actions. They have more ‘naifveté than ‘harangues’. . These kinds of writing, in short, give ‘l’ame à l’histoire’.” Jan Papy. ‘Self-presentation and Social Identification: The rhetoric and pragmatics of letter writing in early modern times.’ L2864
All the vvorkes of Iohn Taylor the water-poet.

All the vvorkes of Iohn Taylor the water-poet.

TAYLOR, John FIRST EDITION thus folio pp. [xiv] 148 [ii] 1-93, 92-200, 225-343, [i] 1-14, 13-146 (lacking initial blank), [A-N2;, O², 2A-2Q2;, 2R4;, 2S², 3A-3K6;; ²3A-3L6;, ²3M6;.] Roman and italic letter, double column. Floriated and grotesque woodcut initials, large grotesque tail-pieces, woodcut and typographical head-pieces and text decorations, 25 column-width woodcut portraits of monarchs, William I to Charles I, 155 small woodcut heads of British rulers, two woodcut text illustrations, two t-p’s; the first engraved “by Thomas Cockson, architectural, surrounded by nautical instruments, vignette at top showing Taylor entertaining a passenger, another, below, containing his portrait; inscription on title reading roughly as the title to the imprint; reproduced Johnson” (Pforzheimer), the second t-p with woodcut compartment above (McKerrow and Ferguson 229) and headpiece at bottom (Plomer 49), “Ex Dono Authoris” in contemporary hand at foot of engraved additional title, engraved bookplate of the Inglis family with motto “Recte faciendo securus” cut to margins and laid down on front pastedown. Light age-yellowing, very minor occasional spotting and light stain, small tear restored to lower outer corner and fore-edge of Oo1 affecting a few letters recto and verso, fore-edge of Gg3-6 remargined, just touching a woodcut, engraved title restored at gutter. A good copy, in attractive early 19th century straight-grained red morocco, covers with wide blind interlacing scroll in a geometric design, spine with blind worked raised double bands, gilt lettered and numbered in two compartments, blind stamped fleurons to remaining, edges gilt hatched at corners, turn ins gilt ruled, a.e.g. spine a little faded, light rubbing to extremities. First collected edition of Taylor’s works, containing pieces previously unpublished, a presentation copy form the author. Taylor was a self-made celebrity of early Stuart London, ex-navy, he was a collector of wine dues from Thames cargo before his dismissal for refusing to buy his position (here described in ‘Taylor’s Farewell, to the Tower Bottles’). He turned to versifying, producing heavily subscribed pamphlets and attracting great patrons: Thomas Dekker provides a commendatory poem and Ben Jonson was friendly. In 1616 he was commissioned to produce the water festival for Princess Elisabeth’s marriage to the Elector Palatine, and for this was rewarded with a trip to Bohemia (all described with commendatory verses). Taylor enjoys talk of foreign parts: there are references to Virginia and Powhatan, and satires are made on the Persian, Bermudan and native American languages (the latter a praise for tobacco consisting of coughing and spluttering noises). Serious accounts from interviews are offered of sea battles against the Spaniards, Turks and Portuguese, in the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, in 1616 and 1624, as well as an imaginary audience between ‘The Great Mogoll of Agra’ and Taylor’s enemy the poet Thomas Coryate. Taylor’s literary satires stretch to Shakespeare ("If we offend, it is with our good will, we came with no intent, but to offend, and show our simple skill", cf. Bottom’s speech in ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’). He also carried out and described water-related stunts, e.g. sailing from London in a paper-boat (and of course sinking). L2643
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The Newe Boke of Justices of peace.

FITZHERBERT, Sir Anthony 8vo. ff. 173 (iii). Black letter. Floriated woodcut initials, contemporary annotations on a few leaves, early autograph on fly of ‘Anthony L Laws’?, further early inscriptions below, stubbs from an early mss vellum leaf. Blank lower outer corner of D1 torn, very minor waterstain in upper blank margin in places, the odd marginal thumb mark. A very good, clean copy in entirely unsophisticated contemporary calf, covers bordered with a triple blind rule, small fleuron gilt at centres, spine with raised bands, blind ruled in five compartments, traces of ties, tear from tail of lower compartment, two upper ones holed at head, corners worn. Fitzherbert (1470-1538) of Gray’s Inn, justice of the Court of Common Pleas, was one of the most notable legal writers of the C16th, producing many of the most authoritative and enduring English law books for practitioners and students alike. The present work was more or less continuously in print between its first appearance in 1538 and 1794 and his New Natura Brevium enjoyed a similar life. Fitzherbert’s knowledge of the law was profound, he had a strong logical faculty and the rarest of legal writers’gifts, the power of clear and lucid exposition. His explanations and directions were comprehensible even to those with the most basic knowledge of the law. That aptitude was especially important in the present work on the powers and duties of the justices of the peace, since the latter were (and are) generally unpaid and part time laymen appointed by special commission under the great seal to keep the peace by enforcing “all ordinances and statutes for . the preservation of the same” within the particular area of their jurisdiction. On them rested the everyday enforcement of the system of criminal law, and before the advent of a professional police force in the C19th it rested largely on them alone. The work also deals similarly with the offices of sheriffs, constables, bailifs, escheators and coroners. The closing table first chronologically lists the statutes from which these officers derived their authority, discussed extensively in the text and the offences, activities and occupations which fell within their jurisdiction. Together they paint a very accurate and detailed picture of the social fabric of Tudor England. All early English editions, unsurprisingly, are rare; the earliest still commonly found is Crompton’s enlarged and very different law French version, published by Tottell in 1538.      ESTC S102232. STC. 10977. Lowndes 804. Beale. Engl. law, T343. L2789
Les devins

Les devins, ou Commentaire des principales sortes de deuinations.

PEUCER, Kaspar 4to. pp. [xii] 653, [xxvii]. *4, **2, a-z4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Qqq4. (Qqq4 blank). Roman letter, some Italic. Printer’s woodcut rabbit on title, grotesque woodcut head-pieces, floriated and grotesque woodcut initials, woodcut tail-pieces, small woodcut table in text, C18th engraved armorial bookplate on verso of title ‘Ex Bibliotheca Publica Collegii Divio-Godranii’. Light age yellowing, occasional very light marginal spotting, small hole on title touching just frame of woodcut device, minor waterstain to lower outer blank corner on a few quires, t-p fractionally dusty. A very good, crisp copy in contemporary limp vellum, yapp edges, remains of ties, a little soiled. Second edition in French of Peucer’s encyclopaedic work on divination; “it seems to have been the most influential of his numerous writings which were concerned with the varied fields of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, natural history, and psychology”, (Thorndike VI p. 493). On the whole the work approves of divination in natural circumstances – reading dreams, for instance, or the stars, but agrees with the Bible in condemning certain branches of divination related to demons and witchcraft. Peucer’s bias is unflinchingly Protestant, denying the possibility of Miracles, and he attributed the successfulness of relics and invocations of saints to demons rather than divinity.” After discussing divination in general, he turns to oracles and theomancy, then to magic, which he thus incorrectly implies is a variety of divination, whereas the opposite is true, then to divination from entrails, to augury and aruspicina, to lot-casting under which he puts geomancy and divining from names and numbers and to dreams and their interpretation. Next he considers medical prognostications, meteorology and weather prediction, physiognomy and chiromancy, astrology, and last prodigies and portents” (Thorndike VI p. 495). He is highly suspicious of Alchemy as a purely devilish art on the one hand, but on the other entirely approving of Astrology, which he himself put to practice and considered essential to the study of medicine. Kasper Peucer (1525 – 1602) was a prominent physician and scholar who studied with Melanchthon (and married his daughter) at the University of Wittenberg where he was appointed in turn professor of philosophy, mathematics, and medicine. His pupil, John Garcaeus, called Peucer the “most celebrated professor of mathematics in this academy”. Peucer’s religious views were influenced by his close relationship with Melanchthon, which deviated from the local Lutheranism in its Calvinist colourings, and when Melanchthon died in 1560 Peucer became a prominent religious authority. Although he climbed the academic ranks quickly, and gained appointment as physician to Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, his “Crypto-Calvinist” beliefs were his downfall. In 1574, letters discovered by his patron that expressed a desire to convert Augustus to Calvinism led to a twelve year imprisonment in Königstein Fortress. After his release from prison in 1586, he became physician to the duke of Anhalf, where he remained until his death in 1602. Hozeau & Lancaster II 4860. Brunet IV 582 “De tous les ouvrages de ce savant fécond, c’est celui-ci qui a eu le plus de succès.” Thorndike VI p. 493-501. Cantamessa III 6066. Caillet 8579. L2851
Proteus

Proteus, ofte, Minne-beelden: verandert in sinne-beelden.

CATS, Jacob FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. pp. (viii), 35, (i), 315, [i]; 28; 91 (iii); 46, (ii blank); 48 [iii unnumbered ll.] 49-55, [i]. Roman and Italic letter. Fine engraved allegorical title by J. Matham after van de Venne, Sinne- et minne-beelden with 52 engraved emblems by J. Swelinck after A. van de Venne, each accompanied by 5 pages of text in Dutch, Latin and French (partly in verse), with partial English translation in following section, ‘Emblemata moralia’ with 43 engraved emblems, verses in Latin and Dutch, quotations from various sources at foot of each emblem in both works. Galathee with four engravings in text, full page portraits of Galathee and Phyllis in roundels with allegorical borders by Swelinck after van de Venne. Portions of text set in double columns. Woodcut head- and tail-pieces, woodcut initials, engraved armorial bookplate of Allan Heywood Bright, signed ‘Alf Downey’, on pastedown. Light age yellowing, faint waterstain on a few leaves, occasional mostly marginal mark, spot, or thumb mark, very minor dust soiling in places. A very good copy, with excellent dark impressions of the engravings, in handsome modern tan calf, covers bordered with single blind rule, spine with gilt ruled double raised bands, richly gilt in compartments, green morocco title and date labels, gilt lettered, edges gilt ruled, inner dentelles gilt, a.e.g. First collected edition of these beautifully illustrated emblem books by Jacob Cats, one of the most important author’s of emblem books “whose volumes still form one of the adornments of Dutch houses. Cats took inspiration from proverbs and everyday life, his realistic emblems form a counterpart to genre painting and supply interesting evidence for the history of costume" (Praz p. 86). The work contains, each with separate pagination: Sinne ende Minnebeelden, (an expanded version of "Silenus Alcibiadis”); Emblemata Di Iacobi Catsii, in linguam Anglicam transfusa, (an English verse translation of the foregoing sometimes attributed to Josuah Sylvester); Emblemata moralia et aeconomica, (with illustrations copied from Maechden plicht); the Latin text, with French translation, of the dialogue between Anna and Phyllis from Maechden plicht; Galathee ofte Harder Minne-klachte. Laudatory poems by D. Heinsius, A. Hofferus, J. Arcerius, I. Lyraeus, A. Roemers, I. Luyt, S. de Swaef, L. Peutemans, I. Hobius. Jacob Cats (1577-1660), seventeenth-century poet, moralist, and statesman, was one of the leading poets in the golden age of Dutch literature. His emblem books, which reflected a stolid Calvinist philosophy, exhorted readers to virtuous and industrial lives. Enormously popular, the books became the source of many well-known maxims and proverbs, giving him the title of “Father Cats,” a fond soubriquet still used by modern Dutch to describe him. He is best known as a poet and author of emblem books—illustrated collections of didactic and moralistic (although clever and often humorous) poetry. They are valued as treasure troves of sociological and historical detail, illustrating not only many facets of daily life in the seventeenth century, but the moral and philosophical ideals of the era as well. Cats’s first book Sinne-en minnebeelden (Portraits of morality and love) was published in 1618, when he was forty years old. The book, divided into three sections, contains prose, poetry, Bible verses, quotations from the classics, and common proverbs in Dutch, French, and Latin. Each illustration was accompanied by three different texts, each of which was designed to give three different—but always instructive—interpretations: the first romantic, the second social, and last religious. This combination of texts, styles, and languages in various degrees of complexity made the book accessible to a broad public. The images for many of Cats’s books were supplied by Adriaan van de Venne. He drew literally hundreds of illustrations for the books, and they were, in turn, reproduced by master engravers. L2014a
Proteus

Proteus, ofte, Minne-beelden: – Emblemata D. Iacobi Catsii; In Linguam Anglicam transfusa.

CATS, Jacob 4to. pp. 28; A-C4, D2. (English part only, of five). Roman and Italic letter. Woodcut tail piece, engraved armorial bookplate of Allan Heywood Bright signed by Alf Downey, on pastedown, mss note on the rarity of the edition tipped in on fly. Light age yellowing, a few minor marginal marks or stains. A very good copy, crisp and clean with good margins in fine C19th three-quarter dark calf over marbled boards, covers gilt ruled, spine with raised bands, richly gilt with small tools in compartments, a little rubbed at extremities. The english translation of Cats’s first book Sinne-en minnebeelden (Portraits of morality and love) published in 1618, extracted from the collected edition of his emblematic work published in 1627. Jacob Cats (1577-1660), seventeenth-century poet, moralist, and statesman, was one of the leading poets in the golden age of Dutch literature. His emblem books, which reflected a stolid Calvinist philosophy, exhorted readers to virtuous and industrial lives. Enormously popular, the books became the source of many well-known maxims and proverbs, giving him the title of “Father Cats,” a fond soubriquet still used by modern Dutch to describe him. He is best known as a poet and author of emblem books—illustrated collections of didactic and moralistic (although clever and often humorous) poetry. They are valued as treasure troves of sociological and historical detail, illustrating not only many facets of daily life in the seventeenth century, but the moral and philosophical ideals of the era as well. “Some time ago a study appeared of Cat’s indebtedness to certain English social traditions. His indebtedness was by no means left unrepaid; Cats did not borrow from English literature without some return from his own store. In her valuable ‘English Emblem Books’, Miss Rosemary Freeman remarked that Cat’s work was ‘translated into English’ by Thomas Heywood, among others.  . So far as I can discover, his emblems do not appear translated in the works of English emblematists. Such English translations as were made of his individual emblems are to be found in so obvious a place that they have apparently escaped notice; the 1618 edition of Cat’s Sinne-enMinne Beelden. The emblems appear in the body of the text in three languages, Cats’ native Dutch, French, and Latin. A commendatory sonnet addressed ‘Au tres-digne d’Honeurs & Bon-heurs, le Tres-docte Signeur Iaques Cats,’ by Joshuah Sylvester, famous in English literature for his translations of Du Bartas, praised Cats’ ‘Tri-lingue Stile’ which leads to the conclusion that the author himself was responsible for the French and Latin version of his emblems. At the back of this edition are included English translations of fifty-one emblems, ‘Emblemata D. Iacobi Catsii; In Linguam Anglicam transfusa.’; there is no indication of any translator. It may have been Cat’s himself, with or without the assistance of his pietist friend, William Teellinck, who translated the emblems into English; it might conceivably have been Sylvester, who was for some time a factor in Middelburg and must have known some Dutch at least and who certainly knew French and Latin well. In any case, whoever Englished the emblems did so almost as soon as the Dutch originals appeared in print, a fact which suggestsCats himself or someone in Middelburg very close to him.” Rosalie L. Colie. ‘A note on the English translations from Jacob Cats’. De Vries 89. Landwehr, Low Countries 118. Praz, p. 300. Adams, Alison. ‘A bibliography of French emblem books of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Nr. F.154. L2014b
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Institutiones ac meditationes in Graecam linguam,

CLENARDUS, Nicolaus 4to. pp. (cxxiv), 414, (x), 415-574 dbl. cols., (xvi). πa-p⁴, q², A-Z⁴, a-2g⁴, ⁴2g⁴, 2h-2s⁴ Roman and Greek letter in various sizes. Woodcut printer’s device on on all three titles, fine grotesque woodcut initials and headpieces, bookplate of W.J. Corfield on pastedown, C.W. Dyson Perrins’ and William Foyle’s below. Very light age yellowing. A fine copy, crisp and clean, with large margins, many deckle edges, in a splendid contemporary English binding by Vincent Williamson of Eton College, of polished calf over pasteboards, covers double blind and double gilt ruled to a panel design, stopped at the corners by a gilt pointillé tools, large acorn tools gilt stamped to corners of outer panel, large block-stamped gilt corner-pieces to corners of inner panel, tree device, with ‘noli altum sapere’ panel, gilt stamped to centres, edges gilt ruled, spine double gilt ruled in compartments, with star fleuron gilt at centres and small fleurons gilt to either side, traces of green silk ties, a.e.r. preserved in modern red cloth case, gilt black morocco spine label. A fine, very beautifully preserved, and rare example of a beautiful English binding by Vincent Williamson, binder of Eton College. Williamson sometimes, as here, used a distinctive gilt tooled ‘Noli altum sapere’ based on the Estienne device, but adopted by the booksellers Bonham and John Norton and in some cases used by the binder for their books. According to Nixon, Williamson appears to be the first English binder to tool the title of a book on the spine. He is probably the Vincent Williamson apprenticed to George Singleton, stationer, on March 7, 1603. Parish records of St. Giles Cripplegate show that he married Elizabeth Dawson in December 1584. He is referred to in the records of Eton College until 1621. “London was not the only town where gold-tooled bookbindings were made in the first half of the seventeenth century. Thanks to Sir Robert Birley’s researches, we know of bookbindings being produced at Eton, and we know the name of the binder, one Williamson. We even know that he was the first – but by no means the last – recorded English bookbinder who found at one stage of his career that alcohol improved his finishing, only to find that the improvement lasted but a short time Nevertheless he continued to work until c, 1621, although already in 1608 Sir Dudley Carleton wrote from Eton to a friend in London: .”We have here a goode workman, but he hath commonly his hands full of worke, and his head full of drinck, yet I had as leve venture my worke with this good fellow that is sometime sober, as with them that are always mad” He also bound several books for Sir Charles Somerset, when the later left Eton in 1604, which are very nearly the first English bindings to be lettered on the spine”. Nixon and Foot The History of Decorated Bookbinding in England, p. 52. See plate 42 for an example of a Williamson binding, and BL Shelfmark c128k3 for another, without the Noli Altum Sapere device. A beautifully printed edition of Nicolas Cleynaerts teaching manual for Greek first published in 1529, and first augmented thus in 1580: It would have been the ideal manual for learning Greek for a student at Eton, though as this copy remains exceptionally clean it can hardly have been much used. BM STC Ger. C16 p. 213. Adams C2157. VD C, 4156. L. Bakelants­R. Hoven, Bibliographie des oeuvres de Nicolas Clenard. 1529­-1700. L2503
des Xpiens

des Xpiens, qui enseigne à chascun bon chrestien et crestienne la voye et le chemin pour aller en Paradis.

LE GRANT ORDINAIRE 4to. ff. 149 [i]. Lettre Bâtard in double column. Title in red and black with large grotesque initial, partial border made up of eleven small woodcuts of devotional scenes, some in white on black criblé, full page woodcut on verso of title, fine full-page woodcut of Christ in Glory on verso of A4, two small text woodcuts, first quire printed in red and black, small woodcut white on black criblé initials, occasional marginal manuscript annotation in a slightly later hand, bookplate of Miss Audrey Ridsdale on pastedown. Light age yellowing, some light mostly marginal spotting, a few quires with light browning, the rare marginal mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in early C19th probably English close grained green morocco, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, scrolled border with floral and leaf tools, central arabesque of small tools gilt, spine with raised bands richly gilt in compartments, red morocco label, gilt lettered, inner dentelles gilt. Spine and joints darkened. All edges yellow. Exceptionally rare edition, probably the second by the Veufe Trepperel, of this beautifully printed and illustrated popular work of devotion; it is recored in one other copy only, at the BNF. All early editions are extremely rare. The work is undated in the colophon and title, but can be dated from the text; on the verso of ff. 149 : "En lan mil cinq cens et xx le premier jour de febvrier apres la nativite de nostre seigneur fut dernierement consomme ce present livre " The ‘Grand Ordinaire des Chretiens’ is a popular devotional work which forms a guide for ‘All good Christians’, male and female, along the route to salvation, teaching in the vernacular all that you were required to believe, how you were supposed to behave, what to avoid doing, what you needed to fear and what to hope for, on the path to salvation. It is in effect a popular and vernacular form of the catechism. This kind of guide to salvation was particularly popular at the beginning of the C16th in France predating the reformation. It is divided into five parts, the first dealing with Baptism and the Creed, the second with the Ten commandments, including a long discussion of the seven deadly sins, the third with good deeds and works of mercy, the fourth with confession, and the final chapter on the sufferings of hell and the joys of Paradise. “Le Grand Ordinaire garde quelques-uns des caractères d’une vieille catéchèse orientée vers des recettes de comportements, ‘moins soucieusse de précision dogmatique que tournée vers la pratique des oeuvres et singulièrement la confession.’” Elisabeth Germain. ‘Parler du salut?: Aux origines d’une mentalité religieuse.” It is less a work of Christian doctrine and more a manual on how to live well and die well, directed to ordinary people with almost entirely practical instruction. It offers fascinating insight into how the church expected ordinary people to behave just before this kind of work was completely overridden by the the Reformation, which created new forms of the Catechism to which the Catholic Church then responded with updated catechisms of its own. Rare. FR BNF 33407250. Not in USTC. BM STC Fr. C16th, Fairfax Murray or Mortimer. L2878
Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo. 3 parts in one. pp. [xvi], 469, [iii]; 67, [v]; 139, [xiii]. [A-2G8, 2H4; a-d8 e4; A-I8 K4.] Preface in Roman letter, text in Italic. Large woodcut Aldine anchor & dolphin device with legend ‘Aldus Iunior’ on 1st and 2nd titles and at end of first two parts, Aldine woodcut device (without ‘Aldus Iunior’) at the end of third part, miniature woodcut portrait of Aldus Manutius the Elder, within architectural border, on verso of first and second titles, early ownership inscription on 1st title “Michaelii Pasini” 1628, 1632, several others crossed out, occasional marginal notes and underlinings, notes in probably Pasini’s hand on verso of last leaf. Light age yellowing, two quires lightly browned, some marginal spots and thumb marks, occasional minor, mostly marginal, light waterstaning, a little short at head A good copy in quarter speckled sheep over marbled boards c. 1700, spine with blind ruled raised bands, small fleurons gilt at centres of compartments, tan morocco title label gilt lettered, all edges sprinkled red, worn a head, a few small worm holes in lower compartment. A collection of the celebrated Latin epistles in Ciceronian style by the Venetian scholar – printer Paolo Manuzio (1512-74), third son of Aldo the Elder (1449-1515), founder of the famous Aldine press. The letters, dated between 1558 and 1570, were edited and printed by Paolo’s eldest son Aldo the Younger (with his unusual ‘Aldus Junior’ device, Ahmanson-Murphy A22a) who had succeeded to the family business in 1561, when his father left for Rome to manage the Tipografia del Popolo Romano for Pope Pius IV. Aldo the Younger was a professor of literature who wrote a treatise on Latin spelling. The 3rd part contains Paolo Manuzio’s dedicatory prefaces to his redactions of the classics. Indexes at the end of the volume list the names of the 124 recipients of the letters, and the names of the 28 dedicatees of the prefaces. The circular woodcut portrait of his father, Aldus Manutius the Elder is surrounded with the legend : Aldus Pius Manutius R.; the architectural border comprises the Aldine arms and motto ‘Insigne Manutianum’. Complete as called for in the final register. Some copies however are found with the 27 pages of book XI, which were printed as a supplement to this edition and which are found bound in some copies, (see a long explanatory note in Renouard). This eleventh part was then printed as an integral part of the 1573 edition. Renouard 212-213, no 7. USTC 840490. Adams. M 489. L2913
The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

CHARLES I FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (iv) 18. A-C⁴ First leaf blank but for signature-mark "A" in part of a woodcut frame, lacking last blank C4. Large Italic letter. Woodcut ornament on t-p, at heads of dedication and text, full page cut of Royal arms on t-p verso, note in a near contemporary hand explaining the contents of the work on “A”. Light age yellowing, recto of first leaf dusty, the odd thumb mark or spot, cut a little close in upper margin just touching page numbers. A very good copy crisp and clean in modern boards. In 1618 James I, travelling back from Scotland to London ‘Found that his subjects were debarred from Lawful Recreations upon Sundayes after evening prayer ended, and upon Holy dayes.’ James was concerned that ‘the meaner sort who labour hard all the weeke, should have no Recreations at all to refresh their spirits.’ but also that the prohibition of legitimate recreation would both ‘set up filthy tiplings and drunkennesse’ and encourage disaffection, especially in areas like strongly Catholic Lancashire. There the established church was not popular, to which James specifically refers. Accordingly James declared that no-one was to be prevented from lawful recreation after the end of services – dancing, leaping, vaulting, archery, morris dances, May games, Whitson Ales, May poles and the like were to be freely indulged in. Unlawful games such as bear and bull baiting remained prohibited, as ‘at all time in the meaner sort of people. Bowling’ also the carrying and use of any sort of weapon. Fifteen years later, James’ son Charles I, found that under the pretence of remedying abuses there had been forbidden in some places both secular meetings and ecclesiastical feasts. In the second part of this work Charles reiterates and republishes his father’s declaration, commanding all justices, mayors, constables etc. to implement and obey it or ‘tender our displeasure’. Apart from enlightened social policy Charles’ intervention was covertly to rebuff the Puritans and overtly to convince the Catholics (whom he wished to convert to Anglicanism) that honest mirth and recreation were tolerated in the official religion. A splendid piece of primary social history. ESTC. S101032. “A reprinting of the proclamation by James I of 24 May 1618, with an endorsement by Charles I dated at end: “Westminster the eighteenth day of October, in the ninth yeere of our reigne.” STC. 9254.7. The variant with headpiece on A4r of a winged woman. XL
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Les Ans ou Reports del raigne du Roye Edward le quart, nouelment reuieu et corrigee en diuers lieux.Auxy vous aues in cest Impression les cases icy referres al Abridgement de Brooke, & as auters Lieurs del common Ley.

EDWARD IV [Yearbooks] Folio, ff. [i], 10, 29, 28, 44, 8, 12, 32, 25, 53, 19, 11, 21, 10, 8, 33, 12, 8, 30, 10, 19, 84, 51; [xl] (separate foliation for each year) A-5A⁶, ²A-F⁶ ²G⁴ Black letter, some Roman.  Title within elaborate woodcut border, floriated woodcut initials, “Tho. Burman” in a near contemporary hand at head of title page with his price to side, extensive marginal notes in his very neat and minuscule hand, letter of accounts in C19th hand loosely inserted. Title page, first and last two leaves a little dusty, browned and chipped at foredge,  rust spot on A2, front flyleaves backed, rear fly-leaf renewed, upper margins dusty in places, occasional spots to outer margin, one or two thumb marks. A good copy, crisp and clean with good margins, upper cover in contemporary calf bordered with a triple blind rule, lower cover replaced with a later board in tree calf, spine with raised bands, part of the original spine laid down. a.e.r. An extensively annotated copy of these yearbooks that covers the reign of Edward IV, 1461-1483, with an index of cases, side-notes and cross-references. An extremely important source for our knowledge of medieval common law. The Year Books were the first English reports and the primary source for the great works of Littleton, Hobart, Hale and Coke. The first printed editions appeared in 1481-1482. Substantial numbers of manuscripts circulated during the later medieval period containing reports of pleas heard before the Common Bench. These publications constituted the earliest legal precedents of the common law. They are extant in a continuous series from 1268 to 1535, covering the reigns of King Edward I to Henry VIII. The language of the original manuscripts and editions was either Latin or, as here, in Law French. Maitland and others have considered that the medieval manuscripts were compiled by law students, rather than being officially sanctioned accounts of court proceedings. In any case, from the later Middle Ages onwards English lawyers were reporting cases so as to provide a permanent record of how they had been decided, and in the form of annual volumes they had become by 1500 an important source of reference. They combine eyewitness accounts of "procedural tactics [and] the personality of the pleader and the judge" with "scandal, idle conversation, [and] details upon the weather" (Rostenberg, ‘Publishing, Printing & Bookselling in England’). This copy has been extensively annotated by a certain Thomas Burman who has cross referenced the cases with other collections such as Coke, Dyer etc. Unfortunately we have not as yet been able to discover his identity, but he must have been a legal scholar as his notes are remarkably thorough, covering nearly every case in the work, in a very neat and legible hand. ESTC. S121407. STC 9769. L2726
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The Haven of Health: Chiefly gathered for the comfort of Students, and consequently of all those that have a care of their health.

COGAN, Thomas FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 284, [xx]. [par.]4, 2[par.]4, A-2P4. Black letter, some Roman, Greek and Italic. Woodcut printer’s device on title, woodcut arms of Edward Seymor (the dedicatee) on verso, several woodcut initials, two historiated. Early autograph of William Finch on title, marginal annotations in his hand, bookplate of Cornelius Hauck on pastedown. Title fractionally dusty with pen trials and minor ink spots, waterstaining in lower parts of some leaves, a few running titles fractionally shaved. A good copy, in fine 19th-century calf by Riviere, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, arms of W. H. Miller gilt at centres, spine with gilt ruled raised bands double gilt ruled in compartments, Miller’s monogram at head and tail, title and author gilt lettered in the others, edges gilt ruled, inner dentelles richly gilt, a.e.g. some edges dampstained. Extremely rare first edition of this important and charming medical work that deals with all aspects of health; the Britwell library copy. Cogan divided preventative health into five categories: labor or exercise of body and mind, eating, drinking, sleeping and ‘Venus’ or sexual relations. He includes many interesting recipes for a variety of healthy drinks, including Aqua vitae, Rofa Solis, cinnamon water, wormwood wine and buttered beer. “The Haven of Health, by Thomas Cogan, appeared in 1584 and then in a second edition in 1589 with many of its latin passages translated. At first it was directed chiefly toward students and then to a more popular audience. Cogan was master of Manchester Grammar School, and we catch a glimpse of his pedagogic style in the following comments: “By the very order of nature, reason ought to rule and al appetites are to be bridled and subdued” . Like other works of this period, he freely criticises Galen but also depends heavily on the Regimen of Salerno. Most frequently, it is ordinary English custom and his own personal experience to which he defers, as for example he approves of oats as food for humans. Even more audaciously, he approved of beef, contrary to the warnings in Galen, Isaac, and Salerno.” Ken Albala. ‘Eating Right in the Renaissance.’ "Cogan advised students to breakfast on light digestible foods, to avoid overloading the stomach with a variety of meats at one meal, to cut down on salt and to drink milk as a conteractant to melancholy. He recognized that excessive study made students prone to mental breakdown and recommended that they take regular breaks from study to avoid exhausting their mental energy, and that they refresh their minds with recreations such as music or games" Norman. The work is unusual both for being written in the vernacular and for being directed to students. “Cogan tended to break away from precedent by writing in English. As early as 1534 to be sure Sir Thomas Elyot had brought out a semi-scientific book “the Castell of Helth,” in the vernacular. But so much feeling was aroused in medical circles by Elyot’s presumption that it was found necessary in the preface of the later editions to set forth a defence of the innovation. Pure scientific literature continued to be written almost exclusively in Latin. . Nevertheless, the ‘Haven of Health’ exemplifies the spirit of the times” George Simpson. ESTC S105007. STC 5478. Durling 981; Norman 493. Osler 2331 “It is a book of good sense. Many local notes of value about diet and times of meals at the University. . By the use of ‘one dish onely at one meale, and drinking thereto but small drinke’ he became slender”. Welcome, later edns. only. L2576
De agricultura vulgare.

De agricultura vulgare.

CRESCENZI, Pietro de’ Small 4to. ff. 235 [234] (vi). Roman letter, large Gothic to t-p, double column. Woodcut of Justice to recto and large woodcut from Alexander Grammaticus’s Doctrinale (1513) to verso of t-p; c.30 small woodcuts in text of rural scenes (some repeated); decorated initials. Lower blank half of last leaf replaced, upper margins slightly trimmed, occasional minor yellowing. A fine copy, on high-quality paper, in C19 polished calf, double gilt ruled border, gilt arms of Victor Spitalieri de Cessole family to covers, silk bookmark, marbled pastedowns, a.e.g. Spine in six double gilt ruled compartments, five with gilt leafy tendrils. Erased autograph (?) on front pastedown, the odd mark in red crayon. A fine, handsomely illustrated, copy of the Italian translation of Pietro de’ Crescenzi’s famous writings on agriculture, printed in over 50 editions in several languages between 1471 and 1600. Crescenzi (c.1230/30-1320) studied law, medicine and natural science at Bologna. After retiring from a long legal career, he spent much time at his estate in the Bolognese countryside. There he was inspired to write ‘De agricultura vulgare’ (c.1304)— first printed as ‘Ruralia commoda’ in Nuremberg in 1471—a treatise on agriculture based on classical and medieval sources and his direct experience. Like its most important models—Columella’s ‘De re rustica’ and Palladius’s ‘Opus agriculturae’—‘De agricultura’ was fundamental for the humanist re-elaboration of the rustic values of landownership so dear to the ancient Roman elites. The work presents an ideal ‘holistic’ landowner who is knowledgeable about all aspects of estate management, from the architecture of buildings to the caretaking of gardens and meadows, wine-making, bee-keeping, hunting, farming, and the use of trees and plants for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The physical and spiritual well-being of Crescenzi’s country life is identified with the harmony of the human and the natural following Avicenna’s theories of the bodily humours. The superb woodcuts, many of which were drawn from the Venetian edition of 1495, depict a variety of subjects, from techniques for distilling river water and planning gardens to ways of ensuring that oxen ‘cooperate’ whilst pulling the plough—a tongue-in-cheek vignette, this, in which the artist inserted, behind the customary peasant figure, that of Hercules carrying out his tenth labour of bringing back from the end of the world the uncooperative cattle of Geryon. This copy belonged to the Spitalieri de Cessole family from Nice who amassed a great library. The gilt arms were commissioned by Henry de Cessole in 1850. Graesse II, 299: USTC 824568; BM STC It., p. 203; Essling, 845; Sander, 2238; Simon 162. Not in Bitting, Vicaire or Oberlé. L2865
Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

BRUTO, Giovanni Michele FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxx) 463 (xxxi). Roman letter, some Italic. Printer’s device to t-p, decorated initials. Intermittent light age yellowing, small worm trail to first five ll. affecting a few letters, couple of wormholes to outer margins of last few gatherings, faint water stain to outer margins of couple of final ll. A very good, clean copy in contemporary half German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, brass clasps, blind-tooled to a panel design, outer border with roll of floral tendrils, centre panel with rolls of fronds and rose at head and foot. Spine in five compartments, raised bands, later label, title inked to fore-edge, small piece of wood missing from upper outer corner of lower cover. Handpainted armorial woodcut bookplate of Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach 1556 to front pastedown (some offset to fep), printed armorial bookplate of Christian Gobel of Hofgiebing 1640 and C19 bibliographic inscription to fep. Very good, clean copy, handsomely bound, of Giovanni Michele Bruto’s controversial history of Florence. Born in Venice, Bruto (1517-92) was a Hermit of St Augustin and a historiographer. He soon left the convent and started a life of frequent travels, during which he encountered humanists like Reginald Pole. In the 1550s, the Papal printer, Paulus Manutius, first substituted Bruto’s name with an alias due to suspicions of heresy which would accompany him throughout his life. In 1562, Bruto was in Lyon, in touch with circles upholding anti-Medicean views—ideas which also pervade ‘Florentinae Historiae’. The preface is a long and complex apology of the volume, contextualising it within the Western historiographic tradition from ancient authors like Livy to more recent ones like Paolo Giovio. Giovio’s ‘Historiae’ (c.1520s), caught between praise and criticism of the Medici, is often cited as an inspiration. Leaving historical chronology in the background, Bruto examines the recent history of Florence through its civic and national policy and the character of its governors, none of whom is spared criticism. For instance, in the course of three pages, Cosimo de’ Medici is called ‘fortunatus’, powerful and magnanimous as well as seriously flawed with vice and cupidity. The Medici sought to curb the circulation of this work by seizing and destroying numerous copies, hence its relative scarcity. Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach was a Bavarian jurist and historian. He held numerous political offices including that of imperial counsellor to Duke Albrecht V, ambassador of Duke William IV to Emperor Charles V, and negotiator on the recall of the Jesuits in the early 1550s. He was the author of three antiquarian ‘Stammen Bücher’ of Bavarian princely and aristocratic families. Christian Gobel von Hofgiebing (1590- 1658) was a Bavarian doctor of law and imperial councillor to Duke Albrecht V. BM STC Fr., p. 84; Brunet I, 1307; Pettigree and Walsby, French Books, 59315; Baudrier, Bib. Lyon., VI, 308: ‘assez rare’. L2818
Opusculum de Jubileo siue Peregrinatorium ad urbem Romanam.

Opusculum de Jubileo siue Peregrinatorium ad urbem Romanam.

BERNARDUS de LUTZENBURGO FIRST EDITION. 4to. 14 unnumbered ll., A-B4 C6. Roman letter. T-p with decorated head- and tailpiece. Very light age browning, faint waterstaining to blank upper outer corners, a little light spotting, gutter of last reinforced. A very good, crisp, well-margined copy in boards, early inked numeral to t-p. First edition of this very scarce pamphlet on the theology and customs of the Jubilee, designed for the benefit of laymen journeying to Rome for its celebration. Most were probably discarded on its completion. Bernardus de Lutzenburgo (d. 1535) was a Dominican friar and the author of sermons and treatises on topics including the punishments of heretics and capital sins. ‘Opusculum’ is a concise guide to the Jubilee, declared by Clement VII for the same year. It examines its meaning and origins, functions (remission of sins, celebration of the saints and martyrs, solicitation of charity) and legal aspects, the kinds of ‘grace’ or remission available with the purchase of indulgences, the sundry alterations to the regulations made by popes since the fourteenth century, and the evils committed by those who forbid penitents from purchasing indulgences. It ends with a list of the stations along the pilgrimage from Cologne to Rome. The Quentell press from Cologne, mentioned in the colophon, was responsible for the publication of parts of Tyndale’s Bible in the 1520s. No copies recorded in the US. USTC 679898; B 1995. Not in BM STC Ger. or Graesse. L1616
Suplicatio quorundam apud Helvetios evangelistarum ad r. D. Hugonem episcopum Constantiensem.

Suplicatio quorundam apud Helvetios evangelistarum ad r. D. Hugonem episcopum Constantiensem.

ZWINGLI, Ulrich FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. 8 unnumbered ll., A-B4. Roman letter. Woodcut frame with leafy tendrils to t-p. T-p a little dust-soiled, old repair to gutter of first couple of ll., faint waterstaining to upper outer corner, the odd thumb or ink mark. A very good copy, with wide margins, in modern boards, early inked numeral to t-p, manicula and marginal annotation. Very good copy of the first edition (?) of this important contribution to the debate on clerical and monastic celibacy by Ulrich Zwingli and signed by other ten reformed religious. Zwingli (1484-1531) was a leader of the Swiss Reformation influenced by Erasmus’s humanist theories and Luther’s theology. His works include petitions and pamphlets concerning issues of canon law on which he disagreed with the Roman Catholics. Addressed to the Bishop of Constance, ‘Suplicatio’ argued against the celibacy of the clergy and monks—a vow Zwingli himself had recently broken by getting married. The Latin text, also printed by Froschauer in Zurich, was issued after the German version of the same year, addressed to the Swiss authorities and the wider public. Following Luther’s work, published in 1522, Zwingli considered celibacy a human not divine ordinance, hence he saw no obligation for clerics and monks to follow it. The annotator of this copy was interested in Zwingli’s view that ‘chastity is an angelic gift’ which comes from God and may not be given to everyone; it is better, Zwingli upheld, for those who cannot be continent to be allowed to marry, rather than they should break the vow of chastity and commit a sin. Only Folger copy recorded in the US. USTC 695031; VD16 Z898; Finler, Zwingli-bibliographie, 3c. Not in BM STC Ger. or Graesse. L1614
Syntagma anatomicum.

Syntagma anatomicum.

VESLING, Johann 4to. pp. (xvi) 274 (xiv). Roman letter, with Italic. Attractive engraved t-p illustrating lesson in the anatomical theatre of the University of Padua, flanked by two allegorical female figures; printer’s device to second t-p; 23 fine engravings of dissected bodies, blood vessels and organs; decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Marginal ink spotting in a few places. Illustrations in very good impression, gutter of second reinforced. A very good copy in contemporary vellum. Ex-libris of ‘J[ohannes?] Fabris(?) Rect. de (?) 1730’. A very good copy of the FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION of this popular anatomy text for medical students. Johann Vesling (1598-1649) was a German scholar of botany and medicine, who became professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua in 1632. ‘Syntagma anatomicum’ was an extremely successful textbook favouring practical knowledge ‘which dissection offers to eyes and hands’ over mere theoretical questions. Vesling guides the reader through a textual cum visual dissection head to foot, proceeding according to the body parts an anatomist would encounter from the moment of the first incision, beginning with skin and body fat. As he proceeds, he examines bones underlying the soft parts which are being dissected and the complexities of the nervous system, the vessels that take blood to the brain (‘circle of Willis’) and the lymphatic system—these being among the earliest and most thorough medical descriptions of these anatomical structures. ~The copperplate illustrations were ‘intended for the commonest needs but are mostly original engravings and represent some organs of the human body more correctly than their predecessors. They were popular at the time of their appearance and were frequently re-engraved’ (Choulant, Anatomic Illustration’, 243). USTC 4018742; mentioned in Bibl. Osleriana 4166 and Heirs of Hippocrates, 476. Not in BMC C17 It. L2879
Orationes XXIII (with) Eiusdem interpretatio quincti libri Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum (and) Hymnorvm sacrorvm liber.

Orationes XXIII (with) Eiusdem interpretatio quincti libri Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum (and) Hymnorvm sacrorvm liber.

MURET, Marc-Antoine FIRST EDITIONS. 8vo. Three works in one, pp. (xvi) 320 (vi) 37 (i) (ii) 57 (i), second with half, third with separate t-p. Italic letter, with Roman, little Greek. First and third t-ps with Paulus Manutius’s woodcut portrait to recto and arms of Emperor Maximilian II with Aldine device to verso; woodcut portrait of Muret within oval cartouche, grotesque headpieces, decorated initials and tailpieces. A few ll. lightly browned, upper margins a bit trimmed, occasional slight marginal foxing, tiny worm trail to inner gutter of a few gatherings. A good copy in contemporary vellum, spine in four compartments, raised bands,  lettering in two hands, shelfmark at foot. ‘12-5’ (price?) on front pastedown, illegible later annotation to first t-p, ‘K.2. II app. Le (?) 762’ (bibliographic reference?), ‘Calle(?)’ in red crayon, ‘170’ and ‘19/46’ ms. to rear eps. Good, original copies of the first editions of Marc-Antoine Muret’s much-commended rhetorical, philosophical and poetic works. Muret (or Muretus, 1526-85) was a French humanist and talented Latin author skilled—like his classical model, Cicero—in all genres. Among his admirers were Henry II and Ronsard. After years of wondering to escape persecution for his alleged homosexuality, he spent the rest of his life in Rome under the auspices of Cardinal Ippolito d’Este. This was the first florilegium of his complete works. His 23 orations, which bear the date of their first delivery, deal with rhetoric (e.g., a defence of ‘humanae litterae’, the conjunction of ‘eloquentia’ and philosophy); commentaries on Aristotle’s ‘Nichomachaean Ethics’, Cicero’s ‘Tusculanae disputationes’ and Justinian’s ‘Pandectas’; apologies for European princes and funeral elegies for Charles IX of France and Pope Pius V. The second part is devoted to a commentary of Book V of Aristotle’s ‘Nichomachaean Ethics’, a foundational text for medieval legal, theological and moral debates. Following Aristotle, Muret reflects on justice, how it relates to virtue, what virtue signifies for individuals, communities and lawmakers, and when justice should be considered virtuous. The ‘Hymns’ are outstanding instances of Neo-Latin verse devoted to sundry topics including liturgical days (e.g., Saint Barbara’s day, Christmas and Epiphany), of which they summarise the devotional essence, odes to friends, scholars, politicians, and the celebration of great minds like a poem on Raphael’s tomb. Muret also admitted that two poems he had officially attributed to the Roman playwrights Trabea and Accius were in fact his own work. ‘Hymnorvm liber’ was originally intended as the third part of the florilegium; although here it bears a separate imprint, there is no USTC number for this 1575 first edition, and it is missing from some recorded copies. USTC 843780; Rénouard 219:11; Brunet III, 1952; BM STC It., p. 457. Not in Gamba. L2832b
Questio quotlibetica de effectibus quos consuetudo operat[ur] in foro conscientiae.

Questio quotlibetica de effectibus quos consuetudo operat[ur] in foro conscientiae.

TAPPER, Ruard FIRST EDITION. 4to. 15 unnumbered ll., A-D 4 , lacking D 4 (final blank). Woodcut initial. T- p a bit dusty, very rare marginal spotting. A very good copy in modern boards, the odd early annotation. Very good copy of this scarce theological pamphlet on the effects of ‘ecclesiastical custom’ on Christian conscience. Ruard Tapper (or Tappart, 1487-1559) was a Catholic theologian, dean of St Peter’s Church and chancellor of the university at Leuven; he was also an eminent, notoriously ruthless inquisitor. Delivered as a lecture at Leuven in 1520, ‘Questio’ focuses on the concept of ‘consuetudo’—which may mean ‘action carried out frequently’, ‘law drawn from customary actions’ and, to canon law experts addressed in this work, an ‘ecclesiastical custom’ which is binding to the individual and the community. ‘Questio’ examines the tensions between ecclesiastical and natural (i.e., traditional, non-ecclesiastical) customs, and how even socially-radicated ecclesiastical customs may go against regulations determined by canonical authority in the course of the centuries. In particular, it focuses on the effects of these tensions on the conscience of individuals who may defy ecclesiastical custom in private—e.g., perceiving one’s marriage as null despite its validity—whilst respecting it in public. No copies recorded in the US. USTC 437145; Nijhoff & Kronenberg 3917. Not in BM STC Dutch., Brunet or Graesse. L1611
Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi

Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi, adversus constitutionem de cleri coelibatu.

ULRICH von AUGSBURG [PSEUDO-ULRICH] FIRST EDITION. 4to. 4 unnumbered ll., A4. Roman letter. Very light age browning, t-p and verso of last dust-soiled, a couple of light marginal spots. Avery good copy in modern boards, the odd early marginal annotation. Very good copy of the first edition of a pamphlet on clerical celibacy. Purportedly written by St Ulrich (890-973), Bishop of Augsburg—an authorship now identified as ‘Pseudo-Ulrich’—’Epistola’ first appeared in C11 Germany during debates on clerical celibacy raised by Gregory Vii. The addressee, named ‘Pope Nicholas’, was probably Nicholas II, supporter of a controversial policy on clerical chastity in the mid-1050s. ‘Epistola’ explained that the Pope’s duty was to recommend and praise but not to impose celibacy—hence its frequent use during early C16 debates on this topic. A useful authority, in addition to St Augustine, was Paphnutius of Thebes (4th century) who, at the First Council of Nicaea, criticised the decision to forbid clerics who had been ordained after marriage to abstain from their wives. The short preface stating that ‘celibacy is an excellent thing, not as much when it is imposed’ was written by Martin Luther. Important English Reformers like John Foxe apparently owned manuscript copies. Melchior II Lotter was responsible for printing Luther’s Old and New Testament in 1522-24. USTC 651268; Benzing 818a; WA Br. 12, Nr. 4217; BM STC Ger., p. 878; Proctor 11917; Knaake III, 1055. L1613
LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS (with) TERTULLIAN 8vo. Two works in one, ff. (xii) 328 (xvi) 47 (xliii). Italic letter, occasional Roman and Greek. Printer’s device to t-p and recto of last. Light age browning in places, heavier to pre-penultimate gathering, some slight marginal foxing, tiny worm trails to lower outer corner of first few ll., faint water stains to some margins, small ink spot to fol. 317 obscuring a few letters, occasional contemporary marginalia. A very good, well-margined copy in handsome contemporary probably Bolognese goatskin, traces of ties, a few wormholes to covers, blue edges faded. Blind-tooled to a triple-ruled panel design, panel border with interlacing floral branch, centre panels with blind-tooled ivy leaves to corners and rhombus-shaped centrepieces with fleurons. Spine in four compartments, blind-tooled double-ruled border and cross-hatched single-rule decoration to each, raised bands with blind-tooled single rule, a few wormholes, loss to three compartments. Inscriptions ‘Ex libris ferd. di Gasparina (?) 1707’, ‘Festina lente’, ‘Est de Neapolj’ (both contemporary) to t-p, early erased inscription ending in ‘nativitati dñi 1558’ to fol. 258, occasional early annotation. The handsome binding was made in central-northern Italy. It resembles a Bolognese binding in de Marinis II, 1270 bis. Very good, well-margined editions of these milestones of early Christian apologetics, edited by the monk and humanist Onorato Fascitello (1502-64). Born in Numidia, Lactantius (c.250-325AD) moved to Greece where he taught rhetoric and converted to Christianity. After resigning his post to escape Diocletian’s religious persecutions, he lived in poverty until he became advisor to Emperor Constantine. The main focus of his works is the criticism of pagan cults and the formulation of a coherent Christian theology. ‘Institutiones divinae’ was the first attempt at a large-scale theorisation of Christianity in Latin; it was later turned into an ‘Epitome’. The owner of this copy was interested in Book I on ‘false’ religions. He highlighted sections on pagan deities and demi-gods in Greek and Egyptian cults—e.g., Mercury (or Thoth), the Sibyls, Hercules Africanus, Apollo and Jupiter—and on Euhemeristic theories explaining why pagan gods were rather posthumously deified humans. Lactantius conceived ‘De opificio Dei’ as a defence of Christian truth during Diocletian’s persecutions, and wrote ‘De ira Dei’ against Epicurean and Stoic beliefs. The poems ‘Phoenix’, ‘Carmen de Dominica Resurrectione’ and ‘Carmen de Passione Domini’ are no longer attributed to Lactantius; the first inspired the famous, namesake Anglo-Saxon poem. Tertullian (155-240AD), of whom little is known, was born in Carthage and was probably a lawyer and priest. He became one of the earliest defenders of Christianity against pagan cults like Gnosticism; he was also the first writer in Latin to use the word ‘trinity’. Tertullian’s ‘Apologeticus’ discussed key theological questions like the nature of Christ and the devil, the kingdom of God, the Roman religion, and why pagan deities should not be considered ‘gods’. This Aldine work only appeared, very appropriately, bound with Lactantius’s critique of paganism. Unlike in the first Aldine edition of 1515, it is here recorded in the initial t-p and its pagination integrated in the register. Rénouard 113:2; BM STC It. p. 366; Brunet II, 736. L2714
Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

RIBADENEYRA, Pedro de 8vo. pp. 437 (ix). Roman letter, with Italic. Society of Jesus device to t-p, small engraved arms of Navarre pasted at end of ‘privilege’, printer’s woodcut compass device to last. Light age browning, the odd small ink spot, a good copy in slightly later mottled calf, arms of the marquis Josep de Margarit i de Biure gilt to covers, edges speckled red. Rebacked, gilt spine, expertly remounted, minor repair to corners. The odd early annotation. The gilt arms belong to the Catalan patriot Josep de Margarit i de Biure (1602-85), member of a baronial family from Girona. Josep fought as a general of the Catalan army siding with the French against Spanish aggression into Catalan territory. For his support, he was appointed governor of Catalonia by Louis XIII. In particular, he played a major part in the Catalan ‘revolta dels Segadors’ (1640-52) which concluded with the capitulation of Barcelona to Spain after a dramatic siege. As a reward for his courage, his Aguilar estate was turned into a marquisate by Louis XIV. Josep spent the last years of his life in exile in Perpignan where he continued to defend Catalan identity in Roussillon, annexed to France with the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). The bearing of the arms of Catalonia, Navarre and Aragon-Sicily had been granted by King Juan II to Josep’s C15 ancestor, the bishop Juan Margarit, as a reward for his defence of the city of Girona. The C17 annotator of this copy interested in the long ‘letter to the Christian reader’ may have been Josep de Margarit himself. In a section discussing the reasons why a prince might want to continue a war through violence or political pressure, he highlighted a passage stating that ‘in order to destroy any city or province without a war, there is nothing like presenting them as places full of sin and vice, and to persuade [his subjects] that past injuries are never forgotten, despite the benefits received’. Very good, clean, well-margined copy of this intriguing anti-Machiavellian Jesuit work in Castilian. This is the fourth edition published by the Antwerp printer Jan Moretus, who held the royal privilege for some of the most successful liturgical works of the Counter- Reformation. Born and raised in Toledo, Pedro de Ribadeneyra (1527-1611) was admitted to the Jesuit order in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola, of whom he would later write the first biography. After studying theology and rhetoric at Leuven, Paris and Padua, he taught at Italian and German Jesuit colleges, was sent on missions to Belgium and England by Ignatius himself and held important posts in Italy. Dedicated to Philip II of Spain, ‘Tratado’ presented Machiavelli’s ideal Christian prince as a misleading model contrived by an impious and godless ‘politician’—a member of ‘the worst sect invented by Satan’ to destroy piety, virtue and godly fear. He opposed the Machiavellian belief that history and ‘reason of state’ were shaped by fortune, not religion and virtue, explaining how religion and ‘reason of state’ were instead inseparable, and how a true Christian prince should defend the Catholic faith whilst piously administering government. The second part explores the fundamental concept of dissimulation—a feigned ‘mask of virtue’ which Machiavelli’s prince should sometimes wear. Ribadeneira condemned dissimulation as a sin except for good reasons, e.g., maintaining secrecy for the sake of political prudence—a behaviour equally adopted by Jesuits through ‘equivocation’, an ironically near-Machiavellian variation of dissimulation used to escape persecution. BM STC Dutch, p. 176; Adams II, 462; Peeters-Fontainas II, 1123; Palau y Dulcet XVI, 435(1595 ed.). Not in Brunet. M. Prades Vilar, ‘La teoría de la simulación de Pedro de Ribadeneyra y el “maquiavelismo de los antimaquiavélicos”’, Ingenium 5 (2011), 133-65. L2289
Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

RAMUSIO, Giovanni Battista Folio. 3 vols. ff. I) (iv) 394; II) 256, 90; III) (iv) 430. Roman letter, with Italic. Woodcut printer’s device to t-ps and last of II) and III), over 40 woodcut illustrations of inhabitants, flora and fauna of Asia, Africa and America, 12 woodcut or copperplate maps (10 fold-out including Brazil, Cuzco and Sumatra), decorated initials. Slight mainly marginal foxing or faint dampstaining, little light age browning, the odd thumb or ink mark. Very good copies, on thick paper and of fine impression, in early vellum over pasteboards, rebacked and recornered c1900, traces of ties, gilt lettered morocco label. Remarkably crisp and clean copies of one of the most important collections of voyages and discoveries, beautifully illustrated. As here, most recorded sets are composed of different editions and those like this featuring the most complete editions of each of the individual volumes are rare. 1583 is the first complete (and augmented) edition of vol. 2, and 1606 and 1613 the only complete ones of vols. 1 and 3 (Brunet, IV, 1100-1101), adding for example the travels of Barents and Federici for the first time. Born in Treviso, Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557) worked as secretary and envoy to Alvise Mocenigo, having access to the latest information on expeditions and travels of exploration reaching Venice from abroad. First published by Ludovico Giunta in three separate volumes between 1550 and 1565, ‘Delle navigationi’ was a collection of the first-hand Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, Dutch (all translated in the Italian vernacular) and Italian accounts of voyages to Asia, Africa and America published up to that time, illustrated with bespoke maps—the first work of its kind. The first volume is mainly devoted to ‘countries which have been known for 300 years’, e.g., from Africa (and the kingdom of Prester John) to the Eastern Indies. The second features the accounts of Marco Polo on the Tartars and China (with the first mention of tea in Europe), as well as notices on Persia, Armenia and Paolo Giovio’s ground-breaking work on Muscovy. The third is devoted to the world ‘unknown to the ancients’—Columbus’s navigations, Cortéz and Pizarro’s expeditions, and notices on Mexico, Peru and other American kingdoms. In addition to engaging information on local flora, fauna, politics and customs, ‘Delle navigationi’ provided accurate topographical information through handsome and innovative fold-out woodcut and copperplate maps illustrating Cuzco in Peru, Nuova Francia (Newfoundland)—the second separate map of Northeast America—with the colony of Montreal (the earliest printed such topographical plan for North America), Brazil, Sumatra (the first map of any island in South-Eastern Asia), Eastern Africa, one of the most complete maps of the Western Hemisphere, and a plan of the Mexican city of Temistitan. Through their re-prints of 1606 and 1613, the Giunta capitalised on the continuing commercial success of collections of travel writings epitomised by Richard Hakluyt’s ‘Principal Navigations’ (1589), the original model of which was, as it were, Ramusio’s work. I) USTC 851974; BL STC It. C17, p. 720; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67735; Alden 613/108. II) USTC 851974; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67738; Alden 583/59. III) USTC 4035955; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67739; Alden 606/87. K128
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Scala naturale, overo Fantasia dolcissima intorno alle cose occulte, e desiderate nella filosofia.

MAFFEI, Giovanni Camillo FIRST EDITION. 8vo. ff. 140. Italic letter, little Roman. Woodcut printer’s device to recto and woodcut author’s portrait to verso of t-p, half-page woodcut of celestial spheres with two conversing scholars, decorated initials. Minor paper flaw to lower blank margin of one fol., the odd ink spot, occasional light marginal waterstaining. A very good copy in old vellum, recased. Attractive copy of this intriguing work on philosophy and natural science—an epitome of the all-embracing aspirations of humanist thought. Giovanni Camillo Maffei (fl.1562-73) was a philosopher, physician, natural scientist and musician, and a member of the most important Neapolitan intellectual circles. In addition to fundamental works on the art of singing, touching on the physiology of the human voice, Maffei wrote philosophical letters and the idiosyncratic ‘Scala naturale’. Engaging and well-written, ‘Scala naturale’ discusses the cosmos and its inhabitants, their nature, physiology, soul and customs as determined by the world around them. Purporting the existence of 14 instead of the Aristotelian 8 spheres, Maffei discusses the nature of each considering how it is affected by the interaction of the four humours. For instance, in the first sphere, this can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and affect the nature and colour of stones, metals, plants, animals and human beings. He showcases his medical knowledge in lengthy disquisitions on the ‘evolution’ of organs and limbs to the optimal shape for their function and the causes of physical differences between humans, e.g., unlike in animals, the colour of human skin is not determined by the nature thereof but by the vapours in the environment in which it developed. The work also touches on comets, the origins of rivers and seas, celestial phenomena, solar circles, the zodiac, judicial astrology and its connection to predictions. Riccardi I/1, 61; BM STC It., p. 402; Cantamessa I, 583; Houzeau & Lancaster 2617. L2721
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Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbei de Medica materia libri sex.

DIOSCORIDES Folio. ff. (x) 352. Roman letter, some Greek. Title in red and black, woodcut printer’s device to recto of last. T-p a bit thumbed, small faint purplish stain and little fraying to lower inner corner of first and last gathering, occasional slight marginal waterstaining, and minor marginal foxing. A very good copy, on thick paper, in contemporary northern Italian calf over pasteboards, lacking ties, triple blind tooled to a panel design, second border with dotted ropework, centre panel with rhombus-shaped floral centre- and cornerpieces. Spine in four compartments with double blind tooled hatching, early paper label with title at head, some rubbing, minor loss to covers and at foot of spine. A handsome copy of this fundamental ancient Greek work on herbal medicine—the first pharmacopoeia—which influenced Western medical practice until the C19. The work had been circulating in Latin (as well as Greek and Arabic) throughout the medieval period, never falling into oblivion. It was first printed by Filippo Giunta in 1518, in a Latin translation and commentary by the Florentine humanist and Medici chancellor Marcello Virgilio Adriani (1464-1521), of which this is the second edition. Born in Cilicia, Discorides (40-90AD) was a Greek physician at the service of the Roman army and an expert botanist. A compendium of medical knowledge which rivalled Hippocrates’s and Oribasius’s works, ‘De Materia medica’ discusses the properties and medical uses of hundreds of herbs all typical of the eastern Mediterranean region, often providing their names in other languages like Thracian, ancient Egyptian or Carthaginian. Its five parts cover a variety of topics including not only aromatic or culinary herbs and plants (e.g., cardamom, cinnamon, liquorice and valerian) but also cereals, fruit, roots, seeds and even minerals from which ointments, drinks or balms can be made. The short sections discuss the name, origins, physical characteristics and medical uses of each; room is also devoted to specific conditions, their symptoms and the best practice and medicaments to treat them. To the bite of adders, vipers and basilisks, for instance, is devoted a long section which explains how to intervene in case of emergency and how to prepare and use life-saving pharmacopoeia including cedar juice, bitumen and green ‘pilulae’ made from plane trees cooked in diluted wine. Four copies recorded in the US. USTC 827007; BM STC It., p. 218; NLM 1142. Not in Wellcome or Bibliotheca Osleriana. L2872
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Algunos motivos y razones que ay, para favorecer los seminarios ingleses

SEMINARIO JESUITA DE SEVILLA] 8vo. 4 unnumbered leaves. Roman and Italic letter, printed notes, drop-title with large woodcut initial. Margins restored in places affecting last line of text, 12 line early ms. note at the end, faded but largely legible. Light age yellowing. Generally good, in modern boards. No other surviving copies are known. The pamphlet provides a valuable evidence of the special relationship between English Catholics and the Spanish monarchy, which led to the establishment of three English Catholic colleges in Spain: San Alban in Valladolid, San Jorge in Madrid and San Gregorio in Seville. St. Gregory’s College was founded by the English Jesuit Robert Persons (1546 – 1610) in 1592 and devoted to St. Gregory the Great, apostle of England, famous for the dictum non angli sed angeli and for his dispatch of a mission to England. According to Martin Murphy (Ingleses en Seville. El Collegio de San Gregorio, 1592-1767, Seville, 2012), for most of its existence St. Gregory’s College struggled with financial problems and low student numbers, until absorbed by the Royal English College of San Alban in Valladolid, after the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Despite this it was one of the best known cultural centres within the Jesuit organisational structure, providing full education and training for future missionaries, when England was already detached from the Catholic Church. During a solemn ceremony, the alumni vowed to return to England as Catholic priests. The pamphlet shows the place of the English Catholic colleges in the political strategy of the Spanish monarchy, from their foundation under Philip II onwards. The text is divided into four chapters – the last one dedicated to “motivos particulares para favorecer este seminario inglés de Sevilla”. After a general introduction praising the glorious work of the English seminaries in Spain and giving a short history of their foundation, each of the four chapters puts forward different reasons why they should be supported by the Spanish crown. The first chapter, entitled “motivos de piedad”, refers to the common issue of the “limosina temporale”, pointing out that the spiritual faith of England depends on the material survival of these English Catholic colleges. For this reason, funds are necessary to repair Jesus’ temples and honour the sacrifice of those English Catholics persecuted in England from the origin of Church until the heretical reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Furthermore, the text especially highlights the talent and purity of the colleges students, who are excellent in rhetoric, poetry, Greek language, arts, theology, singing. The second and third chapters, concerning “motivos de la nobleza Christiana” and “motivos de utilidad temporal”, explain that the English Catholic colleges always testified to the spiritual nobility of Spain. They defended the faith of Spain against the heretics of England, welcoming English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish exiles – persecuted for their anti-Protestant ideas – and commemorating the exploits of saints and apostles (St Gregory the Great, Saint Augustine, etc.) through their task of evangelisation. Eventually, the fourth chapter focuses on St. Gregory’s college history which stands out for its excellence and virtue among other good Jesuit institutions. By giving an overview of the financial difficulties, the chapter especially aims at emphasising the necessity of supporting the college which always lived on charity, and without any economic means. Not in USTC. Not in Goldsmith. Palau, I, p. 211. L2395
In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo, ff. [4], 432. Roman letter, little Italic and Greek; printer’s device on title; minor wormtrail at blank foot of first gathering, light small rustspots to a few leaves, ink smear to lower corner of ff. 243v-244r. A very good copy in contemporary Leipzig alum-tawed pigskin (Einbanddatenbank, w000428 ), blind-tooled with triple-fillet border, external roll of Biblical figures (Moses, David, John the Baptist and Christ bearing the cross) amid floral decoration and central roll of palmette with three flowers on top and bottom; contemporary title inked on spine alongside early ms shelfmark and title on paper labels slightly rubbed, a few small wormholes, corners lightly chipped; contemporary inscription ‘Sum ex libris Claudij Simonet’ on front endpaper recto, ex libris of an Augustinian convent in early seventeenth-century hand on title and an earlier one trimmed at foot; blue ink stamp of ‘Hermann Funke’ on verso of title. Aldine edition of an important Renaissance commentary on Cicero’s most famous epistolary collection, first published in 1547. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was one of the most prominent humanists of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. Cicero’s letters to his friend Atticus, written from 68 to 44 BC and traditionally arranged in 16 books, provide an unparalleled insight not only into the author’s daily life and always provoking thoughts, but also into the decades preceding the fall of the Roman Republic. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 460; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375 ; Renouard, 171:9. L2293b
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Epistolae, et praefationes

MANUZIO, Paolo FIRST EDITION. 8vo, ff. [12], 148 [i.e. 142]. Predominantly Italic letter, little Roman. Large printer’s device on title, hand-coloured by contemporary hand; title slightly dusty; light, mainly marginal waterstains, with a few wormholes to upper gutter of first gathering, small stain to f. 91. A good copy in contemporary limp vellum, contemporary title inked along spine and lower edge; minor light stains and loss to front cover; nearly contemporary inscription ‘Verde Brasca’ (probably the Verdebrasca of Milan) on front endpaper, title and rear pastedown. First edition of one of the most influential Neo-Latin collections in early modern Europe. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was a prominent humanist of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. This collection comprises several letters and prefaces written by Paolo to the Gotha of the political, religious and academic establishment of mid-sixteenth-century Italy. The work kept growing over the following 15 years until it included 12 books. However, some self-censorship took place in order to cope with the Indexes of forbidden books issued by Paul IV in 1559 and the Tridentine Council in 1564, so that a few letters appear here for the first, and only, time in their original form. As Renouard sarcastically glossed, Paolo claimed in the initial dedicatory letter that he decided to publish the present collection because of pressure from his fellow members of the Venetian Academy. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 483; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375; Renouard, 271:9. L2279
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Revocatio literarum et constitutionum foel. rec. Pii papae V pro mendicantibus et aliis regularibus contra locorum ordinarios, ad terminos iuris communis

GREGORY XIII] Folio. 2 unnumbered and unsigned ll. Title with oval woodcuts of demi-dragon of the Boncompagni family, Sts Peter and Paul and decorated initial. Very minor marginal spotting, all edges untrimmed. An excellent, clean copy, early casemark to upper margin of first. An excellent, remarkably clean copy of this scarce papal bull issued by Gregory XIII in the first year of his pontificate, which revoked regulations approved by his predecessor. Pius V had in fact overruled pastoral limitations imposed by the Council of Trent on mendicant orders by allowing their members to act, among other things, as secular confessors without the bishop’s approval—partly to improve pastoral provision in the New World colonies. In this bull, Gregory XIII reduced these liberties and brought back the regulation of the mendicant orders under the rules of ecclesiastical law to require episcopal permission for such privileges. The bull was first published in 1572 and reprinted in the following year in Rome, Brescia and Paris. This edition bears a re-set title and different woodcut decorations to ‘Reductio literarum et constitutionum’ (EDIT16 42444), with which it shares the exact text. The key word of the title—‘Reductio’—becomes here ‘Revocatio’ with a different title setting and woodcuts. Only two copies of this edition appear to be recorded. The Blado press was responsible for printing official documents of the Papal States including a great amount of bulls which, due to their ephemeral nature, have rarely survived unscathed. No copies recorded in the US, only two other recorded. Fumagalli 2154. L2298