Seth Kaller Archives - inBiblio
last 7 days
last 30 days

Seth Kaller

Lincoln Calls for the public to supports the U.S. Sanitary Commission

Lincoln Calls for the public to supports the U.S. Sanitary Commission

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HENRY W. BELLOWS Printed Circular Letter, to "the Loyal Women of America." Washington, D.C., October 1, 1861. 3 pp., 8 x 10 in. "The Sanitary Commission is . of direct practical value to the nation, in this time of its trial. It is entitled to the gratitude and confidence of the people. There is no agency through which voluntary offerings of patriotism can be more effectively made. A. Lincoln." Historical BackgroundThe United States Sanitary Commission (USSC) was a private relief agency to support sick and wounded Union soldiers and sailors. The idea began at a meeting of the Women’s Central Relief Association of New York in April 1861, and was modeled on the British Sanitary Commission, which operated during the Crimean War. The USSC set up and staffed hospitals, and operated thirty soldiers’ homes, lodges, and rest houses for traveling and disabled Union soldiers.This circular urges American women to send contributions to the USSC for distribution to suffering servicemen. "Every woman in the country can, at the least, knit a pair of woolen stockings," the letter declared, "or, if not, can purchase them." The USSC sought blankets, quilts, pillows, slippers, delicacies such as cocoa and dried fruit, checker and backgammon boards, and books and magazines for convalescing soldiers and sailors. Before it was printed, Frederick Law Olmsted wrote to Lincoln requesting "a line from the President recommending the purpose of the Commission to the confidence of the public."[1] Lincoln’s response, sent the same day, is included at the end.7,000 affiliated local societies held bazaars, concerts, raffles, and plays to raise money. Beginning in the fall of 1863, major cities-including Chicago, Cincinnati, Brooklyn, New York, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Boston-held large sanitary fairs that lasted for weeks. With donations from many famous figures, and artifacts for sale such as signed copies of the Emancipation Proclamation, over the course of the war, the USSC raised an estimated $5 million in cash and $15 million in in-kind contributions.At first, the Army Medical Bureau resented civilian involvement and questioned the use of women as nurses. Similar groups such as the Christian Commission argued that their counterparts were more interested in providing something for the upper classes to do in the war, aside from fighting, than they were in sympathizing with the plight of soldiers. But its success silenced most critics over time.The USSC did provide significant opportunities for women to participate in the war effort. Dorothea Dix, Mary Livermore, and Mary Ann Bickerdyke held leadership roles. Novelist Louisa May Alcott was a nurse in a USSC hospital. One of its nurses, Clara Barton, became a founder of the American Red Cross. Many of the Northern women who were its grass roots workers developed an involvement in philanthropic and public affairs, including the Civil Rights and Women’s Suffrage movements.Henry W. Bellows (1814-1882), born in Boston, graduated from Harvard College in 1832 and Harvard Divinity School in 1837. In 1839, he became the pastor of the First Congregational church in New York City. Gaining a reputation as a pulpit and lyceum speaker, he became a leader of the Unitarian Church in America. From 1847 to 1866, Bellows edited the Christian Inquirer, a weekly Unitarian newspaper. Bellows planned the United States Sanitary Commission and served as its only president from 1861 to 1878. In 1877, he became the first president of the first Civil Service Reform Association.Full Text of Letter "To the Loyal Women of America," October 1, 1861 [1] Frederick Law Olmsted to Abraham Lincoln, September 30, 1861, Abraham Lincoln Papers, Library of Congress.
Jefferson’s Tragic Loss Sparks Hope for Reconciliation with Adams

Jefferson’s Tragic Loss Sparks Hope for Reconciliation with Adams

THOMAS JEFFERSON Autograph Letter Signed as President, to John W. Eppes, June 4, 1804, Washington D.C. 2 pp., 7 3/4 x 10 in. A remarkable, poignant letter from a crucial chapter in Jefferson’s life, his presidency, anticipating his famous reconciliation with his predecessor and longtime compatriot, Adams, but still holding one grudge. "He & myself have gone through so many scenes together.that I have never withdrawn my esteem, and I am happy that this letter gives an opportunity of expressing it to both of them. I shall do it with a frank declaration that one act of his life, & never but one, gave me personal displeasure, his midnight appointments. A respect for him will not permit me to ascribe that altogether to the influence of others, it will leave something for friendship to forgive." Complete Transcript Washington June 4. 04 I should much sooner have written to you but for the press of business which had accumulated at my return, and which is not yet entirely got under. We lamented much that you had not staid a day longer at Monticello, as on the evening of your departure the Eppington family arrived, and it would have added much to our happiness to have been all together the 4 or 5 days that the weather detained me at home. We consented to consign little Maria to the entreaties of Mrs Eppes until August when she promised to bring her back herself. Nature’s laws will in time deprive her of all her older connections. It will then be a great comfort to have been brought up with those of her own age, as sisters & brothers of the same house, knowing each other in no other relation, and ready to become the parent of each other’s orphan children. While I live both the children will be to me the dearest of all pledges, and I shall consider it as increasing our misfortune should we have the less of your society. It will in no wise change my views at Pantops, and should considerations, which ought not to be opposed by me in the actual state of things, induce you to change the purpose of your residence at Pantops, I shall still do there what I had always proposed to you; expecting it will some day become the residence of Francis. I may only take more time for it after Lilly shall have done at the mill, which I suppose will be by the time of my return home, there are then three jobs for him, the leveling at Pantops, the road along the river, and the leveling the garden at Monticello. Which of these he first enters on will depend on your views. If they be to get to Pantops as soon as you can; he shall first do that levilling, that it may be in readiness to begin a house the next season. In any other case I should set him about the road first. But I should be happier did the other order of things coincide more with your happiness. But I press nothing, because my own feelings as a parent teach me how to estimate & respect the feelings of parents.John W. Eppes [2]This subject you must give me your wishes with frankness as mine will be most gratified in taking the direction of yours. I inclose you a letter I received lately from Mrs Adams. The sentiments expressed in it are sincere. Her attachment was constant. Although all of them point to another object directly, yet the expressing them to me is a proof that our friendship is unbroken on her part. It has been a strong one, and has gone through trying circumstances on both sides. Yet I retain it strongly both for herself and Mr Adams. He & myself have gone through so many scenes together, that all his qualities have been proved to me, and I know him to possess so many good ones, as that I have never withdrawn my esteem, and I am happy that this letter gives me an opportunity of expressing it to both of them. I shall do it with a frank declaration that one act of his life, & never but one, gave me personal displeasure, his midnight appointments. A respect for him will not permit me to ascribe that altogether to the influence of others, it will leave something for . (See website for full description)
Pennsylvania Assembly Pledges to Fulfill Terms of Treaty of Fort Stanwix

Pennsylvania Assembly Pledges to Fulfill Terms of Treaty of Fort Stanwix

JOSEPH GALLOWAY Autograph Document Signed as Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly, to Pennsylvania Governor John Penn, February 10, 1769, [Philadelphia, Pa.] 1 p., 9 x 14 1/4 in. The Pennsylvania Assembly vows to enforce land-based provisions of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, negotiated in 1768 by Sir William Johnson with the Six Nations Iroquois. "Nothing, therefore, in our power shall be wanting, which shall appear necessary and effectual to prevent future Settlements on the lands unpurchased of the Indians." Complete TranscriptA Message to the Governor from the AssemblyMay it please your Honour,We have taken into our Consideration your Message, acquainting us, that a General Boundary line was happily settled, by Sir William Johnson His Majesty’s Superintendant of Indian Affairs, between the Indians of the Six Nations, the Delawares and Shawanese, & his Majestys Middle Colonies. The Accomplishments of a measure so important to the British Interest in America could not fail to give us the utmost Satisfaction, as we reason to expect it will be Means of preserving that Harmony and Friendship between these Colonies and the Natives, which have heretofore, from various crises, been too frequently interrupted. It is also particularly agreeable to us, to learn that the Proprietaries of this Province [the Penn family] have purchased a large Tract of Country within that Boundary, from whence a Prospect is afforded of new and extensive Settlements, and a further Increase of Inhabitants within this Province.And as we esteem it our incumbent Duty, it shall be our constant care to pay a strict regard and attention to whatever objects His Majesty shall, in his Wisdom, be graciously pleased to recommend to our consideration. Nothing, therefore, in our power shall be wanting, which shall appear necessary and effectual to prevent future Settlements on the lands unpurchased of the Indians, and every other Abuse or Act of Injustice that can reasonably create in them a Disaffection to the Colonies [inserted: in general] or in this Province in particular. Signed by Order of the House. Joseph GallowayFebruary 10th. 1769[docket:] A Message to the Governor / from the Assembly. / February 10th, 1769. / (Entered in Council Minutes / the same day.)Historical BackgroundThe Pennsylvania Assembly pledges to deal justly with the Indian tribes and to prevent new settlements on "unpurchased" Indian lands. In September 1768, Sir William Johnson had convened a conference at Fort Stanwix – "accompanied by twenty boat-loads of presents, the Governor of New Jersey, and Commissioners for Virginia and Pennsylvania, he met with 2,200 Indians from the Six Nations, the Delawares and the Shawnees," according to historian Fintan O’Toole. The resulting Treaty of Fort Stanwix established a definitive western boundary line between lands belonging to the Proprietors of Pennsylvania (the Penn heirs) and lands occupied by the Indians of the Six Nations (this line extended north into New York and south into Virginia. The territories to the west of the line, running from Fort Stanwix south to the Delaware, then along the Susquehanna’s west branch, overland to the Allegheny, and down the Ohio to the mouth of the Tennessee, remained Indian Country. This agreement effectively consigned the weaker Shawnee and Delaware tribes to abandon their homelands and to resettle permanently in the Ohio Country or further west.The new Fort Stanwix line lay further west than the line previously established by the Proclamation of 1763, and settler incursions into the area between the two lines began almost before the ink was dry on the Treaty itself.Joseph Galloway (1731-1803) was a major politician of the Quaker Party in late colonial Pennsylvania, and a friend and ally of Benjamin Franklin, who turned Loyalist early in the American Revolution. He was Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly from 1766-1774, and opposed the Stamp Act and Townshend Duties. Galloway then represente. (See website for full description)
Theodore Roosevelt Downplays His Nomination Prospects in 1916

Theodore Roosevelt Downplays His Nomination Prospects in 1916

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Typed Letter Signed, to Judge Richard Campbell of the Philippines, May 13, 1916, Oyster Bay, Long Island, N.Y. 1 p., 7 x 10 in. Seven years removed from office, Roosevelt gives little credence to the belief, in some quarters, that he had a chance to win the Republican nomination to oppose incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson in the election of 1916. "I do not believe that the Republicans have any intention of nominating me. I only hope they will give us some man who will be the antithesis of Wilson." Complete TranscriptOyster Bay, / Long Island, N. Y.,May 13, 1916.My Dear Judge:– That’s an awfully nice letter of yours! I will see Judge Moreland as soon as possible. Now, I wish I could see you and go over this situation. I do not believe that the Republicans have any intention of nominating me. I only hope they will give us some man who will be the antithesis of Wilson. What a trump General Barry is! Sincerely yours, Theodore RooseveltHon. Richard Campbell,Court of First Instance,Manila, P. I.Historical BackgroundThomas Henry Barry (1855-1919) was a U.S. Army general, whom President Roosevelt had earlier appointed as commander of the Army of Cuban Occupation and Pacification and who had also served as Superintendent of West Point from 1910 to 1912. At the time of this letter, he was the commander of American troops in the Philippines and China.The central issue in the 1916 presidential election was the looming prospect of American involvement in the war in Europe. To no one’s surprise, the Democrats nominated incumbent Woodrow Wilson, while the Republicans nominated Charles Evans Hughes of New York, then a sitting associate justice on the Supreme Court. Regrouping after the disastrous result of Roosevelt’s "spoiler" candidacy in 1912, the Progressive Party nominated him once more. Roosevelt, his disdain for Wilson even greater than before, and all too aware of the consequences of another split Republican vote, withdrew his candidacy and threw his support behind Hughes. Roosevelt was an anglophile and a muscular nationalist, and favored immediate American intervention in Europe on the side of Britain and France. Ironically, Wilson campaigned on the slogan, "he kept us out of war," but moved the nation towards a declaration of war against Germany a year later. In 1916, Wilson defeated Hughes in one of the closest elections in American history, winning by twenty-three electoral votes and about 600,000 popular votes out of over 18 million votes cast.
Rare First Printing of the U.S. Constitution

Rare First Printing of the U.S. Constitution

U.S. CONSTITUTION Newspaper. The Independent Gazetteer, or, the Chronicle of Freedom. Philadelphia: Eleazer Oswald, September 19, 1787. 4 pp. "We, the People of the United States."This rare complete printing of the Constitution appeared on the first day it was publicly available, Wednesday, September 19, 1787. That same morning, the Constitution was published by four other papers, the Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, Pennsylvania Journal, Pennsylvania Gazette and Freeman’s Journal. The Independent Gazetteer is unique, in that it is the only one of the five first-day printings whose type was evidently not used to print another, stand-alone edition. Historical BackgroundThis issue of The Independent Gazetteer and Chronicle of Freedom, a daily Anti-Federalist newspaper, prints the "Plan of the New Federal Government" in full, followed by the Federal Convention’s resolution submitting the Constitution to Congress, and the accompanying transmittal letter. All three are signed in type by George Washington, as president of the Convention.The Constitution was approved by the Convention on Monday, September 17. The text of the official version was set that evening, and a very limited number were printed for the use of the delegates. After being drafted in complete secrecy, the Constitution was first made public on the morning of Tuesday, September 18, when it was read before the Pennsylvania General Assembly. The next morning, Wednesday, September 19, the five newspapers mentioned above all published the Constitution. It is often assumed that the Pennsylvania Packet was the first public printing, as the publishers, Dunlap and Claypoole, were the official printers to the Constitutional Convention. In fact, there is no evidence that the Packet actually was published first, or appeared on the streets of Philadelphia that day any earlier than its four rivals. All five are considered first editions, with surviving copies of the Packet the most common.The dissemination of the Constitution in newspapers is of considerable interest and importance as it was through this medium that most Americans became familiar with the new form of government proposed by the Convention. One careful researcher, Leonard Rapport of the National Archives, has identified four Philadelphia newspapers which also carried the text of the Constitution on the same day (this was, after all, news of the highest importance), and one, the Philadelphia Evening Chronicle, which may hypothetically, have carried the text in an issue dated 18 September ("Printing the Constitution," pp. 69-90). But, to date, no copy of the Evening Chronicle of that date is known to be extant (see Rapport’s other article, "Newspaper Printings of the Constitution").The Pennsylvania Packet printing has been accorded primacy for two principal reasons. First, the Packet was printed by John Dunlap and David C. Claypoole, official printers to the Convention itself. Together as partners, or separately (Claypoole may originally have been a junior partner), they had printed nearly everything issued by Congress since 1775, including the 1776 Declaration of Independence. Second, with the exception of the Constitution’s six-line preamble ("We the people."), the text is entirely printed from the same setting of type used for the official Congressional printing. As Rapport notes, the 5,000 words of the Constitution represented "nearly one man-day of composition time" for the printer, so, sensibly, to make use of the wider margins of the Packet’s larger sheets, they reset the preamble in large type, with a large capital "W" below the masthead and simply reimposed the rest of their standing type to fit onto the paper’s four larger-size pages. The case might be summed up by emphasizing that the present Pennsylvania Packet text of the Constitution was struck from the identical setting of lead type that had printed the sheets of the official Congressional printings, sheets that Jacob. (See website for full description)
President Adams Writes to an Old Friend

President Adams Writes to an Old Friend, Reflecting on the Vicissitudes of High Office

JOHN ADAMS Autograph Letter Signed, as President, to Tristram Dalton, March 30, 1798, Philadelphia, [Pa.] 2 pp., 8 x 9⅞ in. A wistful letter to a boyhood friend in which Adams mentions some guileful political colleagues and laments the "popular Passions of the times" and the general neglect of his political writings. "The Difficulty of leading or guiding Millions, by any means but Power and Establishments can be known only to those who have tried Experiments of it." Complete Transcript Philadelphia, March 30, 1798 [different hand:] Received April 5thMy worthy Friend, I am as much in Debts in the literary and epistolary way, as our Princes of modern Speculation are in their pursuits: and I suppose for Similar Reasons viz want of Method, in accuracy of amounts, no Economy and undertaking more than I am capable of managing. To you, I am indebted for three late letters, at least.The Character drawn in the first and alluded to in the Second, has always been civil to me, personally; and especially in his last visit to this Place. But I have heard frequently of his Conversation and Behavior. I am out of all danger from his designs.The Plan, in your last Letter, that I mean of the 26th of this month, shall have all the attention it deserves from me. There are few Men if any to whom my Inclinations and feelings are better disposed, than to the C. in question.In one of your Letters you recall the memory of forgotten Lucubrations. Alass! Experience, History and Prophecy founded on both are lost to Mankind. They oppose in vain, their feeble Resistance to the popular Passions of the times. It may in some future time be remarked that those Papers were written in 1786 & 1787, and the Events of the Subsequent ten or eleven years may be compared with them: but this will be done by a very few in their Closets and will influence Nations very little. The Difficulty of leading or guiding Millions, by any means but Power and Establishments can be known only to those who have tried Experiments of it. My regards to the Family. And accept of & renewal of Protestations of Esteem, which have been made and repeated almost half a hundred years,From your most obedientJohn AdamsHon. Tristram Dalton Esq.[Docketing in a different hand]: Once President of the United States Class mate of T D & friends while they lived M.A.W. 1907.Historical BackgroundEarlier in the month, Adams and his Cabinet had received reports of the humiliation suffered by John Marshall, Charles C. Pinckney, and Elbridge Gerry in Paris. French Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand told the three diplomats through French officials indentified in the United States as "X," "Y," and "Z" that negotiations would not proceed unless they paid a personal bribe of $250,000. France, in the midst of war with Britain, had authorized its naval vessels to seize American shipping. A small American Navy was beginning to respond in kind in this "Quasi-War." In hopes of avoiding open war with their old revolutionary allies, Adams had sent Marshall, Pinckney, and Gerry, but now, as of March 1798, it appeared a declaration of war might be necessary. Adams called a special session of Congress in hopes of mobilizing for war while also sending new diplomatic envoys to France. On March 16, he addressed Congress, informing them of the XYZ affair, all of which sparked the bitterest partisanship the young republic had yet seen.Adams’ reference to a duplicitous friend–affable in person but designing behind his back–is to Thomas Law (1756-1834). In his letter of February 12, Dalton warned Adams that Law was "a Person who may be deemed dangerous." Law had purchased large amounts of land in Washington, D.C. and expended "considerable Sums" on buildings, serving as the agent of someone in England. More sinisterly, Dalton worried about Law’s influence on American politics. He had heard Law publicly "vilify" the measures of the Washington administration, especially the Jay Treaty with Great. (See website for full description)
After Investing in its Stock

After Investing in its Stock, Lincoln Represents a Railroad in a Precedent-Setting Lawsuit

ABRAHAM LINCOLN Autograph Manuscript Signed by Lincoln in text, constituting his official transcript of the "Subscription Book of the Capital Stock of the Alton and Sangamon Rail Road Company," incorporated February 27, 1847, transcribed in early 1851. Comprising a cover sheet titled in Lincoln’s hand, the joint stock subscription statement and list of 91 shareholders with the number of shares subscribed, and leaf with Lincoln’s legal docket: "Alton and Sangamon Railroad Company vs. James A. Barret. Copy of contents of subscription book." 8 pp., 6 5/8 x 8 1/4 x 1/4 in. A list of stockholders, entirely in Lincoln’s hand, filed as evidence in his first significant railroad case. Lincoln’s own appearance in the shareholder list represents only the second known instance of a stock purchase by the future president. The Illinois Supreme Court’s ultimate ruling in favor of Lincoln and the railroad set an important legal precedent, upholding the binding nature of a stockholder’s contractual and financial obligations. "The decision, subsequently cited in twenty-five other cases throughout the United States, helped establish the principle that corporation charters could be altered in the public interest, and it established Lincoln as one of the most prominent and successful Illinois practitioners of railroad law" (Donald, p.155). Historical BackgroundThe Alton and Sangamon Rail Road Company was chartered in 1847 to construct a line from Alton, via New Berlin, to Springfield. In 1850, however, the Illinois General Assembly approved a more direct route, bypassing the landholdings of some investors. Claiming breach of contract, James A. Barret refused to make further installment payments for his 30 shares of stock, as did several others who no longer stood to benefit from the new line. In 1851, Lincoln was hired to compel the defaulting shareholders to pay the balance of their promised investment.The tactical details are spelled out in a February 19, 1851 letter from Lincoln to William Martin, a commissioner for the sale of the company’s stock. Four suits were to be brought against stockholders who had subscribed to the initial offering, but had then failed to make the additional installment payments. In preparation, Lincoln listed the essential documents he would need in order to win a judgment. "We must prove," he advised Martin, "that the defendant is a Stockholder," "that the calls have been made," and "that due notice of the calls has been given." To show that the defendants were in fact stockholders, Lincoln explained, he needed to produce "the subscription book with the defendant’s name, and proof of the genuineness of the signature, together with any competent parole or evidence, that he made the advance payment" (Basler 2:99).Lincoln’s meticulous transcript of the subscription book was a key piece of the evidence filed in Sangamon Circuit Court on February 22, 1851. The book includes Barret’s name, and the subscription statement (transcribed by Lincoln on page two) is explicit about the shareholders’ obligations.We the subscribers to the Capital Stock of the Alton and Sangamon Rail Road Company.do hereby agree.to pay the balance of the installments due on said stock by us subscribed, when the same may be called for by the board of Directors of said Company when duly organized in conformity with the Charter approved February 27th 1847."A. Lincoln," with six shares for $600, is prominent among the 91 subscriber names. (The only other known record of a Lincoln stock purchase dates from 1836, when he bought one share in the Beardstown and Sangamon Canal.)In June of 1847, as head of a committee to promote subscriptions for the projected railroad, Lincoln wrote an open letter to the "People of Sangamon County" appealing for their support. Railroad construction was booming, and Lincoln anticipated that a line between Springfield and Alton would prove a lucrative investment for himself and his state. "The whol. (See website for full description)
NYPD Commissioner Teddy Roosevelt Argues the Police Entrance Exam Keeps "Blockheads" Off the Force

NYPD Commissioner Teddy Roosevelt Argues the Police Entrance Exam Keeps "Blockheads" Off the Force

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Typed Letter Signed as New York City Police Commissioner, to W.C. Sanger, defending the police entrance exam, February 5, 1897, New York, N.Y. On "Police Department of the City of New York" stationery. 8 pp., 8 x 10 1/2 x 1/4 in. Theodore Roosevelt, as New York City Police Commissioner, defends his reforms, including his implementation of an entrance exam for candidates, a year before his victory in the gubernatorial election. "We have appointed sixteen hundred patrolmen under these examinations . If they were strong, hardy young fellows of good character and fair intelligence they got their appointments. As a whole, they form the finest body of recruits that have ever been added to the New York police force." Partial Transcript:"I have read with interest the four pages of questions quoted from the Police Civil Service examinations, under the heading ‘The Reign of Roosevelt,’ and apparently gathered by or for Mr. Abraham Gruber. He refers to these questions as if they were in some way improper and not such as should be asked candidates for the position of patrolman. It may be well at the outset to state that patrolmen receive ultimately $1400. a year, and that from their ranks are developed a Chief, a Deputy Chief, five Inspectors, thirty-seven Captains, nearly two hundred Sergeants and nearly two hundred Roundsmen, with salaries ranging from $6000. to $1500 . Mr. Gruber’s contention apparently is that questions which it is proper to ask a man before he becomes a citizen are improper when asked him upon his seeking to become the official representative of all citizens and, in a peculiar sense, the guardian of the laws and the upholder of the government . Perhaps by quoting the answers to some of the questions we asked it may be possible to give a clearer idea of the mental development of the candidates who failed. For example: one question we asked was to name five of the States that seceded from the Union in 1861. One answer was ‘New York, Albany, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia and Delaware.’ Another question was ‘Name five of the New England States?’ One answer to this question was ‘England, Ireland, Scotland, Whales and Cork.’ Another was ‘London, Africa and New England.’ . Another question was ‘Upon what written instrument is the government of the United States founded?’ The conclusion one bright competitor reached was expressed in the brief word ‘Paper.’ . Yet another question was ‘Into what three branches is the government of the United States divided?’ Rather a common answer to this during the heat of the last campaign was ‘Democrats, Republicans and Populists’ . I will ask any thoughtful man after reading over those answers to questions, whether, on the average, it is not likely that a man of sufficient intelligence and public spirit to know a little about the government and its history is not apt to make a better public employee, especially in the police force, than the blockhead who is incapable of understanding what the words ‘government’ and ‘history’ mean . We have appointed sixteen hundred patrolmen under these examinations . If they were strong, hardy young fellows of good character and fair intelligence they got their appointments. As a whole, they form the finest body of recruits that have ever been added to the New York police force."Historical BackgroundTheodore Roosevelt became New York Police Commissioner in 1895, inheriting a force weakened by widespread Tammany Hall corruption and patronage; promotions were often doled out based on political affiliation, or sold. With his customary zeal for reform, Roosevelt sought to reinvent the NYPD. He established a new set of disciplinary rules, reorganized the Detective Bureau, started a school of pistol practice, and instituted regular inspections of firearms and annual physical exams. He also championed a tougher, more comprehensive entrance exam that emphasized general knowledge in subjects such as history, gover. (See website for full description)
President Theodore Roosevelt Condemns Abortion

President Theodore Roosevelt Condemns Abortion, Birth Control, and Family Planning

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Typed Letter Signed as President, to Rev. Franklin C. Smith, January 24, 1906, Washington, D.C. On White House stationery, with five words added in his hand. 4 pp., 8 x 10 1/2 in. Decades before the landmark Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade, a passionate Roosevelt expresses his concern for the morality and "virility" of the American people. "As you are a minister of the Gospel I think I ought to say to you that I am so sure of it that I feel that no man who is both intelligent and decent can differ with me ." Complete Transcript January 24, 1906My Dear Sir: I entirely agree with you that I should be very sure of my ground before giving public utterance to my opinions. As to the subject to which you refer, I am absolutely sure; and as you are a minister of the Gospel I think I ought to say to you that I am so sure of it that I feel that no man who is both intelligent and decent can differ with me. I mean this literally. It is not a debatable subject. I enclose you a copy of my address to the Mother’s Congress. What I have said there is such plain common-sense truth that it is not open to question. Men may differ about the tariff, or about currency, or about expansion; but the man who questions the attitude I take in this matter is, I firmly believe, either lacking in intelligence or else lacking in character. The attitude you seem tentatively inclined to favor is one of astounding folly as well as of astounding immorality. To advocate artificially keeping families small, with its inevitable attendants of pre-natal infanticide, of abortion, with its pandering to self-indulgence, its shirking of duties, and its enervation of character, is quite as immoral as to advocate theft or prostitution, and is even more hurtful in its folly, from the standpoint of the ultimate welfare of the race and the nation. You say that certain French thinkers assert ‘that a limited number of offspring, well cared for and equipped physically and mentally, is a higher service to the state and race than a larger number, necessarily not so well equipped.’ This sentence is rendered pure nonsense by the word ‘necessarily.’ There is no necessity about it. The average child from a fair-sized family is, in my experience, much better equipped to do good service than the average child from a family of only one or two children where the cold self-indulgence, the selfishness, the folly or wickedness of the parents are responsible for the fact that there are but one or two children. Surely you can not but be aware that the result [added by hand: in practice] of the theory of the ’eminent French thinkers’ to whom you refer is that in France the growth of the population has stopped instead of increasing, and indeed, apart from emigration, is now diminishing, and that frightful [added by hand: moral and physical] evils have followed in its train. In New England at the present time the old native stock is diminishing – that is, there are actually fewer people of the Revolutionary stock left in New England today than there were fifty years ago – and this even eliminating all the emigration from New England. It is as arrant nonsense to speak of its being possible to render service to the state by a course of conduct which means that there won’t be any state to render service to, as it would be to speak of a man rendering service to himself by taking poison. You say that your ministry lies among well-to-do people; that is, among people of means and upper class workers. I assume that you regard these people as desirable elements in the state. Can you not see that if they have an insufficient quantity of children, then the increase must come from the less desirable classes; and if, on the other hand, there is no increase in any class, that then the decrease which is always taking place in certain classes will mean a general diminution in the population? Are you not aware of the fact that the diminution in the birthrate in Austral. (See website for full description)
Henrietta Szold asks a doctor to become a life member of Zionist Organization of America

Henrietta Szold asks a doctor to become a life member of Zionist Organization of America

HENRIETTA SZOLD Autograph Letter Signed "Henrietta Szold", one page, 5 1/2 x 9 in., on stationary of the Hotel Alexandria, July 28, 1927, New York, NY, addressed to Elisha Friedman. ".Will you help?" Complete Transcript July 28, 1927Dear Mr. FriedmanAm I wrong in assuming that you expressed, at least indirectly, approval of the plan of discharging the deficit of the Zionist Organization of America as a first step towards making it an effective instrument for Palestinian work, when I spoke to you at the Physician’s Dinner? At all events, I venture to ask whether you will help us do what we have undertaken by becoming a life member of the Organization? The plan is to secure two thousand such life members at $100 each. That will cover the deposit of $156,000 and give us a small reserve out of the interest on which we can supplement our normal revenues. Will you help? Sincerely yours, Henrietta SzoldHenrietta Szold (1860-1945) was an American Zionist leader. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Szold taught school there until 1892, when she became interested in Zionism. In 1912 she founded Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America, and helped establish schools, hospitals, children’s clinics and welfare stations in Palestine. Szold moved to Palestine in 1920 and directed Hadassah medical and relief projects. From 1933 on she directed Aliyah, which worked with young immigrants. Between 1892 and 1916 she co-edited the American Jewish Yearbook. Throughout her life Szold translated French, German, and Hebrew works into English.Elisha Friedman was a member of the American Economic Committee for Palestine, on the Board of the American Friends of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and on the Finance Committee of the Palestine Endowment Funds and the Hadassah Medical Organization.ConditionFine
Harvard’s 1770 Graduating Class and Their Theses

Harvard’s 1770 Graduating Class and Their Theses, Dedicated to Governor Hutchinson

HARVARD COLLEGE Broadside. List of Graduating Students and Theses for Disputation. Boston, Massachusetts: Richard Draper, 1770. 1 p., 18 x 22 in. Interesting broadside in Latin issued for Harvard University’s 1770 commencement lists Latinized names of 34 graduating students. Among the graduates are Samuel Adams (1751-1788), son of the patriot, Harvard graduate, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and later governor of Massachusetts Samuel Adams (1722-1803); loyalist and New Brunswick Supreme Judicial Court Justice Ward Chipman (1754-1824); Gilbert Saltonstall (1752-1833), grandson of Connecticut Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, son of General Gurdon Saltonstall, close friend of Nathan Hale, and Captain of Marines in the Revolutionary War; and Samuel Osgood (1747-1813), delegate to the Continental Congress and first Postmaster General of the United States. Historical BackgroundThe Theses broadsides display propositions, used in the Commencement tradition of public student disputation which began at Harvard College in 1642. The practice was instituted under the leadership of President Henry Dunster (president from 1640-1654) within a larger effort to model the college after European universities.Behind the printed broadsides was a multi-stage process that involved both students and faculty. The Latin theses were academic statements created by the graduating students to reflect the scope of their undergraduate study. The Theses fit within a curriculum that emphasized public discourse and syllogistic debate and ranged between approximately 50 and 250 propositions in most years. This broadside includes theses in technology, metaphysics, theology, logic, grammar, rhetoric, mathematics, and physics.Printed at the expense of the graduating class, the Theses were posted in advance, and graduates were expected to be able to defend them upon request on Commencement Day. Certain students were selected by the faculty to discuss and dispute specific Theses publicly as part of the day’s exercises.Beginning with the first Commencement in 1642 through 1810, Theses were printed as broadsides. They were supplemented from 1791 onward by the Order of Exercises for Commencement, printed in English. The last Order of Exercises was printed in 1810, and subsequent Theses were distributed as quartos until they were replaced in 1821 by a Commencement program. Generally, the ceremony for students receiving their Bachelor’s degrees occurred in the morning and was followed by the Master’s degree ceremony in the afternoon.Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780) was born in Boston and graduated from Harvard College in 1727. He served in the Massachusetts General Court from 1737 to 1739 and from 1742 to 1749. He also served as a member of the Governor’s Council and as a judge of probate and justice of the Common Pleas. He served as Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1758 to 1771 and as Governor from 1769 to 1774, the first eighteen months as acting governor. In 1761, a new governor appointed Hutchinson as Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature, which outraged many attorneys, including James Otis and John Adams. Hutchinson took an increasingly loyalist position, as Massachusetts and the other colonies asserted their rights and discussed independence. He traveled to London in 1774 to defend himself against patriot criticisms. He never returned to Massachusetts, and his properties, like those of other loyalists, were seized and sold. He wrote a three-volume history of Massachusetts, but the final volume was published after his death.ConditionArchivally backed and in very good condition, with areas of paper loss to edges.
A Timeless Memento of the Apollo Space Program - signed by five of the twelve men who have walked on the surface of the moon and eight Lunar Module pilots

A Timeless Memento of the Apollo Space Program – signed by five of the twelve men who have walked on the surface of the moon and eight Lunar Module pilots

APOLLO ASTRONAUTS Printed Document Signed, c. 1972. NASA Grumman Apollo Lunar Module Internal Components Brochure (Bethpage, NY: Grumman, 1969), eight acetate sheets with color overlaying drawings of multiple lunar module structures and components. Signed by Apollo astronauts Buzz Aldrin, Alan Bean, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham, Charles M. Duke Jr., Fred Haise, Edgar Mitchell, Rusty Schwieckart, Tom Stafford, and Al Worden. 8 pp., 8 x 10 in. Historical BackgroundThis promotional brochure released by Grumman during the Apollo Program lists 118 separate components. Color drawings of the Lunar Module are on the front and back of each acetate sheet. Components are identified by a fold-out legend on the back cover.Apollo was the third human spaceflight program by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Established in 1961, its first flight was Apollo 7 in 1966, and its first flight with a crew took place in October 1968. The last flight was Apollo 17 in December 1972. In six missions between July 1969 and December 1972 (Apollo 11-17), twelve men walked on the moon.Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin (b. 1930) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 11. On July 21, 1969, Aldrin followed Neal Armstrong nine minutes after he became the first human to set foot on the moon.Alan Bean (1932-2018) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 12 mission in 1969. He was the fourth person to walk on the moon.Eugene Cernan (1934-2017) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 10 mission in 1969 and Commander of the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. On the latter mission, he became the eleventh person to walk on the moon. He reentered the lunar module after Harrison Schmitt, so Cernan is the last person to have walked on the moon.Charles M. Duke Jr. (b. 1935) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 16 mission in 1972. He was the tenth and youngest person to walk on the moon.R. Walter Cunningham (b. 1932) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 7 mission in 1968, the first Apollo program to carry a crew into space.Fred Haise (b. 1933) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 13 mission in 1970. He would have been the sixth person to walk on the moon, but problems forced the mission to abort before the lunar landing.Edgar Mitchell (1930-2016) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 14 mission in 1971. He was the sixth person to walk on the moon.Russell Louis "Rusty" Schwieckart (b. 1935) was the Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 9 mission in 1969.Thomas P. Stafford (b. 1930) was the Commander for the Apollo 10 mission in 1969, the second manned mission to orbit the moon and the first to fly a Lunar Module in lunar orbit.Alfred Merrill "Al" Worden (b. 1932) was the Command Module Pilot for the Apollo 15 mission in 1971.
Rare Jim Crow Broadside from Father of American Minstrelsy

Rare Jim Crow Broadside from Father of American Minstrelsy

AFRICAN AMERICAN Printed Broadside. "The Extravaganza of Jim Crow!" ca. 1832-1838. As sung by Thomas D. Rice. 1 p., 5⅛ x 16 in. Contemporary variant of "Jump Jim Crow," a traditional song made famous or infamous in the minstrel shows of T. D. Rice. This version has thirty-nine verses, with the chorus, and includes a final verse not seen elsewhere.[1] The character of "Jim Crow" has a complicated and fascinating history. Based on a folk trickster long popular among African American slaves, the persona of Jim Crow began as an assault on racism and then developed into a negative, stereotypical view. After Reconstruction, it lent its name to harshly segregationist laws that persisted across the South until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.Historical BackgroundRice grew up in a racially integrated Manhattan neighborhood and also toured southern slave states, where he observed African American traditional songs and dances. Although superficially stereotyping African Americans, Rice’s portrayal of Jim Crow crossed racial barriers and mocked the pretensions of the rich. What Rice portrayed as a clever and independent trickster who represented an international and interracial underclass became in less skillful hands and in the white imagination a lazy, slow-witted, and even sub-human caricature.Only later did "Jim Crow" come to personify a race, as it became a stereotype for all African Americans from the late 1830s onward and began its "strange career" in the apt phrase of historian C. Vann Woodward.[2] What came to be known as "Jim Crow laws" appeared immediately after Reconstruction as a resurrection of the harsh Black Codes adopted by white southerners just after the Civil War to limit African American freedom to the bare minimum. Throughout the first half of the twentieth-century, "Jim Crow" became a synonym for the southern system of segregation.After introducing the song, Rice continued to compose verses for "Jump Jim Crow," with one compilation including 150 verses. He also varied verses by location. This printing has the verse "I met a Philidelphy niggar, / Dresse’d up quite nice & clean, / But de way he ‘bused de Yorkers / I thought was quite mean." Another printing reverses this verse as "I met a New York niggar, / Dress’d up quite clean, / But de way he bused de Delphians, / I thought was bery mean."[3]"Jump Jim Crow" began as a folk song, then Rice developed it into an improvised stage performance that became an extravaganza. As one expert writes, "The song was unstable in every way. Its few core verses continually changed as they adapted to the performance contexts." Far from providing an authoritative text, printed forms like this broadside only "increased the song’s flux by modeling its improvisation."[4]Rice performed the "Extravaganza of Jim Crow" in Philadelphia in September 1832; in Boston in December 1832 and April 1833; in the Bowery neighborhood of New York City in January, March, April, May, and August 1833; and in Natchez, Mississippi, in April 1836. After a trip to London to perform there from June to August 1837, Rice was back performing again in Philadelphia and New York later that year.[5]The folk idea of a dancing crow stems from farmers who soaked corn in whiskey and left it out for crows; after the crows ate the corn and became too drunk to fly, farmers could kill them easily with a club as they jumped helplessly near the ground. "Jim" may derive from "jimmy," a short crow bar, and "crow" was used to refer to African Americans as early as the 1730s.Thomas D. Rice (1808-1860), the "father of American minstrelsy," was born in New York, and apprenticed to a woodcarver. By 1827, he became a performer and traveling actor. In 1828, he popularized a traditional slave song titled "Jump Jim Crow," which he performed in blackface and punctuated each stanza with a jump. One story claims Rice was mimicking a slave he had met who had a crooked leg and deformed shoulder. Ric. (See website for full description)
Scathingly Anti-British Broadside Heralds Daniel Webster

Scathingly Anti-British Broadside Heralds Daniel Webster

DANIEL WEBSTER Broadside announcing his upcoming arrival at Springfield, Massachusetts, April 7, [1851]. 1 p., 12 x 16 1/2 in. "Daniel Webster The Union Man, the Patriot, is to be with us To-morrow. Let us all meet to give him a welcome at the Depot. Let us show to the world that we have a ‘higher law’-a law above all party politics-the Divine Law of Patriotism!" Excerpts: "Men of Hampden! Our ancestors, who, with arms in their hands, relinquished not their efforts, or spared their blood, so long as a British enemy was on their soil were Regulators! When we last rallied, we drove a British Spy, a malignant, thieving wolf, a paid emissary of Slave Drivers from among us; partly estimating his moral caliber, we deemed him not even worthy of the gibbet! Rotten eggs were found entirely effective in ridding us of such carion. While our past history has shown us fully capable of meeting our enemies with an adequate force to crush their futile attempts at evil, we have ever exhibited a true appreciation for the exertions of those patriots who have sustained and rescued their country in the hour of peril. Let us show ourselves prompt to pay a tribute of respect to those great spirits who dared to speak words of comfort, of hope, of inspiration, when our nation was on the eve of a civil war from the machinations of the British, as we as a people, have exhibited a promptitude to meet our open enemies in the field of battle!" "Our country is in peril! British diplomacy is at work! Palmerston and his creatures are untiring! Bulwer is scheming simultaneously at Washington, and Thompson at the North; the English Consul at Charleston, in the South; Chatfield in Nicaragua and Central America, with a corps of paid American Traitors and foreign spies throughout our land. Accursed Britain! Would that in the words of Jefferson, ‘a sea of fire divided us!'[1] Countrymen of the sainted, martyred Emmett![2] Let me quote to you the words of that dying patriot, when speaking of that blight and canker to Freedom throughout the World-the British Government, ‘I wish that my memory and name may animate those who survive me, while I look down with complacency on the destruction of that perfidious government which upolds its domination by blasphemy of the Most High.a Government which is steeled to the barbarity by the cries of the orphan and the tears of the Widows which it has made.[‘] A grateful remembrance of the services of those who aided us by their counsel in the hour of danger, is as eminently important, as sacred a subject in the eye of Heaven, as the readiness to take up arms in our country’s defence!""Daniel Webster / The Union Man, the Patriot, is to be with us To-morrow. "Rally every mother’s son of you! Forget all party lines! Sink into oblivion all political and partizan questions; remember only the MAN, who, when his country is in danger, like Quintius Curtius, sacrificed all to her welfare." "Let us all meet to give him a welcome at the Depot. Let us show to the world that we have a ‘higher law’-a law above all party politics-the Divine Law of Patriotism!"Historical BackgroundIn July 1850, President Millard Fillmore appointed Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts as Secretary of State for a second time. Webster’s support proved critical to the passage of the Compromise of 1850, which he hoped would resolve the slavery issue and preserve the national Union.On Sunday, February 16, 1851, protestors in Springfield, Massachusetts, hung effigies of British abolitionist George Thompson (1804-1878), who was visiting on a speaking tour against the Fugitive Slave Act, and the "John Bull" characterization of Britain in a large tree on the court square. Broadsides appeared all over town anticipating Thompson’s arrival, and like this one, were signed "Lexington," and addressed to "Regulators" and "Men of Hampden!" They characterized Thompson as a "British Spy" and "member of that very British Parliament, whose laws have p. (See website for full description)
59 Western Pennsylvania Settlers Petition the Governor to Supplement Frontier Defense

59 Western Pennsylvania Settlers Petition the Governor to Supplement Frontier Defense

PENNSYLVANIA "To his Excellency Thomas Mifflin Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. The petition of a Number of the Inhabitants on the Fronteers of Westmoreland County Humbly Sheweth" Folio manuscript broadside, docketed on verso, entirely handwritten in ink, signed by 58 petitioners (mostly individually, though it appears that a few small groups may have one signer writing his own name and then that of a couple additional people who perhaps could not sign on their own), seeking the commission of three officers, Archibald McGuire, George Shrum and Matthew Dill, of an additional company for the protection of the Westmoreland County frontier. Ca. 1790-91. This petition, signed by 58 Scotch-Irish settlers of the western frontier of Pennsylvania, must have been appreciated by Governor Mifflin, as it showed the settlers’ lack of confidence in the ability of the federal government to protect the frontier. Following the defeat of Harmar’s expedition in 1790, President Washington appointed Arthur St. Clair, Mifflin’s political rival and immediate predecessor, to build a string of forts along the western frontier. According to the petitioners, the positioning of these forts left much to be desired. Excerpts:"That the local situation of your petitioners, and the orders given for the arrangement of the Troops on the Fronteers of this County, bringeth us under the Necessity of applying to your Excellency to take our situation into consideration. We your petitioners understand that the station at the Ketanian is to be the heighest, which will then leave upwards of Forty Miles of our North-east quarter entirely open, which place has always been the very pathway that the Savage Nations has come in at. For it is a part that abounds with Elk and Deer licks, and serves them with provision until they come into our Neighbourhood. We your petitioners being but a few years settled in our desolate habitations since the late War find it very inconvenient to attend the Malitia calls. We wish your Excellency to grant orders to raise troops for this quarter of our fronteers, as it will be no more cost to the state than the Malitia would be.""We are also persuaded that Colonel Cample will concur with us, for we are all satisfied that if the frontier end of Legoner Valley be braught under the Necessity to evacuate the Communication of the old Pennsylvania Road will be cut off."Westmoreland, the last provincial county formed, was created by an Act of Legislature on February 26, 1773. Bordering the wilderness, the early settlers were continually harassed by the Indians, and as late as 1782 Hannastown was burned by the Indian allies of the British. From 1782 to 1784 the settlers planted no crops and were gathered into forts and blockhouses. But from 1784 until 1790 there was peace along the frontier, and many settlers moved into the county. Because the petitioners had only recently been able to return to their "desolate habitations since the late War" for independence, they were much too busy to attend distant state "malitia" drill; so they request permission to raise a local company under the command of "men of Character and property and well acquent with our woods."The settlers’ lack of confidence in federal efforts to protect them was soon borne out. On November 4, 1791, the St. Clair Expedition was defeated by the Indians at the battle of the Wabash, with the loss of over 700 men and his artillery. The Native Americans, emboldened by their rout of St. Clair’s forces, carried out frequent raids in Westmoreland County. Finally, Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne’s victory over the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers put an end to the fighting along this frontier.Thomas Mifflin, first elected governor in 1790, served three successive terms, through 1799. Due to his opposition to Washington and the Federalists, he refused to call the legislature into session during the Whiskey Rebellion, although later he did aid in suppressing the r. (See website for full description)
Designs for Eisenhower’s Second Inauguration Festival

Designs for Eisenhower’s Second Inauguration Festival

DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER Second Inaugural Festival designs by Samuel Asch, New York, December 1956. 14 items, including 9 colored pencil and carbon sketches on lined paper, one Inaugural Committee circular letter, 2 photostats of Asch’s designs, and 2 photostats of images of the completed project. Includes a 1953 Inaugural Festival program. Acclaimed designer Samuel Asch’s drawings for the Inaugural Festival at Washington, D.C.’s Uline Arena. The Festival featured prominent entertainers from the world of stage, screen, opera, dance, and popular music. Historical BackgroundJanuary 20 fell on a Sunday in 1957, so Dwight D. Eisenhower’s formal second inauguration was held at the Capitol on Monday, January 21. The Inaugural Festival was held at 8:30 p.m. on Saturday, January 19, at the Uline Arena. Inaugural Balls were held at the National Guard Armory and three hotels on January 21.The Inaugural Festival featured prominent performers such as singer Pearl Bailey; comedians Bud Abbott and Lou Costello; entertainer Phil Silvers; Hungarian ballet artists Nora Kovach and Istvan Rabovsky, who defected in 1953; "Park Avenue Hillbilly" Dorothy Shay; singer Pat Boone; actress and soprano Kathryn Grayson; tap dancer and Wizard of Oz scarecrow Ray Bolger; "The Dancing De Marcos," Sally and Tony De Marco; singer Gogi Grant; and African-American dancers, the Step Brothers. Also joining these artists were the Apollo Singing Club of Cincinnati, and the Michigan State Glee Club. The Inaugural Festival was broadcast on radio and television throughout the nation.Opened by Dutch immigrant Miguel Uline next to his ice plant in 1941 as a hockey rink for the Washington Lions, the Uline Arena was also used in the 1950s for the Washington Capitols basketball team and the Georgetown Hoyas college basketball team. The venue hosted boxing matches, circuses, music concerts, and other events as well. Eisenhower held one of his inaugural balls in the Uline Arena in January 1953 and returned four years later for his second inaugural festival. Sold and renamed the Washington Coliseum in 1959, it was the venue for the Beatles’ first American concert in February 1964. Narrowly avoiding demolition in the early twentieth century, the Washington Coliseum is on the National Register of Historic Places.Samuel Asch (1888-1958) was born in Russian Poland to Jewish parents and came to the United States in 1900. Initially employed as a sign painter, by 1925, he was an art decorator and exposition architect with a studio in New York City. His firm designed exhibits for trade shows and other events, including inaugurations going back to that of William Howard Taft.Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) was born in Texas and grew up in Kansas. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1915, served in the country during World War I, and was promoted to Major soon after. At the beginning of World War II, he joined quickly came to the attention of Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall. In November 1942, Eisenhower became Supreme Commander of Allied forces in North Africa. In December 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Eisenhower as Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe, and Eisenhower had primary responsibility for planning the D-Day invasion of Normandy in June 1944. In November 1945, he returned from Europe to replace Marshall as Chief of Staff of the Army. Three years later, he became President of Columbia University, where he served until 1953. In 1952 and again in 1956, he won landslide elections as a Republican candidate for the Presidency.
Illustrator Frank Leslie Publishes Fanciful Grand Reception of Civil War Notables as a Subscription Premium

Illustrator Frank Leslie Publishes Fanciful Grand Reception of Civil War Notables as a Subscription Premium

ABRAHAM LINCOLN Lithograph. "Grand Reception of the Notabilities of the Nation, at the White House 1865," New York: Frank Leslie, [April] 1865. 1 p., 19 x 23 3/4 in. Frank Leslie published this print as a premium for his new family magazine, Frank Leslie’s Chimney Corner, and copyrighted it on April 8, 1865, just a week before Lincoln’s death. The image, created by engraver Henry B. Major and lithographer Joseph Knapp, portrays Lincoln, flanked by the First Lady and Vice President Andrew Johnson, greeting Julia Dent Grant, wife of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant who stands nearby.According to a notice printed at the bottom right corner, "Every Person who pays Ten Cents each for numbers 1 and 2 of Frank Leslie’s Chimney Corner, The New Family Paper, is entitled to a copy of this PLATE without extra charge," or individuals could purchase the print for $3. In the first issue of The Chimney Corner, Leslie described the "Grand Reception" image as "the most costly gift plate ever presented by any publisher in the United States, having been produced at an expense of $10,000.""Every family should possess this truly national picture, and carefully preserve it," Leslie continued, "as it will transmit to future generations the men who have restored our great national unity. It is especially valuable, as it contains an excellent likeness of our late lamented President, introducing General Grant and his wife to Mrs. Lincoln." The picture contains "nearly 100 portraits of our most celebrated Generals, Statesmen and Civilians, also of many of our most distinguished American ladies. The likenesses are admirable, having been taken from photographs by Brady."[1]The key, giving the names of each individual portrait was published in issue number 4 of the Chimney Corner, on June 24.Included in the image are Generals Ulysses S. Grant, John G. Foster, William T. Sherman, Hugh J. Kilpatrick, Nathaniel P. Banks, Philip H. Sheridan, Winfield S. Hancock, John A. Logan, Joseph Hooker, Benjamin F. Butler, Oliver O. Howard, John A. Dix, and Henry W. Slocum. Admirals David Farragut and David Dixon Porter represent the Navy. Members of the cabinet include Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of State William H. Seward, and Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. Members of Congress include Senator Henry B. Anthony of Rhode Island, Senator William P. Fessenden of Maine, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, and Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax of Indiana. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase represents the U.S. Supreme Court. New York newspaper editors Horace Greeley, Henry J. Raymond, and James Gordon Bennett are also present. Prominent women include First Lady Mary Lincoln, Ann S. Stephens (dime novelist and magazine editor), Miriam Folline Squier (wife of Leslie’s former editor-in-chief and Leslie’s future wife), Julia Dent Grant (wife of Ulysses S. Grant), Kate Chase Sprague (daughter of Chief Justice and wife of Rhode Island Senator), and Adele Cutts Douglas (widow of Stephen A. Douglas). Others identified in the key include Ephraim G. Squier (Leslie’s former editor-in-chief, archaeologist, and U.S. commissioner to Peru), Governor Andrew G. Curtin of Pennsylvania and Ambassador to Russia Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky.Despite Leslie’s copyright, Anton Hohenstein created a very similar image entitled "Lincoln’s Last Reception," which also featured Lincoln’s meeting General Ulysses S. Grant’s wife Julia. Published by John Smith in Philadelphia in 1865 and hand-colored, "Lincoln’s Last Reception" also included more than thirty military and political leaders and a few prominent women among the onlookers in the ballroom.Frank Leslie’s Chimney Corner (1865-1884) was a weekly family newspaper published "every Tuesday" in New York by Frank Leslie. Each illustrated issue of sixteen pages contained serial fiction, short stories, poetry, biographies, history, travel sketches, natural history anecdotes, and other subjects. According to th. (See website for full description)
John Marshall’s Supreme Court Decides Osborn et al. v. The Bank of the United States

John Marshall’s Supreme Court Decides Osborn et al. v. The Bank of the United States, landmark 11th Amendment Case

JOHN MARSHALL Newspaper. Daily National Intelligencer, March 22, 1824. Washington, DC: Gales & Seaton. Opinion for the Supreme Court in Osborn et al. v. The Bank of the United States fills pages 3 and 4. 4 pp. "[T]he Eleventh Amendment, which restrains the jurisdiction granted by the Constitution over suits against States, is, of necessity, limited to those suits in which a State is a party on the record."Ohio levied taxes on each branch of the U.S. Bank in the state. The Court had already ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that such taxes were unconstitutional, but Ohio persisted in enforcing the tax. Ralph Osborn, the State Auditor, seized funds from the Bank. The circuit court ordered Osborn and his colleagues to repay the amount seized. The question is Osborn was, did the federal circuit court’s assertion of jurisdiction violate the Eleventh Amendment? In a 6-to-1 decision, the Court upheld the circuit and ruled that the Ohio law was "repugnant to the Constitution." Osborn and his colleagues were thus "incontestably liable for the full amount of the money taken out of the bank."This issue includes a first printing of the landmark Supreme Court decision in the case of Osborn et al. v. The Bank of the United States. The Court announced its decision on Friday, March 19, 1824, and this printing appeared on Monday, March 22. Excerpts:"At the close of the argument, a point was suggested, of such vital importance, as to induce the Court to request that it might be particularly spoken to. That point is, the right of the Bank to sue in the Courts of the United States. It has been argued, and ought to be disposed of, before we proceed to the actual exercise of jurisdiction, by deciding on the rights of the parties."The appellants contest the jurisdiction of the Court on two grounds:"1st. That the act of Congress has not given it."2d. That, under the constitution, Congress cannot give it." (p3/c1)"The act of incorporation, then, confers jurisdiction on the Circuit Courts of the United States, if Congress can confer it." (p3/c2)"We perceive, then, no ground on which the proposition can be maintained, that Congress is incapable of giving the Circuit Courts original jurisdiction, in any case to which the appellate jurisdiction extends." (p3/c2)"The eleventh amendment of the constitution has exempted a State from the suits of citizens of other States, or aliens; and the very difficult question is to be decided, whether, in such a case, the Court may act upon the agents employed by the State, and on the property in their hands." (p4/c1)"in all cases where jurisdiction depends on the party, it is the party named in the record."Consequently, the 11th amendment, which restrains the jurisdiction granted by the constitution over suits against states, is, of necessity, limited to those suits in which a State is a party on the record." (p4/c3)Historical BackgroundDuring the Banking Crisis of 1819, many banks, including the Second Bank of the United States, demanded repayment of loans, leading to a shortage of money. In February 1819, the Ohio state legislature passed a law to collect a tax on any banks operating within the state contrary to the laws of the state. It also authorized state Auditor Ralph Osborn (1780-1835) to charge $50,000 for each office of any such bank after September 15, 1819, and to seize assets to pay such taxes.On September 14, 1819, the Bank obtained an injunction in the U.S. Circuit Court of Ohio to prohibit Osborn from seizing funds from a branch of the Bank in Ohio. Despite the injunction, Osborn’s agents seized $100,000 from the Bank at Chillicothe on September 17 and placed $98,000 in the state treasury. Osborn used the remaining $2,000 to pay his agents. The Bank sued Osborn and the state treasurer for the return of the money, and the U.S. Circuit Court ruled against Osborn and the treasurer and ordered them to restore the $100,000 to the bank, with interest of $19,830. The circuit court ruled tha. (See website for full description)
Pownall’s New Map of North America

Pownall’s New Map of North America, 1794

THOMAS POWNALL Map. A New Map of North America with the West India Islands, divided according to the Preliminary Articles of Peace, Signed at Versailles, 20, Jan 1783, wherein are particularly Distinguished The United States, and the Several Provinces, Governments &ca which Compose the British Dominions, Laid down according to the Latest Surveys, and Corrected from the Original Materials of Goverr. Pownall, Membr. of Parlimt. London: Laurie and Whittle, 12th May, 1794. Large engraved map with contemporary outline coloring, on 4 sheets joined to approx. 47 x 43 in. With elaborate figural title cartouche of a Native American family group, additional cartouche and inset maps of Baffin & Hudson’s Bay. Based on Bowen & Gibson’s 1755 Treaty of Paris map detailing the end of the French and Indian War. Several articles of the treaty are engraved in the map’s blank ocean areas.Although the map shows an extensive "Sea of California," the inset map of California notes, "The Passage by Land to California, Discover’d by Father Eusebius Francis Kino a Jesuit, between the Years 1698 and 1701, before which, and for a Considerable Time Since California has always been described in all Charts and Maps as an Island."Phillips p. 589; Tooley The Mapping of America 49(f): "The eastern boundary of the Province of New York has been moved from the eastern shores of Lake Champlain and now runs along the Connecticut River. The title of N. Carolina has been inserted in two lines."ConditionA few short marginal tears, light toning.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Allowance to his Son

Franklin D. Roosevelt Allowance to his Son

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT Autograph Letter Signed, to Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., ca. 1936. 1 p., 8 x 10 in. A rare and fully handwritten letter from President Franklin Roosevelt to his son regarding his allowance! Complete TranscriptDearest F, Here is check for $500 allowance (still due $1,000 less your term bill which I paid)! Also $100 to bring you safely home on Friday to your old PaLove to EthelHistorical BackgroundA very personal handwritten letter by President Roosevelt to his son and namesake, while the latter was a college student. Although undated, the letter was probably written around 1936. The President mentions paying a term bill, and the younger Roosevelt attended Harvard University from 1933 to 1937, when he graduated.The President sends his greetings to Ethel du Pont (1916-1965), whom Franklin Jr. married in June 1937. She was the first of Franklin Jr.’s five wives, and they had two sons before divorcing in 1949.Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) was born in New York into an elite family. He graduated from Harvard University in 1903 and attended Columbia Law School but dropped out after passing the bar in 1907. He married his distant cousin Eleanor Roosevelt in 1905, and they had six children between 1906 and 1916. Surprising everyone by gaining election to the New York Senate from a strongly Republican district, Democrat Roosevelt served from 1911 to 1913, when President Woodrow Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He served in that position until 1920. He campaigned as the Democratic candidate for Vice President in 1920, but illness in 1921 left him paralyzed from the waist down. He served as governor of New York from 1929 to 1932, when he won the presidential election over unpopular incumbent Herbert Hoover. He went on to win reelection three times, serving as president from 1933 to his death in 1945, the longest term of any president in U.S. history. His response to the Great Depression of the 1930s was the New Deal, a series of measures to combat widespread unemployment, falling farm prices and industrial production, and homelessness. He also led the nation through World War II, effectively inspiring and mobilizing the nation to confront Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in alliance with Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. (1914-1988) was born at his parents’ summer home in New Brunswick, Canada. He graduated from Groton School in 1933, and in 1936, he contracted a streptococcal throat infection, which became life-threatening. He was successfully treated with a new antibacterial drug and avoided dangerous surgery. In 1937, he graduated from Harvard University, and in 1940 from the University of Virginia School of Law. He served as a junior naval officer in World War II and was decorated for bravery. After the war, he practiced law in several New York firms. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1949 to 1955, but had an unimpressive career there. He ran for attorney general of New York in 1954 and for governor in 1966, but lost both times. He campaigned for John F. Kennedy in 1960, and Kennedy appointed him as Under-Secretary of Commerce, but after Kennedy’s assassination, Roosevelt largely lost influence. He married five times, divorced each of his first four wives, and had a total of five children.
J. P. Morgan Signs Dividend Declaration Twice

J. P. Morgan Signs Dividend Declaration Twice, for His Father and for First President of Union Pacific Railroad

J. PIERPONT MORGAN Partially Printed Document Signed, Dividends Paid to Stockholders of Oswego & Syracuse Railroad Company, August 20, 1863. J. P. Morgan signs twice, as attorney for stockholders Junius P. Morgan and "William H. Ogden" [William B. Ogden]. 2 pp., 13 1/2 x 9 1/2 in. On August 10, 1863, the Oswego & Syracuse Railroad Company declared Dividend No. Twenty, which was payable on or after August 20, 1863. Junius S. Morgan held 180 shares of stock in the company, and his 3.5 percent dividend on the capital stock was $315. J. Pierpont Morgan signed for his father "Junius S. Morgan by his atty J. Pierpont Morgan" on August 20. William H. Ogden held 108 shares, and his dividend was $189. J. Pierpont Morgan signed for Ogden’s divided as "James Tinker Atty by his atty J. Pierpont Morgan" on August 21. These two pages contain the names of eighteen stockholders, together with their number of shares, dividends, dates of receipt in August and September 1863, and their signatures or those of their agents. Historical BackgroundOrganizers formed the Oswego and Syracuse Railroad in April 1839 and surveyed the thirty-five-mile route that summer from Oswego, New York, on Lake Ontario, to Syracuse, New York, south of the Erie Canal. The original capital stock was 7,000 shares of $50 each. In 1847, the New York state legislature passed an act allowing the railroad to carry freight, so long as it paid tolls to the state. In 1853, the railroad consolidated with the Syracuse, Binghamton and New York Railroad. In June 1854, the stockholders authorized the issue of 2,800 shares increased stock to the original stockholders on a pro rata basis.In 1863, the railroad earned $159,758 against expenses of $79,698. In 1864, earnings rose to $218,999 against expenses of $106,938. In that year, it had 6 engines, 10 passenger cars, 3 baggage, mail and express cars, and 51 freight cars, running over nearly 86 miles of track. During the fiscal years ending September 30, 1863, and September 30, 1864, the railroad paid out $39,228.50 in dividends each year.John Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913) was born in Connecticut and had a varied education at the direction of his financier father. He entered the English High School in Boston but soon had to leave because of rheumatic fever. He recuperated in the Azores for almost a year before returning to the English High School in 1853. After he graduated, he studied in Switzerland and at the University of Göttingen. He began his banking career in London in 1857, then moved to New York City in 1858. During the Civil War, he avoided service by paying a substitute $300. From 1860 to 1864, as J. Pierpont Morgan & Company, he acted as the New York agent for his father’s firm. In 1871, he partnered with Anthony J. Drexel, who served as a mentor to Morgan. In 1895, after Drexel died, Morgan renamed the firm "J. P. Morgan & Company," but it maintained close ties with the Drexels in Philadelphia, his father’s company in London, and another in Paris. Morgan had many business partners but always maintained control of the partnerships. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Morgan played important roles in the formation of General Electric, United States Steel Corporation, International Harvester, and AT&T. His company was also a major underwriter of twenty-four major railroads. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907 and became the leading financier of the Progressive Era. His commitment to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business in the early twentieth century.Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-1890) was born in Massachusetts and began his business career in 1829 in Boston and demonstrated great business ability. He married in 1836, and his oldest son was John Pierpont Morgan. The elder Morgan was involved in dry goods importing and retailing from 1836 to 1853. During this period, he met London banker George Peabody and entered George Peabody & Company as . (See website for full description)
Teddy Roosevelt Attacks Republican Committee for Robbing Him of Presidential Return

Teddy Roosevelt Attacks Republican Committee for Robbing Him of Presidential Return

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Partial Autograph Draft of a Speech, June 17, 1912. Front and back of a single sheet of imprinted Congress Hotel and Annex letterhead. 2 pp., 6 x 9 1/2 in. "the National Committee can not defeat the wishes of the rank and file of the Republican voters by unseating delegates honestly elected & seated." With note on verso, "I think I could probably be nominated"After former president Theodore Roosevelt won nine of thirteen Republican primaries in 1912, he was convinced that he was the choice of the people to succeed fellow Republican William Howard Taft. After the Republican National Committee refused to seat Roosevelt delegates instead of Taft delegates chosen by state committees, Roosevelt cried foul. Most of his delegates abstained from voting, and Taft just reached the number of delegates needed for the nomination.In response, Roosevelt formed his own Progressive Party and divided the Republican vote, allowing Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the general election. Complete TranscriptWe rest our case, not only before the Republican voters, but before the American people, upon the proposition, first, that the National Committee can not by fraudulent means defeat the wishes of the rank and file of the Republican voters by unseating delegates honestly elected & seated; and second, that those who are dishonestly placed substituted for them by the national committee must not be permitted to vote on their own cases and to be the beneficiaries of fraud committed in their own behalf. [Letterhead]1 no minority reportVirginia 78[1]"I think I could probably be nominated"Historical BackgroundRepublican Theodore Roosevelt had served as President of the United States from 1901 to 1909, and he helped ensure that his successor would be his Secretary of War William Howard Taft. While Roosevelt had become more progressive over the course of his presidency, President Taft took a more conservative direction. Progressive Republicans wanted a new candidate in 1912, and Roosevelt decided to seek a return to the presidency.On the evening before the opening of the five-day Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt accused the Republican National Committee of "political theft." Roosevelt declared, "Tonight we come together to protest against a crime which strikes straight at the heart of every principle of political decency and honesty, a crime which represents treason to the people, and the usurpation of the sovereignty of the people by irresponsible political bosses, inspired by the sinister influences of moneyed privilege."This document is a draft of a part that appears about halfway through the speech. This speech was the first in which Roosevelt used the phrase, "we stand at Armageddon, and we battle for the Lord!" (Full Text of Theodore Roosevelt’s Speech, June 17, 1912).Roosevelt had won 9 of 13 Republican primaries. Taft won only two states, and Progressive reformer Robert M. La Follette Sr. won the other two. The total delegates from the states with primaries were 290 for Roosevelt, 124 for Taft, and 36 for La Follette. However, most states selected delegates in party conventions, where Taft’s supporters were stronger.As the Convention opened, no candidate had the 540 delegates necessary for nomination. Taft’s supporters won contests over seating delegates, and Roosevelt claimed that several delegations were seated fraudulently. In the final balloting, Taft received 561 votes, Roosevelt 107, and La Follette 41. In protest, 344 delegates, mostly Roosevelt supporters, abstained.Roosevelt then led in the creation of the Progressive Party. At their Convention in August, Roosevelt declared that "The nomination of Mr. Taft at Chicago was obtained only by defrauding the rank and file of the party of their right to express their choice; and such fraudulent action does not bind a single honest member of the party." For a third party, the Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party performed well, but Republican divisions led to t. (See website for full description)
Fascinating Issue of Louisiana Civil War Newspaper

Fascinating Issue of Louisiana Civil War Newspaper, Published on Wallpaper

CIVIL WAR Newspaper. The Southern Sentinel (Alexandria, LA), June 13, 1863, vol. 1, no. 10. Printed on recto of white/green/brown wallpaper as a result of a paper shortage throughout the South. There are no auction records for this edition. 1 p., 17 3/4 x 25 1/2 in. irregular. This extremely rare issue is printed in seven large columns and contains "nearly as much reading matter as a full [four-page] sheet in former times." It includes a wealth of Civil War material on military and naval affairs, slavery, conscription, war bonds, local news, the deaths of Generals Earl Van Dorn and Stonewall Jackson, the costs of publishing a newspaper, various notices, and even a few advertisements. Excerpts: "The SOUTHERN SENTINEL, though not an official paper being published at the Headquarters of the commanding Generals of the Department and District and of the Governor of the State, where the latest intelligence is received every day, will always be able to give its readers reliable information of all the interesting and important events transpiring throughout the Confederacy, as well as the most recent Northern and foreign news." (c1) "The upward tendency of our expenses has compelled us to make the change in our terms, which we this week announce, we will not for the present take any yearly subscriptions, and for 6 months we shall charge the same as we have heretofore done for 12, viz: 5 dollars, payable invariably in advance. The cost of each paper already furnished to subscribers, has far exceeded the price demanded, whilst single copies have been sold at a very little over actual cost." (c1)"Yankee Outrages. "The Confederate Congress some time since, passed an act for the purpose of making a record of the heretofore unheard of enormities and outrages perpetrated by the Federal armies in this war. A record to show to posterity and foreign nations the true character of a people who boast of their superior refinement and elevated morality." (c1)"Enforcing the Conscription. "We understand that there has been a good deal of activity displayed lately by the military authorities here, in enforcing the Conscription Act.-This we regard as eminently necessary, and we have long wondered that a measure so essentially vital to the successful defense of the country, has not been put in vigorous execution long before, when it might, and no doubt would have greatly strengthened the army of the Confederacy." (c2) "We are glad to see that the Democrat still urges the condign punishment of the most conspicuous ringleaders, among the negro mutineers in the late raid, although we are much surprised that any such remained to be punished. We suppose, however, they thought they had a dead sure thing of it, could do as they pleased the rest of their lives, and therefore did not make tracks until it was too late to do so. We also have heard of several instances of the most outrageous insolence-one of which was a negro on a plantation on Bayou Boeuf, ordering his master off his horse, and mounting it himself, boasting that it was the nigger’s turn to rid now, and white men must walk. We hope therefore, with the Democrat, that the Commandant of the Post, if has the authority, and it seems that he has, to act Alcalde Criminal Judge or any thing else he pleases, will take up the matter in earnest, and if he has not, that some other officer will. It will not do to be squeamish in such a matter, and a strong rope and short shrift is the best way of disposing of it." (c2)"The Late Gen. Van Dorn-A Card from his Staff. "We the undersigned members of the late Gen. Van Dorn’s staff, having seen with pain and regret the various rumors afloat in the public press, in relation to the circumstances attending that officer’s death, deem it our duty to make a plain statement of the facts in the case. "Gen. Van Dorn was shot in his own room, at Spring Hill, Tenn., by Dr. Peters, a citizen of that neighborhood. He was shot in the back of the head, whil. (See website for full description)
Lincoln Rises to Top of "The Political Gymnasium" in Currier & Ives 1860 Presidential Election Print

Lincoln Rises to Top of "The Political Gymnasium" in Currier & Ives 1860 Presidential Election Print

ABRAHAM LINCOLN Print. The Political Gymnasium, lithograph cartoon. New York: Currier & Ives, 1860. Backed by linen. 1 p., 17 1/2 x 12 3/4 in. This political cartoon created by artist Louis Maurer for Currier & Ives lampoons the candidates for the presidency in 1860.[1] On the left, Constitutional Union vice presidential candidate Edward Everett of Massachusetts holds up his running mate John Bell of Tennessee while saying, "There is nothing like having the Constitution, to give us strength to put up this Bell successfully." Bell confidently declares, "I have perfect confidence in Mr Everett’s ability to uphold me." Beside them, Horace Greeley of the New-York Tribune attempts to pull up on a bar labeled "Nom. for Governor" and moans, "I’ve been practising at it a long time, but can never get up muscle enough to get astride of this bar."In the center, Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln straddles a tall sawhorse of split rails and declares, "You must do as I did Greely, get somebody to give you a boost, I’m sure I never could have got up here by my own efforts." Beneath Lincoln, Republican editor James Watson Webb of the Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer boasts, "I’ll bet a quarter I can beat any man in the party at turning political Summersets." To the right Northern Democratic presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois boxes with Southern Democratic presidential candidate John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. As Douglas says, "Come at me Breck, and after you cry enough I’ll take a round with the rest of them," Breckinridge responds, "If I do nothing else I can at least prevent you from pulling Lincoln down." At the far right, Republican Senator William H. Seward of New York appears on crutches and says to Lincoln, "You’d better be careful my friend, that you don’t tumble off; as I did before I was fairly on, for if you do you’ll be as badly crippled as I am."Historical BackgroundCurrier & Ives produced prints intended for sale to the general public for display in homes and workplaces. Their images provided a historical depiction of America’s development from an agricultural to an industrialized society. Currier & Ives did not support a specific political party, but its political cartoons captured the strengths and foibles of all candidates. Their complicated cartoon images required readers to interpret the text and pictures in the context of current political events. For many voters, Currier & Ives prints were important to their understanding of candidates and issues in elections. An 1892 study of political caricature concluded that "caricatures relating to the great campaign of 1860 were the most successful of the kind ever issued in this country."[2]The election of 1860 was a four-way race among Lincoln, Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrat John Breckinridge, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. Each man had a particular view on the expansion of slavery, which had become the dominant issue in American politics. Lincoln opposed slavery and especially its expansion; Douglas remained committed to "popular sovereignty," his plan to let each state’s voters decide slavery’s status for themselves; Breckinridge was the unabashedly proslavery candidate; and John Bell ran on the single issue of preserving the Union above all else (with slavery).Lincoln quickly rose to the top of the electoral pack, though he won the White House without a single electoral vote from any southern state. Here, Douglas’ position of popular sovereignty is shown to be checked by John Breckenridge, essentially splitting the proslavery vote. Bell is supported by his popular vice presidential candidate, Edward Everett, who had been Massachusetts Governor and Senator, U.S. Secretary of State, and President of Harvard University. Because he was the initial favorite but lost the Republican nomination to Lincoln, Seward appears on crutches. In the election, Breckenridge took second place, carr. (See website for full description)
Remarkable Linen Textile

Remarkable Linen Textile, Rich in Patriotic Imagery, is Rare Icon of the American Revolution

GEORGE WASHINGTON Textile. "America Presenting at the Altar of Liberty Medallions of Her Illustrious Sons" ca. 1783-1785. 26 1/4 x 44 in. This copper-plate printed textile displays a kneeling neoclassical plumed goddess representing "America" presenting medallions of her heroes at the altar of a seated "Liberty," while a winged angel "Fame" or "Victory" blows a trumpet with a banner "Washington and Indpendance" and crowns George Washington with a laurel wreath. Washington is guided by a female figure of "Peace." An inscription at the base of the altar gives the piece’s title, "AMERICA PRESENTING AT THE ALTAR OF LIBERTY MEDALLIONS OF HER ILLUSTRIOUS SONS." The medallions feature Baron von Steuben, Gouvernour Morris and John Jay, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin (in fur cap), Samuel Huntington and John Dickinson, Charles Thomson and William Drayton, and John Adams and Henry Laurens. The image of Washington is a reversal of the 1780 John Trumbull painting of the general. The medallions are based on portrait drawings of famous Americans by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere (1737-1784), engraved by Benoit Louis Prevost (1735-1804), and published by William Richardson, in London, 1783.Historical BackgroundThe new American nation embraced a new taste for classical symbolism to illustrate components of its government and republican civic culture. Elites expressed these neoclassical values through oratory and dress, as well as in architecture, painting, sculpture, and the decorative arts.The textile was likely woven and printed in England for an American market.ConditionGenerally, very good. A few minor frays, holes, and cloth folds. Print was originally deep red on white ground.
John Bull Making A New Batch of Ships to send to the Lakes" – a Scottish-born American Illustrator Satirizes British Losses on Great Lakes and Lake Champlain

John Bull Making A New Batch of Ships to send to the Lakes" – a Scottish-born American Illustrator Satirizes British Losses on Great Lakes and Lake Champlain

WAR OF 1812. WILLIAM CHARLES Print. John Bull making a new Batch of Ships to send to the Lakes, engraved satirical aquatint cartoon. Philadelphia, [October, 1814]. 1 p., 12 3/4 x 9 1/4 in. Excellent condition. Oliver Hazard Perry’s victory in the Battle of Lake Erie caused the loss of the British fleet there in September, 1813. Then, in September 1814, Thomas Macdonough’s victory at the Battle of Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain caused the British, with French Canadian allies and financiers, and British arms makers, to fear that the Yankees might take Canada next. This beautifully colored print by William Charles shows King George III frantically baking more ships to replace those lost to American victories on the Great Lakes. It is a companion to John Bull and the Baltimoreans and Johnny Bull and the Alexandrians. Transcript[King George III slides a batch of frigates into a "Patent Oven for Bakeing Ships":]"Ay! What, What, What! Brother Jonathan taken another whole fleet on the Lakes. Must work away, work away, & send some more or He’ll have Canada next."[a French Canadian assistant holds a "French Dough Trough" and tells the King:]"Begar Monseer Bull me no like dis new Alliance. Dere be one Yankey Man de call Mac Do-enough Take your Ships by de whole Fleet. You better try get him for I never get Do-enough made at dis rate!!!" Another assistant declares, "Here are more Guns for the Lake service. If ever they do but get there. I hear the last you sent were waylaid by a sly Yankey Fox and the ship being a Stranger, he has taken her in."[a third assistant, holding another tray of frigates, warns:]"I tell you what Master Bull, You had better keep both your Ships and Guns at home. If you send all you’ve got to the Lakes, it will only make fun for the Yankeys to take them."Historical BackgroundIn May 1814, Thomas Macdonough Jr. (1783-1825), in command of U.S. naval forces on Lake Champlain, protected his fleet by transferring his guns to a shore battery that repelled the British squadron. Macdonough then transferred his squadron to Plattsburgh, New York, to await a British advance and defend the army of American General Alexander Macomb. On September 11, 9,000 British regulars under General George Prevost and a squadron of sixteen ships and gunboats under Captain George Downie began a combined assault. Macdonough had anchored his fleet in Plattsburgh Bay to force the British to engage at close range, where their firepower would be roughly equal. Downie sailed his ships into the bay. In early fighting, a broadside killed or wounded one-fifth of the crew of Macdonough’s flagship. But a few minutes later, an American shot exploded a British cannon, killing Downie. The two flagships dueled to a standstill, when Macdonough cut an anchor, spinning his ship around. Facing the undamaged guns on its port side, the British flagship and three other ships surrendered, while their gunboats withdrew. General Prevost realized he could not hold Plattsburgh without naval support and retreated into Canada. Taken with news of the nearly simultaneous defense of Baltimore, victory at Plattsburgh gave American negotiators at Ghent the power to successfully demand exclusive rights over Lake Champlain and shared rights to the Great Lakes.The cartoon also slyly references the capture by the Fox, a Portsmouth, New Hampshire, privateer, of the Quebec-bound HM transport Stranger on September 8, 1814. The Fox rerouted the captured ship to Salem, Massachusetts, depriving the British forces on Lake Ontario of 66 pieces of cannon, 300 boxes of ammunition, and blankets.ReferenceLanmon, Lorraine Welling, "American Caricature in the English Tradition: The Personal and Political Satires of William Charles," article in Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 11, 1976, pp. 1-51. OCLC locates only the AAS copy, but LOC’s online catalog shows a similar color example, and also mentions a black & white example.
Johnny Bull and the Alexandrians" War of 1812 Cartoon Ridiculing Alexandria’s Surrender without a Fight

Johnny Bull and the Alexandrians" War of 1812 Cartoon Ridiculing Alexandria’s Surrender without a Fight

WAR OF 1812. WILLIAM CHARLES Print. Johnny Bull and the Alexandrians, satirical engraved aquatint cartoon. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [October, 1814]. 1 p., 13 x 9 in. "Push on Jack, the yankeys are not all so Cowardly as these Fellows here. let’s make the best of our time."This cartoon mocks the citizens of Alexandria, who easily capitulated to a small British fleet in August 1814. As part of the terms of surrender, John Bull, dressed as a sailor with a sword in one hand and "Terms of Capitulation" in the other, confiscates their property.Williams Charles’ images were based loosely on Thomas Rowlandson’s 1798 satire, "High Fun for John Bull or the Republicans Put to Their last Shift." Transcript[Johnny Bull:] I must have all your Flour—All your Tobacco—All your Provisions—All your ships—All your Merchandize—Every thing except your Porter and Perry keep them out of my sight, I’ve had enough of them already.— [Two frightened Alexandrians, kneeling, on left:] Pray Mr Bull don’t be too hard with us— you know we were always friendly, even in time of your Embargo![British Soldier:] Push on Jack, the yankeys are not all so cowardly as these Fellows here. Let’s make the best of your time.—[Jack:] Huzza Boys!!! More Rum more Tobacco!—Historical BackgroundThe British declared a blockade of the American coast early in the War of 1812, but most of the fighting took place along the American-Canadian border. In mid-1814, the British shifted their attention southward with an expeditionary force sent into Chesapeake Bay. Led by Major General Robert Ross (1766-1814) and Admiral Alexander Cochrane (1758-1832), the British forces captured and burned many government buildings in Washington, D.C. on August 24.Three days later, Gordon’s naval expedition opened fire on Fort Washington, eight miles below the capital and the last line of defense before Alexandria. The Americans abandoned the fort after spiking its guns. As the British were removing gunpowder, a massive explosion shook the town of Alexandria.On Sunday, August 28, the mayor of Alexandria asked Gordon for terms of surrender. Because it was Sunday, Gordon told the mayor to return and he would bring up his squadron on Monday. Facing 128 guns of the British squadron, to avoid the destruction of the town, the mayor and Common Council surrendered on August 29. They agreed to turn over all merchant ships and their cargoes. The British acquired twenty-two merchant ships and vast quantities of supplies, including flour, cotton, tobacco, wines, and cigars. After a short occupation, Gordon’s force returned down the Potomac, somewhat slowed by now heavily-laden ships that ran aground and by harassing fire from American militia batteries on the heights above the river. Gordon rejoined the main British fleet in the Chesapeake on September 9.William Charles (1776-1820) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and trained in England. He spent his early career in Edinburgh and London and arrived in the United States around 1806. He became a publisher and engraver in line, stipple, and aquatint and was active in New York and Philadelphia in the first two decades of the nineteenth century. He published works of adult fiction and children’s books, some of which included his engravings. He is best known for his caricatures, most of which address events from the War of 1812. He produced at least fifteen, most tweaking Great Britain for its defeats by Americans. Charles’ political cartoons "aroused more public interest than any produced in America before."
President Andrew Johnson’s Copy of "New-York Daily Tribune" Detailing Proposed Regulations for Alaska

President Andrew Johnson’s Copy of "New-York Daily Tribune" Detailing Proposed Regulations for Alaska

ALASKA Newspaper. New-York Tribune, July 17, 1868. Featuring the terms of the "Aliaska" Bill as passed by the Senate. Copy belonging to President Andrew Johnson. New York: Horace Greeley. 8 pp., 18 x 23 3/4 in. This copy is stamped "THE PRESIDENT" at the top of the front page, indicating it belonged to President Andrew Johnson. The President would have read this copy of the act before Congress submitted it to him with some amendments on July 25. The report uses the early variant spelling of "Aliaska" for the territory and peninsula. Excerpts:"Be it enacted, &c. That the laws of the United States relating to customs, commerce and navigation be, and the same are hereby extended to and over all the mainland, islands and waters of the territory ceded to the United States by the Emperor of Russia." (p1/c2)"And be it further enacted, that all the said territory, with its ports, harbors, bays, rivers and waters, shall constitute a customs collection district, to be called ‘The District of Aliaska,’ for which said district a port of entry shall be established at some convenient point to be designated by the President at or near the town of Sitka, or New-Archangel, and a Collector of Customs shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall reside at said port of entry, and who shall receive an annual salary of $2,500." (p1/c2)"That the President shall have the power to restrict and regulate or to prohibit the importation or use of firearms, ammunition, and distilled spirits into and within said territory." (p1/c2)"That, until otherwise provided by law, the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President, shall have power to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem proper for the preservation of fur-bearing animals from indiscriminate destruction, provided that no special permits shall be granted under this act." (p1/c2)Historical BackgroundAfter suffering defeat at the hands of the British and the French in the Crimean War of 1853-1856, Russia feared losing the Alaskan territory in some future conflict. In an effort to protect Russian interests, Tsar Alexander II (1818-1881) determined to sell Alaska. After offering it in 1859 to the United Kingdom, Russia negotiated a sale to the United States, finalized in 1867. At the time, the territory primarily offered fur trading and some natural resources. Americans generally supported the purchase and believed it enhanced American interests in the Pacific, though some critics labeled it "Seward’s Folly," after Secretary of State William H. Seward, who had negotiated the purchase for the United States. Most newspaper editors, especially those in California, were enthusiastic about the purchase. Notable among the critics was Horace Greeley, the editor of this newspaper and a long-time opponent of Seward. The value of the new territory increased dramatically with the discovery of gold fields in 1896.The Senate ratified the Treaty with Russia on April 9, 1867, by a vote of 37 to 2. On July 14, 1868, the House of Representatives passed a resolution appropriating the $7.2 million necessary to purchase Alaska (less than two cents per acre), and the Senate approved the resolution with amendments. The House refused the amendments, and the resolution went to a committee. The House passed the resolution as revised by the conference committee on July 23, and the Senate passed it the following day.Meanwhile, on July 15, Senator Zachariah Chandler of Michigan introduced "An Act to extend the Laws of the United States relating to the Customs, Commerce, and Navigation over the Territory ceded to the United States by Russia, to establish a Collection District therein, and for other Purposes," and the Senate passed it on July 16. In the House, Representative Elihu B. Washburne of Illinois proposed amendments on July 25, and the House agreed to them. The Senate disagreed with the amendments, and this . (See website for full description)
John Bull and the Baltimoreans" Lampooning British Defeat at Fort McHenry in Baltimore Following their Earlier Success at Alexandria

John Bull and the Baltimoreans" Lampooning British Defeat at Fort McHenry in Baltimore Following their Earlier Success at Alexandria

WAR OF 1812. WILLIAM CHARLES Print. John Bull and the Baltimoreans. Satirical engraved aquatint cartoon. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [October, 1814]. 1 p., 12 1/2 x 9 in. "Mercy! mercy on me. What fellows those Baltimoreans are. After the example of the Alexandrians I thought I had nothing to do but enter the Town and carry off the Booty. And here is nothing but Defeat and Disgrace!!"A masterpiece of design and composition. Per Wikipedia’s extensive entry on these prints, "Charles, despite being a native Scot, had no compunction in displaying Scots accents out of the mouths of the enemy in the dialogue here, perhaps for humorous reasons as well as accuracy." Italicized text is a transcript from our print.Transcript[American soldier prodding John Bull:] "Oh! hoh! — Johnny you thought you had Alexandrians to deal with did you — But we’ll teach you to know what a flogging is!!!"[John Bull:] "Mercy! mercy on me — What fellows those Baltimoreans are — After the example of the Alexandrians I thought I had nothing to do but enter the Town and carry off the Booty — And here is nothing but Defeat and Disgrace!!!"[Mounted officer, possibly Admiral Cockburn, urging the British on:] "What’s the Matter! you Cowardly rascals! Back back and execute the orders of your Government –We must attack every point that’s assailable!"[a Highlander replies:] "In gude troth Admiral I think ye are as mad as our government Dinna ye ken the General’s kilt — ye must only attack sie places as Hampton, Havre de Grace, & Alexandria."[an American sniper in the background firing at General Robert Ross:] "Now for this Chap on Horseback with the plaid Bonnet on — There – there’s a Rifle pill for you — Thats a quietus."[Ross:] "Deil [sic] tak that Republican rascal wi his Rifle gun for he’s blawn my brains out."Historical BackgroundHaving burned the Capitol and captured Alexandria without a fight, the British sailed up the Chesapeake. On September 12, their army and navy attempted a combined assault on Baltimore. Thanks in part to a storm (likely a hurricane) that hit the fleet right after the burning of Washington, and in part due to the foray into Alexandria, the Americans had just enough time to strengthen critical American defenses and organize resistance. The bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbor failed, and General Ross was killed by an American sniper. The British retreat provided America with a major morale boost after the destruction of Washington.
Ulysses Grant’s Victory Message - Congratulating His Army for Victory over all "armed opposition" - and for Abolition of Slavery

Ulysses Grant’s Victory Message – Congratulating His Army for Victory over all "armed opposition" – and for Abolition of Slavery

ULYSSES. S. GRANT Printed Document. General Orders No. 108. Washington, D.C., June 2, 1865. 1 p., 5 x 7 1/4 in. Two hole punches on left side. Soldiers of the Armies of the United States: By your patriotic devotion to your country in the hour of danger and alarm-your magnificent fighting, bravery, and endurance-you have maintained the supremacy of the Union and the Constitution, overthrown all armed opposition to the enforcement of the laws, and of the Proclamation forever abolishing Slavery-the cause and pretext of the Rebellion-and opened the way to the rightful authorities to restore order and inaugurate peace on a permanent and enduring basis on every foot of American soil.Grant thanks his loyal soldiers for all their efforts to preserve the Union, as well as the sacrifices of the war dead. General Orders,} War Department No. 108 Adjutant General’s Office Washington, D.C. June 2, 1865 Soldiers of the Armies of the United States: By your patriotic devotion to your country in the hour of danger and alarm-your magnificent fighting, bravery, and endurance-you have maintained the supremacy of the Union and the Constitution, overthrown all armed opposition to the enforcement of the laws, and of the Proclamation forever abolishing Slavery-the cause and pretext of the Rebellion-and opened the way to the rightful authorities to restore order and inaugurate peace on a permanent and enduring basis on every foot of American soil. Your marches, sieges, and battles, in distance, duration, resolution, and brilliancy of result, dim the lustre of the world’s past military achievements, and will be the Patriot’s precedent, in defense of Liberty and Right, in all time to come. In obedience to your country’s call, you left your homes and families and volunteered in its defense. Victory has crowned your valor and secured the purpose of your patriotic hearts; and with the gratitude of your countrymen, and the highest honors a great and free nation can accord, you will soon be permitted to return to your homes and families, conscious of having discharged the highest duty of American citizens. To achieve these glorious triumphs, and secure to yourselves, your fellow-countrymen, and posterity, the blessings of free institutions, tens of thousands of your gallant comrades have fallen, and sealed the priceless legacy with their lives. The graves of these a grateful nation bedews with tears, honors their memories, and will ever cherish and support their stricken families. U.S. Grant Lieutenant GeneralOfficial: Assistant Adjutant GeneralHistorical BackgroundIn his typical, clear prose, U.S. Grant thanks his troops for their efforts during the war. He touches on the major points of the conflict, including the issue of ending slavery, and casts the war in a grand narrative of American history.Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), born in Illinois as Hiram Ulysses Grant, was the leading Union general of the Civil War and the 18th President of the United States. He graduated from West Point in 1843 and served in the Mexican War, but at the start of the Civil War, he was a little-known grocer in Galena, Illinois. In June 1861, he was appointed colonel of the 21st Illinois and quickly rose to prominence in the western theater. His victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga earned him fame and steady promotion. In March 1864, he was named lieutenant general (the first since George Washington) and general-in-chief of all Union armies. On March 8, Grant went to Washington and met Lincoln for the first time. His command was not without controversy. After great numbers of dead at the battle of Shiloh, Lincoln responded to criticisms of Grant by saying, "I can’t spare this man-he fights." To complaints of Grant’s drinking, Lincoln quipped: "Tell me what brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals." Grant remained in the Eastern Theater to take on Robert E. Lee. After the d. (See website for full description)
Harvard College Laws Belonging to Student Caleb Cushing

Harvard College Laws Belonging to Student Caleb Cushing, Future Congressman and U.S. Attorney General, also Signed by Harvard’s President

HARVARD UNIVERSITY Pamphlet Signed. Laws of Harvard College. For the Use of Students. Copy belonging to Sophomore Caleb Cushing, with his signature and that of John Kirkland, President, on page 68. Cambridge: University Press, [ca. September 30] 1814. 84 pp., 5 1/2 x 9 in. Excerpts:"Candidates for admission into Harvard College, shall be examined by the President, Professors, and Tutors." (p3)"All persons, of whatever degree, residing at the College, and all under graduates. shall constantly and seasonably attend the worship of God in the Chapel, and public worship at the usual place on the Lord’s day and upon public fasts and thanksgiving." (p12-13)"The scholars shall keep in their respective chambers, and diligently follow their studies, excepting half an hour after breakfast, from twelve till two, and after evening prayers, until nine o’clock. Undergraduates, absent from their chambers in the hours assigned for study, or after nine o’clock in the evening, without sufficient reasons, shall be fined." (p15)"The students are required to manifest reverence for religion, to respect the laws of morality and the laws of the land, and to observe modesty, civility, and decorum." (p24)"There shall be annually a public examination, to be conducted in such manner, as the Corporation shall direct." (p32)"All the Officers of instruction and government, and Graduates and Undergraduates, who have studies in the College, shall constantly be in commons, while actually residing at the College, vacation times excepted, and shall breakfast, dine, and sup in the Commons halls at stated meal times, except Waiters; saving also in case of sickness, or other necessity." (p40)"The books, most suitable for the use of the Undergraduates . shall be borrowed by them, but by special license. When there are two or more sets . the least elegant shall be lent first." (p46)"The Corporation having made large repairs upon the former edifices of the College, and recently erected costly buildings, uniting accommodation with neatness and elegance; having also, for ornament and use, caused a border of trees and shrubbery to be planted and cultivated around the College grounds, and made other improvements for the benefit of the Students, and the dignity of the University; they rely on the Students to consider the value of such objects of convenience and taste, and the rights of property, and scrupulously to avoid committing waste or damage upon any of the structures, appurtenances, or improvements of the Institution." (p56)Page 68 includes partially manuscript personalization noting the date of Cushing’s admission:"Cantabrigi?, 7 bris die 26mo A D 1813/ Admittatur in Collegium Harvardinum[signed:] Caleb Cushing / [signed] Johannes T. Kirkland Praeses. [pasted in:] #E tabulis Universitatis transcriptum. [University Transcript of the table.]"Historical BackgroundThe General Court of Massachusetts founded Harvard College in 1636. The Harvard Corporation was created by the Charter of 1650 as the college’s primary governing board. In 1810, the Federalist-controlled Massachusetts legislature altered the composition of the Board of Overseers to weaken the power of Republican legislators, limited the number of clerical members of the Board to fifteen and added fifteen laymen. Between 1812-1814, as control of the legislature see-sawed, each side jockeyed for control over the college through the composition of its Board of Overseers. In 1814, with Federalists again in control of the Massachusetts Senate, the 1810 regulation was reinstated and remained in place for forty years, until 1855, when the legislature transferred the election of the Board of Overseers to graduates of the College, a tradition which continues today.The War of 1812 affected Harvard College mostly indirectly. The conflict largely ended cross-Atlantic trade with Great Britain for a time. The College had to get roofing slate from a New York supplier rather than its ori. (See website for full description)
Front-Page Printing of William Henry Harrison’s Deadly Inaugural Address

Front-Page Printing of William Henry Harrison’s Deadly Inaugural Address

WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON Newspaper. National Intelligencer, March 6, 1841. Washington, D.C.: Gales & Seaton. 4 pp., 18 x 23 1/4 in. "If there is one measure better calculated than another to produce that state of things so much deprecated by all true republicans, by which the rich are daily adding to their hoards and the poor sinking deeper into penury, it is an exclusive metallic currency."On a cold, wet day, March 4, 1841, President Harrison delivered the longest inaugural address in history. Harrison wrote the entire speech himself, though it was edited by his soon-to-be Secretary of State, Daniel Webster. Webster said afterwards that in the process of editing the text, he had "killed seventeen Roman proconsuls." Contracting pneumonia, Harrison became the first president to die in office 31 days after delivering this address. His vice president John Tyler became the new president and served out Harrison’s term.In an 8,460-word address, printed here on the front page of the National Intelligencer, Harrison presents a detailed statement of the Whig agenda and a repudiation of the populism and policies of Democratic Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. Harrison promises to reestablish the Bank of the United States, to issue paper currency, to use his veto power sparingly, and to appoint qualified officers of government in contrast to the spoils system that Jackson heralded. He favors term limits, limits on the powers of the presidency, and devotion to the nation rather than party. Harrison avoids specifics on the divisive issue of slavery, which in theory he might have opposed, but of which he was in practice a staunch defender. Excerpts:"We admit of no government by divine right, believing that. the beneficent Creator has made no distinction amongst men; that all are upon an equality, and that the only legitimate right to govern is an express grant of power from the governed. Limited as are the powers which have been granted, still enough have been granted to constitute a despotism if concentrated in one of the departments." (c1)"it is the part of wisdom for a republic to limit the service of that officer at least to whom she has intrusted the management of her foreign relations, the execution of her laws, and the command of her armies and navies to a period so short as to prevent his forgetting that he is the accountable agent, not the principal-the servant, not the master. Until an amendment of the Constitution can be effected, public opinion may secure the desired object, I give my aid to it by renewing the pledge heretofore given that under no circumstances will I consent to serve a second term." (c2)"I consider the veto power.solely as a conservative power, to be used only first, to protect the Constitution from violation; secondly, the people from the effects of hasty legislation where their will has been probably disregarded or not well understood, and, thirdly, to prevent the effects of combinations violative of the rights of minorities." (c3)"The General Government has seized upon none of the reserved rights of the States. As far as any open warfare may have gone, the State authorities have amply maintained their rights. By making the President the sole distributer of all the patronage of the Government the framers of the Constitution do not appear to have anticipated at how short a period it would become a formidable instrument to control the free operations of the State governments.the entire control which the President possesses over the officers who have the custody of the public money, by the power of removal with or without cause, does, for all mischievous purposes at least, virtually subject the treasure also to his disposal. It was certainly a great error in the framers of the Constitution not to have made the officer at the head of the Treasury Department entirely independent of the Executive." (c3)"the delicate duty of devising schemes of revenue should be left whe. (See website for full description)
Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address in Maryland Newspaper

Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address in Maryland Newspaper

ANDREW JACKSON Newspaper. Niles’ Weekly Register, March 7, 1829. Baltimore, Maryland: Hezekiah Niles & Son. 16 pp. (17-32), 6 1/4 x 9 7/8 in. "As long as our Government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of person and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it will be worth defending."Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828 over incumbent John Quincy Adams marked an end to the "Era of Good Feelings," as Jackson’s supporters became the Democratic Party, while those who supported Adams became the National Republicans. In March 1829, Jackson became the first president to take the oath of office on the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol. His inaugural address promised to respect the rights of states and the constitutional limits on the presidency. During Jackson’s two terms, he concluded about seventy treaties with Native Americans in the South and Northwest that initiated a policy of Indian removal to lands further to the west.Also central to Jackson’s administration was the Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833, in which South Carolina declared the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional and therefore null in that state. Although supportive of states’ rights, Jackson insisted on the supremacy of federal law. Congress passed a lower tariff acceptable to South Carolina and also a Force Bill, authorizing the president to use military force against South Carolina. The state backed down, and both sides claimed victory, but the issues remained until the Civil War, three decades later.The end of Jackson’s first term and his second term were dominated by the Bank War, Jackson’s opposition to the recharter of the Second Bank of the United States in 1836. After Congress passed a bill in the summer of 1832 to recharter the Bank, Jackson vetoed it, declaring that the Bank supported the wealthy at the expense of the common man. In the election that fall, Jackson won in a landslide over Henry Clay.Jackson’s war on the Bank, which involved transferring federal monies to state banks, was one of the factors, along with reckless speculation in land and railroads, that led to the Panic of 1837 shortly after Jackson left office.Excerpts:"In administering the laws of Congress, I shall keep steadily in view the limitations as well as the extent of the Executive power, trusting thereby to discharge the functions of my office without transcending its authority. With foreign nations it will be my study to preserve peace and to cultivate friendship on fair and honorable terms." (p28/c2)"The management of the public revenue-that searching operation in all governments-is among the most delicate and important trusts in ours, and it will, of course, demand no inconsiderable share of my official solicitude. Under every aspect in which it can be considered it would appear that advantage must result from the observance of a strict and faithful economy. This I shall aim at the more anxiously both because it will facilitate the extinguishment of the national debt-the unnecessary duration of which is incompatible with real independence-and because it will counteract that tendency to public and private profligacy, which a profuse expenditure of money by the Government is but too apt to engender." (p28/c2)"Considering standing armies as dangerous to free governments in time of peace, I shall not seek to enlarge our present establishment, nor disregard that salutary lesson of political experience which teaches that the military should be held subordinate to the civil power. But the bulwark of our defense is the national militia, which in the present state of our intelligence and population must render us invincible. As long as our Government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of person and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it will be worth defending; (See website for full description)
James Madison’s First Inaugural Address

James Madison’s First Inaugural Address, Asserting Neutral Rights in Prelude to the War of 1812

JAMES MADISON Newspaper. The Repertory, March 14, 1809. Boston, Massachusetts: John & Andrew W. Park. 4 pp., 13 1/4 x 20 1/4 in. "Indulging no passions which trespass on the rights or the repose of other nations, it has been the true glory of the United States to cultivate peace by observing justice, and to entitle themselves to the respect of the nations at war by fulfilling their neutral obligations with the most scrupulous impartiality."When President Thomas Jefferson followed George Washington’s example and declined to seek a third term, he selected James Madison as his successor. Reflecting challenges within his own party, Madison won the Presidency over fellow Democratic-Republican DeWitt Clinton, who was endorsed by some state Federalist parties, by a narrow margin. Madison’s first administration was dominated by growing conflict with Great Britain over British impressment of American sailors and attacks on American shipping that culminated in the War of 1812. Although a supporter of a smaller federal government, Madison asked Congress for appropriations to increase the size of the Army and Navy.Excerpts:"The present situation of the world is indeed without a parallel, and that of our own country full of difficulties. The pressure of these, too, is the more severely felt because they have fallen upon us at a moment when the national prosperity being at a height not before attained, the contrast resulting from the change has been rendered the more striking. Under the benign influence of our republican institutions, and the maintenance of peace with all nations whilst so many of them were engaged in bloody and wasteful wars, the fruits of a just policy were enjoyed in an unrivaled growth of our faculties and resources." (p1/c5)"Indulging no passions which trespass on the rights or the repose of other nations, it has been the true glory of the United States to cultivate peace by observing justice, and to entitle themselves to the respect of the nations at war by fulfilling their neutral obligations with the most scrupulous impartiality. If there be candor in the world, the truth of these assertions will not be questioned; posterity at least will do justice to them." (p1/c5)"To cherish peace and friendly intercourse with all nations having correspondent dispositions; to maintain sincere neutrality toward belligerent nations; to prefer in all cases amicable discussion and reasonable accommodation of differences to a decision of them by an appeal to arms; to exclude foreign intrigues and foreign partialities, so degrading to all countries and so baneful to free ones; to foster a spirit of independence too just to invade the rights of others, too proud to surrender our own, too liberal to indulge unworthy prejudices ourselves and too elevated not to look down upon them in others; to hold the union of the States as the basis of their peace and happiness; to support the Constitution, which is the cement of the Union, as well in its limitations as in its authorities; to respect the rights and authorities reserved to the States and to the people as equally incorporated with and essential to the success of the general system; to avoid the slightest interference with the right of conscience or the functions of religion, so wisely exempted from civil jurisdiction; to preserve in their full energy the other salutary provisions in behalf of private and personal rights, and of the freedom of the press; to observe economy in public expenditures; to liberate the public resources by an honorable discharge of the public debts; to keep within the requisite limits a standing military force, always remembering that an armed and trained militia is the firmest bulwark of republics-that without standing armies their liberty can never be in danger, nor with large ones safe; to promote by authorized means improvements friendly to agriculture, to manufactures, and to external as well as internal commerce; to favor in like man. (See website for full description)
George Washington’s Second Inaugural Address

George Washington’s Second Inaugural Address

GEORGE WASHINGTON Newspaper. Gazette of the United States, March 9, 1793. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: John Fenno. 4 pp., 9 1/2 x 14 3/4 in. "I am again called upon by the voice of my country to execute the functions of its Chief Magistrate."Although Washington wanted to retire after a single term, the members of his cabinet, especially rivals Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, were convinced that he was essential to lead the nation through the next four years. After being again unanimously selected by the Electoral College, Washington delivered his second inaugural address in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall in Philadelphia. At 135 words, it is the shortest inaugural address ever. Complete TranscriptFellow Citizens,I AM again called upon by the voice of my Country to execute the functions of its Chief Magistrate. When the occasion proper for it shall arrive, I shall endeavor to express the high sense I entertain of this distinguished honor, and of the confidence which has been reposed in me, by the people of United America.Previous to the execution of any official act of the President the Constitution requires an oath of office. This oath I am now about to take, and in your presence-that if it shall be found, during my administration of the Government, I have in any instance violated willingly, or knowingly, the injunctions thereof, I may (besides incurring constitutional punishment) be subject to the upbraidings of all, who are now witnesses of the present solemn ceremony. (p3/c3)Additional ContentThis issue also includes proceedings of Congress (p1/c1-p3/c1); a list of acts passed by the second session of the Second Congress (p3/1-2); a list of recent presidential appointments (p3/c3); contradiction of an early rumor of Thomas Jefferson’s intended resignation (p3/c3); prices current on a wide array of goods (p4/c1-2); and a variety of notices and advertisements.George Washington (1732-1799) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, and educated by private tutors. In 1749, he became a surveyor for Culpeper County, Virginia, and spent several years surveying land in western Virginia. Washington fought as an officer in the French and Indian War and the French captured him at Fort Necessity in 1754. He later became General Edward Braddock’s aide-de-camp, and helped rally the troops after Braddock’s death at the disastrous Battle of Monongahela. In 1759, Washington married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis, and they moved to his plantation Mount Vernon, where they raised her two surviving children. Washington was an innovative farmer, owner of hundreds of slaves, and emerging leader in Virginia’s planter elite. Selected as a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, Washington was appointed General and Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army when it was created in June 1775. After victory at Boston, defeat at New York, perilous winter encampments and many more battles, Washington accepted the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, in October 1781. After the Treaty of Paris ended the war officially in October 1783, Washington resigned and briefly retired to private life. He served as a Virginia delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and the Electoral College unanimously elected him the first President of the United States in 1789 and again in 1792. His two terms set many precedents for the Presidency, and he exercised broad powers, appointing all members of the U.S. Supreme Court and establishing the new nation on a firm foundation with the assistance of his Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and his Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. He adopted an isolationist foreign policy, kept the nation out of the French Revolutionary Wars that engulfed Europe, and supported the controversial Jay Treaty. He supported Hamilton’s proposals for the assumption of state debts and the creation of a mint and national bank. He retired again to Mount Vernon i. (See website for full description)
Manuscript Archive of the Eustis Family’s South Carolina Sea Island Cotton Plantation

Manuscript Archive of the Eustis Family’s South Carolina Sea Island Cotton Plantation, 1862-1865

FREDERICK A. EUSTIS Archive, primarily regarding management of South Carolina Sea Island cotton plantation, 1862-1865; entire archive, 1836-1918. In 1862, when Harvard-educated Frederick A. Eustis learned that his step-mother’s South Carolina cotton plantations were going to ruin and that the enslaved African Americans there were suffering, he decided to visit to see for himself. His stepmother had died in 1860, and the executors of her estate were committed Confederates. What Eustis saw and heard on the coast of South Carolina led him to stay to protect the family property. General William T. Sherman gave Eustis written permission to hold his stepmother’s plantation on Lady’s Island and two others-the Gibbs Plantation on Lady’s Island and the Fuller Plantation on Wassa Island.Though he had some antebellum experience in helping to manage his stepmother’s plantation on annual visits, it was a challenging task for Eustis to oversee the production of crops on multiple plantations as the area transitioned from slave to free labor. The notebooks in this archive offer insights into his careful management and distribution of labor and the planning that went into his efforts. In 1863, when the federal government sought to sell this plantation and many others, Eustis paid the back taxes to preserve it as part of his stepmother’s estate rather than purchase the plantation outright at auction for himself.After the war, his brothers, other heirs, and the executors all questioned Eustis’ motives, and Eustis found himself defending his actions in several letters, most notably a long July 1865 letter to his brother. In November 1865, the prewar executors appealed to General Quincy Adams Gillmore, who commanded the area, for the return of the plantation. Gillmore ordered it returned, but Eustis protested, and the case went to General O. O. Howard, commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Howard admitted he did not understand all of the legal points, but he believed the crops and revenues belonged to Eustis and the African Americans who had worked the plantation and recommended the revocation of Gillmore’s order.The Judge Advocate General agreed with Howard, and Eustis regained possession until the federal court could determine ownership. In 1868, the U.S. Circuit Court ordered the sale of Eustis Plantation at public auction. Frederick A. Eustis was the successful bidder at $5,000 for the 640-acre plantation plus 200 acres on Port Royal Island. Eustis resumed his work on the plantation until his death.In 1863, Eustis testified to the Freedman’s Inquiry Commission: "I never knew during forty years of plantation life so little sickness. Formerly every man had a fever of some kind, and now the veriest old cripple, who did nothing under secesh rule, will row a boat three nights in succession to Edisto, or will pick up the corn about the corn-house. There are twenty people whom I know were considered worn out and too old to work under the slave system, who are now working cotton, as well as their two acres of provisions; and their crops look very well. I have an old woman who has taken six tasks (that is, an acre and a half) of cotton, and last year she would do nothing."[1]Contents and Excerpts:Frederick A. Eustis Personal Notebook (including copies of several letters)"Mrs. P. W. Eustis died at Charleston S.C. May 21st 1860 intelligence communicated by Telegraph from Wm Izard Bull to Henry L Eustis at Cambridge Mass with notice that he was starting on Steamer for N.Y. with remains of deceased, and wished to be met there by H.L.E. or myself on Thursday, May 24th." (1) Will of Patience W. B. Eustis, February 28, 1860 (6-9)"I hereby give & Bequeath unto my step-sons, William Eustis, the Heirs of my Son Horatio; S. Eustis, Alexander B. Eustis, Frederic A. Eustis, and Henry L. Eustis, and their heirs, the sum of $10,000 each, also all Plate, Books, swords, wearing Apparel, Letters, Papers and all other articles of personal property (not. (See website for full description)
Significant Collection of the Worcester Magazine

Significant Collection of the Worcester Magazine, Publisher Isaiah Thomas’ Protest against Advertising Tax. Filled with News of Shays’ Rebellion, and Federalist and Anti-Federalist Essays

ISAIAH THOMAS Magazine. Worcester Magazine, 56 issues from September 1786 to March 1788. Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas. Each issue approximately 16 pp., 5 1/2 x 9 1/2 in. In 1785, the state of Massachusetts instituted a stamp tax on newspapers but soon replaced it with a tax on newspaper advertisements. To protest the tax on advertisements, Thomas suspended his weekly newspaper, Thomas’s Massachusetts Spy; or, the Worcester Gazette, at the end of March 1786. In April 1786, Thomas began publishing the Worcester Magazine, which was not subject to the tax, as a substitute for the Massachusetts Spy. Although a magazine in name, the Worcester Magazine continued the same kind of news as Thomas had printed in his newspaper. Its most valuable features were political pieces and "intelligence," including essays for and against the new proposed U.S. Constitution. It also included a series entitled "The Worcester Speculator" (16 essays from September 1787 to March 1788), along with agricultural articles, medical notes, recipes, anecdotes, and other items.Thomas continued publishing the Worcester Magazine for twenty-four months (approximately 104 issues) until Massachusetts repealed the advertising tax effective in March 1788, then Thomas resumed publishing the Massachusetts Spy on April 3, 1788. The Worcester Magazine includes extensive coverage of the Massachusetts Ratifying Convention to consider the proposed federal Constitution, which met from January 9 to February 6, 1788.Ownership signatures of "Coln E. Crafts" on some issues indicate they belonged to Ebenezer Crafts (1740-1810). Crafts was born in Connecticut and graduated from Yale College in 1759. He purchased a farm and built a tavern in Sturbridge, Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary War, he commanded a company of cavalry as captain. From 1785 to 1791, Crafts led a regiment of cavalry from Worcester County, Massachusetts, and he helped suppress Shays’ Rebellion in 1786-1787. He was one of the founders of Leicester Academy in Leicester, Massachusetts, and later moved to northern Vermont, where he helped found Craftsbury, which was named after him. Worcester Magazine (1786-1788) was a weekly magazine published in Worcester, Massachusetts, by Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831). To protest a state tax on newspaper advertisements, Thomas suspended his weekly newspaper, Thomas’s Massachusetts Spy; or, the Worcester Gazette, at the end of March 1786 and began publishing the Worcester Magazine, which was not subject to the tax, as a substitute. Thomas published the Worcester Magazine until Massachusetts repealed the advertising tax in March 1788.This collection includes 56 issues:1786: Numbers 24-26, 30-37, 39 (12 issues)1787: Numbers 43-44, 3:6-15, 17-25, 4:1-13 (34 issues)1788: Numbers 4:16-17, 19-26 (10 issues)"The Worcester Speculator": Numbers 2, 4-9, 12-16ConditionSpecific damage to the following issues-Second Week of September 1786: 3 x 3 in. tear to lower right/left corner of pp. 289-90; Fourth Week of October 1786: 2 x 1 in. tears to pp. 355-360, 2 x 4 in. irregular tear to top center of pp. 361-62; Fourth Week of December 1786: lacking back cover; Fourth Week of January 1787: 1-2 in. loss across top of back cover page; First Week of February 1787: lacking front and back cover; First Week of July 1787: lacking front cover; Fourth Week of August 1787: lacking pp. 291-94; First Week of October 1787: lacking front cover and pp. 13-16; Fourth Week of December 1787: lacking back cover; Fourth Week of January 1788: lacking front cover; First Week of February 1788: lacking front cover, loss of 1 x 7½ in. portion of right/left margin of pp. 235-36, barely affecting text; Second Week of February 1788: lacking front cover; First Week of March 1788: lacking pp. 301-2; Second Week of March 1788: lacking front cover; Fourth Week of March 1788: lacking pp. 341-42 and back cover. Generally Good or better condition.Highlights and Excerpts:Second Week of September 1786Proceed. (See website for full description)
Horace Greeley Notes the Civil War Overwhelms Agriculture in Public Mind

Horace Greeley Notes the Civil War Overwhelms Agriculture in Public Mind

HORACE GREELEY Autograph Letter Signed to J. N. Bagg, November 11, 1862. 1 p. "Fighting, not farming, engrosses public attention at this time." Complete TranscriptOffice of the Tribune, New York, Nov. 11 1862.Dear sir: Fighting, not farming, engrosses public attention at this time, so that I can hardly get up to see my own little place, and can hardly ever get a word about Farming into The Tribune. I cannot, therefore, proffer you any thing. Yours, / Horace GreeleyJ. N. Bagg, Esq / W. Springfield / [Mass.]Historical BackgroundIn 1853, Greeley purchased a farm in rural Chappaqua, New York, as a summer home for his family. But the thirty-mile trip on the New York and Harlem Railroad took over two hours, so his comment about the difficulty of getting up "to see my own little place" was certainly understandable. In the summers, Greeley experimented with farming techniques which he wrote about in a weekly column in his paper. He spent much time and money trying to make the farm productive, erecting a stone dam on a brook, and unsuccessfully attempting to drain marshy lowland to prevent flooding. In 1857, Greeley also built an innovative concrete dairy barn, which still exists.Horace Greeley (1811-1872) became a printer’s apprentice in 1826. He moved from New Hampshire to New York City in 1831. After a campaign newspaper he published in 1840 gained a circulation of 80,000, Greeley founded the daily New-York Tribune in 1841. By the end of the 1840s, the paper’s weekly edition had a national influence. Greeley urged the settlement of the West, and he supported the abolition of slavery, which led him to the new Republican Party in the 1850s. He died in 1872 a few weeks after losing his presidential bid against Ulysses S. Grant on both the Democratic and Liberal Republican tickets.James Newton Bagg (1824-1905) lived in West Springfield, Massachusetts for most of his life. In 1850, he was a clerk, still living with his parents. By 1860, he was a farmer with $2,000 in real estate, and lived with his wife, daughter, and aged parents. Bagg was secretary of the Hampden Harvest Club and 1862, became secretary of the Hampden County Agricultural Society. In 1874, he compiled an account of West Springfield’s centennial celebration and served as postmaster from 1895 to 1900.ConditionTears, loss of bottom right corner with loss of some text of inside address. Pasted on page with cropped vintage carte-de-visite size photograph of Greeley.
President Grant’s Personal Copy of Board of Indian Commissioners Report on Progress of His Peace Policy

President Grant’s Personal Copy of Board of Indian Commissioners Report on Progress of His Peace Policy

ULYSSES S. GRANT Book. Presentation Copy of Second Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners to the Secretary of the Interior, for Submission to the President for the Year 1870 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1871). Three-quarters morocco gilt volume, with a blue morocco label reading "U.S. Grant/President" on the upper cover and a presentation label to the President affixed to the front blank. 149 pp., 5 1/2 x 9 in. Excerpts:"Soon after the close of our last report, threatening indications of an extensive war on the plains reached us from the agents of the Osages, Kiowas, Comanches, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, and Sioux. "The Osages, a once powerful tribe, to whom the solemn pledges of our Government were made as far back as the administration of Thomas Jefferson, ‘that all lands belonging to you lying within the Territory of the United States shall be, and remain, the property of your nation, unless you shall voluntarily relinquish or dispose of the same, and all persons, citizens of the United States, are hereby strictly forbidden to disturb you, or your nation, in the quiet possession of said land.’ "Notwithstanding this solemn treaty, over twenty thousand squatters had, within the last few years, been allowed to settle on the lands of the Osages. These Osages having been induced to sign a fraudulent treaty, disposing of all their lands in Kansas, (as reported to you last year,) were driven from their homes, and went out on the plains, and mingling with the wild tribes, gave them such impressions of the perfidy of the whites, that, combined with the experience of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes on the Washita two years ago, and of the Kiowas and Comanches on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, in Texas, in 1858, and a failure to keep the Government’s promises with the Sioux, so aroused the vindictive passions of these Indians that any slight additional provocation might at any time have produced an outbreak of war." "Affairs continued in this dangerous condition until January last, when the memorable Blackfeet war, or what was generally called the ‘Piegan massacre,’ occurred." "Arrangements were immediately made by the Department for the coming of Red Cloud, with twenty of his headmen, and Spotted Tail, with five other chiefs of the Sioux of the Missouri. The advent of these chiefs in Washington and the East was so full of interest to the many who witnessed it, and so productive of important results to our Indian affairs, that a brief sketch of the event has been placed in Appendix 1.""the advent of Red Cloud, with his heroic bearing, manly speeches, and earnestly successful efforts for peace among his own people on his return home, strengthened the hands of the many friends of the Indians and, it may fairly be inferred, led to more friendly legislation on their behalf."Historical BackgroundThe year 1870 began with the Piegan Massacre or Marias Massacre in Montana Territory. The United States Army massacred two hundred women, children, and elderly men from a friendly band of Piegan Blackfeet Indians, many ill with smallpox, on January 23. This tragic event was one of the factors that led President Grant to reverse the federal government’s approach to Indian affairs and institute a "peace policy" to minimize military conflict with the Indians. He abandoned plans to return the control of Indian affairs to the U.S. Army. In 1869, Grant had appointed his former adjutant, General Ely S. Parker, as the first Native American to hold the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs.In 1870, the Board of Indian Commissioners had nine members: Chairman Felix R. Brunot, Nathan Bishop, Robert Campbell, William E. Dodge, John V. Farwell, John D. Lang, George H. Stuart, Edward S. Tobey, and Secretary Vincent Colyer. Most were wealthy religious humanitarians, and all served without pay. Stuart was a Philadelphia merchant and friend of President Grant, Brunot was a Civil War surgeon, and Colyer had founded the Unit. (See website for full description)
Theodore Roosevelt Discusses Contentious Supreme Court Decisions Governing American Colonialism

Theodore Roosevelt Discusses Contentious Supreme Court Decisions Governing American Colonialism

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Typed Letter Signed with extensive manuscript addition, June 3, 1901, to F. G. Fincke, Oyster Bay, New York. On "The Vice President’s Chamber / Washington, D.C." letterhead, 1 p., 7 3/4 x 10 1/4 in. With envelope with pre-printed free frank. "Seriously, unless we were to go back to the Dred Scott decision, I fail to see how the Supreme Court could do otherwise than it did." Complete Transcript Oyster Bay, N.Y, June 3rd, 1901.F. G. Fincke, Esq., 30 Genesee St., Utica, N.Y.My dear Fincke:– I inclose the letters. If you think that decision made us lose morally in the eyes of Europe, you have a mighty poor conception of European morality! [below, in Roosevelt’s hand] Seriously, unless we were to go back to the Dred Scott decision, I fail to see how the Supreme Court could do otherwise than it did; I should have felt another decision to be a real calamity, and am astounded at the narrowness of the margin in the vote. Sincerely yours, Theodore RooseveltHistorical BackgroundIn 1898, the Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War granted the United States the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The United States also retained jurisdiction over Cuba until its independence in May 1902. The acquisition of new territories immediately raised the issue of the legal status of their residents. According to the Treaty of Paris, those born in Spain could retain their Spanish citizenship or potentially become U.S. citizens. However, the native-born Puerto Ricans and Filipinos could neither retain Spanish citizenship nor become U.S. citizens.The Foraker Act of April 1900, largely authored by Secretary of War Elihu Root, established American rule in Puerto Rico for the twentieth century, giving the President the ability to appoint the governor, a portion of the legislature, and all of the justices of the supreme court. It also implemented a temporary tariff on goods transferred between Puerto Rico and the United States.In a series of six to nine cases decided in 1901, together called the Insular Cases, the Supreme Court held that the full constitutional protection of rights does not automatically extend to all places under American control. The Court created a distinction between incorporated and unincorporated territories. Incorporated territories were those that the government deemed to be on a path to statehood, such as Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona. In the latter category, which included Puerto Rico and the Philippines, the Constitution did not "apply in full." Congress had the discretion to extend as much of the Constitution as it chose to these areas.Almost all of the cases were decided by a Court divided 5-4, and the reaction of the press was often critical. The announcement of decisions in the Dooley v. United States, Armstrong v. United States, and Downes v. Bidwell cases on May 27, 1901, drew the largest crowd in Supreme Court history. In the first case, the firm of Dooley, Smith & Co. sued the United States for refund of duties it paid under protest at the port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on merchandise imported from New York between July 1898 and May 1, 1900, when the Foraker Act took effect. The court held that those duties paid before the ratification of the Treaty of Paris on April 11, 1899, were valid under the war power. Those paid after that date had to be refunded. In other words, at the ratification of the treaty, Puerto Rico ceased to be a foreign country and became a territory of the United States, until Congress legislated further upon the subject.In the second case, British subject Carlos Armstrong sued to recover duties he paid in San Juan for goods he imported from the United States between August 1898 and December 1899. The court applied the principles from Dooley v. United States and held that duties that Armstrong paid after the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in April 1899 and before Congress passed the Foraker Act had to be refunded.In the third case, merchant Sam. (See website for full description)
1845 Letter to Hudson River Artist Jasper Cropsey: A Richly Detailed Discussion of the Current State of American Art

1845 Letter to Hudson River Artist Jasper Cropsey: A Richly Detailed Discussion of the Current State of American Art

JOHN MACKIE FALCONER Autograph Letter Signed, to Jasper Cropsey, Washington, D.C., January 15, 1845. 4 pp., 7 7/8 x 9 7/8 in. Includes envelope. Relates a conversation with Peter Rothermel on the need to nurture an "American School of Design," with sharp criticisms of the deleterious effects of European study on budding talent as seen in Emanuel Leutze’s latest work."[Rothermel] during the evening suggested one thing as tending peculiarly to build up an American School of Design without the extraneous influences that all young men going abroad are subject too. it was that an embargo to prevent the leaving of artists for abroad, for a space of 50 years, be put in operation, thus causing their productions to be pure emanations of their own early & intuitive feeling." Complete Transcript[Postscript in top margin:] I forgot my subject for sketch, but leave it with you to receive for me on my week either the "Noisy Scene" or "Passing Away"-either you think best general subject Washington D.C. Thursday Evg Jany 15 1845Dear Cropsey Ere this you will have heard by Mr Ridner[1] of my getting to Philadelphia & calling on & being kindly received by Mr Rothermel[2] & Mr Sartain.[3] I spent the evening very comfortably with Mr R & am really glad of having made another acquaintance of so much practical information & so peculiarly gifted with an appreciation of the ideal in beauty. Mr R during the evening suggested one thing as tending peculiarly to build up an American School of Design without the extraneous influences that all young men going abroad are subject too. it was that an embargo to prevent the leaving of artists for abroad, for a space of 50 years, be put in operation, thus causing their productions to be pure emanations of their own early & intuitive feelings, to support this he instanced 2 or 3 pictures of Leutze[4] which have a much fresher & purer style than any he has recently produced, or rather since his location at Dusseldorf. having seen 2 of these pictures referred to, I do really think they are far beyond his last, in all the desirable attributes pertaining to colour. the drawing is not perhaps so scholastic & correct, but I think the proportions of the figures are as good if not better. part of the remedy suitable to our present state & as advancing future excellence must result with the buyers exercising a more discriminating judgement in purchasing than has lately been current & for this end it will be well for artists to put fully within the reach of purchasers their real opinions of others work, preventing to a certain extent the injudicious acquisition of works from sources that have run out or are more full of flimsy prettiness than crude but advancing progression. The dissatisfaction at the Art unions acting on principles of buying the best & worst pictures seems great with those I have met, that have been interested & I do not think will advance its interests with the knowing admirers of art. purchasers let good pictures painted in their midst, go abegging yet buy anything with red gowns or frocks that turns up & it should cause little wonder that artists go abroad & become tinged with the changed tones of times deeds & not the original beauties of old masters as they appeared in their full vigor. artists here have a feeling of capacities to cope with their brothers abroad & the increase of remuneration swells the temptations making them think comparatively little of home times & Home subjects & realizing fully the prophet hath no Honour in his own country. Yet we must hope for better things & the dawn certainly has commenced. What I have seen In Phila & Balte give real evidence on that point & afford encouragement to young artists to do carefully & circumspectly every thing pertaining to their art & their standing in society, to enable them to reap with satisfaction to themselves the approaching harvest It is very likely Mr R will go abroad to avail himself of the advantages of cost. (See website for full description)
Bill of Rights: Early N.Y. Printing of First Draft Approved by the House of Representatives - 17 Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Bill of Rights: Early N.Y. Printing of First Draft Approved by the House of Representatives – 17 Proposed Constitutional Amendments

BILL OF RIGHTS Newspaper. Gazette of the United States, August 29, 1789. New York: John Fenno. Includes a complete printing of the first House of Representatives proposal for amending the Constitution on page 2. 4 pp., 10 x 15 3/4 in. "Congress shall make no law establishing religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, nor shall the rights of conscience be infringed.""The freedom of speech, and of the press, and the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and consult for their common good, and to apply to the government for a redress of grievances, shall not be infringed.""A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed."After months of work, on August 24, 1789, the House of Representatives approved seventeen Constitutional amendments, including the first to use the exact phrase, "freedom of speech." This newspaper includes the full text of the resolution sent by the House to the Senate for approval. The Senate began deliberating the next day, approving some articles and rejecting or altering others. Historical BackgroundThe lack of a Bill of Rights, a central feature of most state Constitutions, was a principal criticism of the recently-drafted federal Constitution. During the Constitutional Convention some delegates opposed its inclusion, thinking it unnecessary or afraid that the act of enumerating specific rights would imply that those not listed did not exist. On the other side, Anti-Federalists wary of new federal powers were among the most ardent proponents of a Bill of Rights. Ultimately, to ensure ratification of the Constitution, the Convention delegates promised that Congress would address guarantees of specific liberties in their first session.During the ratification process, five states that approved the Constitution passed along lists of proposed amendments, while two states, Rhode Island and North Carolina, that had refused to ratify also suggested amendments. In all, nearly one hundred discrete amendments were offered.James Madison, the "father of the Constitution," was at first lukewarm to the idea of a Bill of Rights. However, during his first Congressional campaign against James Monroe, he promised to fight for such a measure. Among Madison’s fears were threats by Anti-Federalists, even after the Constitution had been ratified, of calling another convention, which would have likely been much less harmonious. On May 4, 1789, Madison told the House of Representatives that he planned to present a slate of amendments in three weeks. When May 25 arrived, the Congressmen were locked in a debate over import duties. Madison demurred until June 8, when the House again rebuked his efforts, citing more pressing business. Rising once more, Madison justified his timing, apologized to his colleagues, and proceeded to introduce his proposed amendments.On July 21, 1789, the House formed the Committee of Eleven (a member from each state) to consider the proposed Amendments. The Committee reported on July 28, taking the nine broad areas Madison had suggested for amendment and drafting 17 individual amendments for House approval. These passed the House on August 24, and the Senate began their debate the next day. The Senate initially reduced the House’s proposed 17 amendments to 12, and then passed its own version on September 9. The bill then went back to the House for reconciliation. The House reconciled the two bills on September 24, and the Senate issued its final approval the next day.The twelve articles of amendment were sent to the states for ratification on October 2, 1789. Two of the twelve proposed amendments, the first regarding apportionment of representation in the House and the second, congressional salaries, were not ratified by the states. However, article #2, which stated that Congressional pay increases (or decreases) would not take effect until an ele. (See website for full description)
Golda Meir (Goldie Meyerson) Encourages the Jewish Pioneer Women’s Organization

Golda Meir (Goldie Meyerson) Encourages the Jewish Pioneer Women’s Organization

GOLDA MEIR Autograph Document Signed, draft telegram, in English, on verso of blank American Honor Roll certificate for the Palestine Labor Maritime Company, c. 1938. 2 pp., 4 x 8 1/2 in. "May the spirit of Chalutziut [pioneering] from Palestine spur you on to even greater results" Complete TranscriptPioneer Women’s Org. CongressVery sorry because of appointment arranged before my arrival I cannot be with you stop My sincerest best wishes and admiration for your splendid work stop May the spirit of Chalutziut[1] from Palestine spur you on to even greater results stop Shalom will try to come if only possibleGoldie.[Nachson Ltd. Palestine Labor Maritime Company letterhead]AMERICAN HONOR ROLLWishing to contribute to the Maritime development of Palestine and thus to participate with others in the upbuilding of the country, I hereby agree to forward the sum of $___________, for which I am to receive _________ certificates of the Nachshon enterprise. One certificate will be issued for each $5.50 received.I enclose herewith the sum of ____________ and the balance will be forwarded by me not later than ________________, 1938.[Blanks for name, addresses, and telephone numbers]Historical BackgroundAs a committed Zionist, Golda Meir supported the goals of the Pioneer Women’s Organization to aid Jewish women settlers in Palestine. The Council of Women Workers sent Meir as an emissary to the United States in 1928-1929 and from 1932 to 1934, and she regularly toured Pioneer Women clubs in cities around the United States, where she promoted the Zionist cause. She later recalled of the Pioneer Women, "Suspicious of frivolity, it was a long time before the earnest women tolerated purely social gatherings where the ladies might play bridge instead of listening to a lecture on A.D. Gordon, Borochov or other socialist Zionist theoreticians." According to the head of the Pioneer Women from 1942 to 1945, Meir and other leaders of the women workers’ movement in Palestine "were really the soul of the organization." "Around them," she continued, "there was such a holy feeling! They were the ones who gave (Pioneer Women) content, who gave it wings, who gave it imagination." By 1939, Pioneer Women had 170 chapters in seventy cities with approximately 7,000 members.On February 24, 1938, Meir spoke at the Jewish Community Center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. In May, Meir spoke to an annual meeting of the Pioneer Women at the Pfister hotel in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which may be the Congress to which Meir refers in the telegram.In July 1938, Meir attended the Évian Conference in France, where delegates from thirty-two countries met to discuss the future of 450,000 European Jews escaping Nazi persecution by fleeing to Palestine. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent businessman and close friend Myron C. Taylor to represent the United States. Meir was only an observer at the conference, not a delegate.Golda Mabovitch Meyerson (Meir) (1898-1978) was a signer of Israel’s Declaration of Independence. Born in Kiev, she lived in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1906-1921), then settled in Palestine and took up social work, becoming a leading figure in the Labor Movement. She married Morris Myerson in 1917, and they immigrated to Palestine, where she had two children. In 1928, she became secretary of the Women Workers Council and moved to Tel Aviv with her children. In 1948, she returned to the United States to raise money from the American Jewish community to support the new nation of Israel. She served as Israeli Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1948-49) and then was elected to the Knesset. She served as Minister of Labor from 1949 to 1956, when at David Ben-Gurion’s insistence, she adopted the more Hebrew-sounding Meir as a surname. Ben-Gurion appointed her as Foreign Minister, a position she held until 1966. In spite of intentions to retire, she became Israel’s Prime Minister in 1969. In 1973, many blamed her for the devastation of the Yom Kippur. (See website for full description)
Colonial Merchant’s Copy of the First History of New Jersey Printed on One of Benjamin Franklin’s Presses

Colonial Merchant’s Copy of the First History of New Jersey Printed on One of Benjamin Franklin’s Presses

SAMUEL SMITH Book. The History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria, or New-Jersey: Containing, An Account of its First Settlement, Progressive Improvements, The Original and Present Constitution, and Other Events, to the Year 1721, First edition. Burlington, NJ: James Parker, 1765. Henry Remsen’s ownership signatures to front and rear blanks. 573 pp., 8 1/2 x 5 in. This volume by Samuel Smith was the first general history of New Jersey, printed in a limited run of 600 copies on a press owned by Benjamin Franklin. Henry Remsen, a New York and New Jersey merchant, originally owned this copy. Historical BackgroundDuring the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret, the Governor of the Isle of Jersey, sheltered King Charles I’s young son, the future Charles II and defended the island for the royal family. Because of their loyalty to the crown, James, the Duke of York, in 1664 granted to Carteret and John Lord Berkeley a tract of land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River, "which said tract of land is hereafter to be called by the name or names of New Caeserea or New Jersey." The English believed at the time that the Isle of Jersey derived its name from Caesarea, named in honor of the Roman Caesar.In the mid-eighteenth century, Quaker merchant Samuel Smith gathered information and documents to prepare the first history of the colony from its first settlement to the year 1721 with some details on its current condition when he published his history in 1765.Publisher James Parker had served in an indenture to a printer in New York City before joining Benjamin Franklin as a journeyman in Philadelphia. Later, Franklin provided funds for Parker to open a printing establishment and begin a newspaper in New York City. Parker later expanded his printing operations into New Jersey and Connecticut. Around 1758, Parker told Samuel Smith that if Smith had Parker print his book on the history of New Jersey, he would print it in Smith’s hometown of Burlington, New Jersey.In 1748, Benjamin Franklin provided a press for use by his apprentice Thomas Smith in Antgua. When Smith died in 1752, Franklin’s nephew and Parker’s former apprentice, Benjamin Mecom, took charge of printing in Antigua. Mecom left Antigua for Boston in 1756, and a year later had the press shipped and continued to use it until 1762. It was stored in New York from 1763 to 1765. In March 1765, Parker wrote to Franklin that he had shipped Mecom’s press from his storeroom in New York by water to Philadelphia "in order that they might not be bruised by Land Carriage." From Philadelphia, Parker had the press shipped to Burlington, New Jersey, to fulfill his promise to Smith.[1] By late April, Parker reported to Franklin that he had received and set up the press in Burlington, specifically to print Samuel Smith’s History of New-Jersey. He had also hoped to publish a newspaper in Burlington, but "the News of the killing Stamp, has struck a deadly Blow to all my Hopes on that Head."[2] In June, Parker wrote Franklin that he planned to produce 600 copies of Smith’s book on between 25 and 30 octavo (8-page) sheets for each copy. Parker had hoped to purchase the press from Franklin, but "the fatal Black-Act lately passed, must render printing of very little Consequence; so that I think I cannot afford to purchase them. I had rather pay for the Use of them, in printing this Book."[3] By August, Parker was able to report that "about one Half" of Smith’s book had been printed but was interrupted by some printing that Parker needed to do for the colonial government. When Parker finished printing Smith’s book in December 1765, he sent the press to Franklin’s old house in Philadelphia, where William Goddard used it to print the Pennsylvania Chronicle until 1774.[4]??????In October 1765, the Pennsylvania Gazette published an advertisement for the book on the front page: "Now in the Press, to be speedily published in one Volume. (See website for full description)
Father of the Erie Canal and Future Governor DeWitt Clinton’s Copy of New York City Ordinances

Father of the Erie Canal and Future Governor DeWitt Clinton’s Copy of New York City Ordinances

DEWITT CLINTON Signed Book. Laws and Ordinances, Ordained and Established by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City of New-York, in Common Council Convened, for the Good Rule and Government of the Inhabitants and Residents of the Said City. Passed and published the 17th day of January, 1805. In the Mayoralty of DeWitt Clinton. First Edition. New York: James Cheetham, 1805. DeWitt Clinton’s ownership signature on title page. 160 pp., 7 3/4 x 4 1/2 in. During the second of his ten terms as mayor of New York City, Clinton signs his copy of the ordinances for governing the city at the top of the title page. Historical BackgroundOn January 17, 1805, the Common Council of the City of New York met. Those present included Mayor DeWitt Clinton, six of the city’s nine aldermen (Philip Brasher, Mangle Minthorne, James Fairlie, James Drake, Abraham King, and Jacob De La Montagnie), and eight of the city’s nine assistants (Samuel M. Hopkins, Andrew Morris, George J. Warner, Simon Van Antwerp, Abraham Bloodgood, Jacob Mott, Clarkson Crolius, and Joseph Board). Each of the city’s nine wards had an alderman and an assistant, and each ward was represented by one or both at this meeting.During the meeting, the Common Council "proceeded to a consideration of the ordinances," and passed ten laws. Topics included "due observance of the Lords day, called Sunday"; "the establishment of a Board of Health" with a city inspector; "procuring regular Bills of Mortality" and "a Register of Births and Marriages"; regulating taverns, "victualling houses," and boarding houses; directing month reports of measures of grain, lime, charcoal, boards, and timber and "Weighers of Hay" with annual reports; better regulation of the alms house; the appointment of a street commissioner; the appointment of a "Superintendent of Scavengers," charged with providing for sweeping the streets and preventing nuisances (public sanitation); the appointment of a comptroller; and preventing and extinguishing fires.On December 10, 1804, the Council resolved to stop advertising in the Morning Chronicle, and resolved that "the American Citizen be employed in its stead; And further that the Editor of the American Citizen be employed to executing the printing of this Board and its Officers." James Cheetham (1772-1810) was the Democratic-Republican editor of the American Citizen newspaper from 1801 until his death. Cheetham’s libelous accusations against former vice president Aaron Burr helped ensure Burr’s overwhelming loss in the April 1804 New York governor’s race, even after Burr started the Morning Chronicle, whose editor Peter Irving counterattacked Cheetham. These attacks by fellow Democratic-Republicans may have played a role in Burr’s challenging Federalist Alexander Hamilton to a duel in July 1804.DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828) was born in New York and attended the College of New Jersey before graduating from King’s College (Columbia University) in 1786. His uncle George Clinton was the first governor of New York from 1777 to 1795 and again from 1801 to 1804, and served as vice president of the United States from 1805 to 1812. DeWitt Clinton was admitted to the bar in 1790 but became secretary to his uncle. The younger Clinton served in the New York State Assembly in 1798 and in the New York Senate from 1798 to 1802 and again from 1806 to 1811. He completed the term of a resigned member of the U.S. Senate from 1802 to 1803, but resigned over living conditions in Washington. Appointed mayor of New York City, Clinton served a total of ten non-successive terms from 1803 to 1807, from 1808 to 1810, and from 1811 to 1815. He also won election as lieutenant governor of New York and served from 1811 to 1813. After his uncle unsuccessfully challenged James Madison for the Presidency in 1808, the Federalists turned to DeWitt Clinton in 1812. Although he polled stronger than many Federalist candidates, he lost to Madison in the Electoral College by a vote of . (See website for full description)
The Lincoln Assassination and Its Aftermath: Read the Day-by-Day Coverage in New York Newspapers

The Lincoln Assassination and Its Aftermath: Read the Day-by-Day Coverage in New York Newspapers

ABRAHAM LINCOLN Newspapers. Volume of 54 issues of six different daily and weekly New York publications. Approximately 450 pp. From 11 1/2 x 16 1/2 in. to 23 x 31 in. per issue, depending on the title; most 15 1/2 x 23 in. A remarkable archive of 54 issues of six different daily and weekly New York newspapers from the six weeks after Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, with coverage of the assassination, the assassin, the funerals in New York and Springfield, and the hunt for the conspirators. Also includes one issue from July 1865 regarding the execution of the conspirators and one issue from February 1866 with coverage of a memorial service in Lincoln’s honor. Group of Newspapers Reporting Abraham Lincoln’s AssassinationTitles include:New-York Times, April 17, 1865, 8 pp. (uncut at top)New-York Times, April 17, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, April 20, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, April 22, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, April 26, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, April 27, 1865, 8 pp. (uncut at top)New-York Times, May 4, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, May 8, 1865, 8 pp.New-York Times, February 13, 1866, 8 pp. "Memorial Services in Honor of the Late President" Evening Post (New York), April 15, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), April 22, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), April 25, 1865, 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), April 26, 1865, 4th ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), April 27, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), April 28, 1865, 4th ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 3, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 4, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 6, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 8, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 9, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 10, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 11, 1865, 3rd ed., 4 pp.Evening Post (New York), May 13, 1865, 4 pp. New-York Tribune, April 25, 1865, 4 pp. (uncut at top) New York Herald, April 15, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 16, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 17, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 18, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 19, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 21, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 23, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 24, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 29, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, April 30, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 1, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 2, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 5, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 6, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 7, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 9, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 10, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 11, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 12, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 13, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 14, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 15, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 16, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, May 17, 1865, 8 pp.New York Herald, July 8, 1865, 8 pp. "Execution" Harper’s Weekly, April 29, 1865, 16 pp. "The Murder of the President"Harper’s Weekly, May 6, 1865, 16 pp. "The President’s Funeral in New York"Harper’s Weekly, May 13, 1865, 16 pp. "The Assassin’s End"Harper’s Weekly, May 20, 1865, 16 pp. "The Assassination," "President Lincoln’s Funeral" Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 6, 1865, 13 pp. (weird cut)Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 20, 1865, 16 pp.Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 27, 1865, 16 pp. (tears to pp. 9-16)
Continental Congress Rejects Britain’s 1775 Conciliatory Proposal - Thomas Jefferson Drafted Message in a Prelude to the Declaration of Independence

Continental Congress Rejects Britain’s 1775 Conciliatory Proposal – Thomas Jefferson Drafted Message in a Prelude to the Declaration of Independence

CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. THOMAS JEFFERSON Newspaper. Rivington’s New York Gazetteer, August 10, 1775, printing of the Congressional Resolution of July 31, 1775, rejecting Lord North’s Conciliatory Proposal that attempted to divide the colonies and weaken the move towards independence. Signed in type by John Hancock. The Resolution was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, for a committee including Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Richard Henry Lee. 4 pp. "A proposition to give our money, accompanied with large fleets and armies, seems addressed to our fears, rather than to our freedom. can the world be deceived into an opinion that we are unreasonable, or can it hesitate to believe with us, that nothing but our own exertions may defeat the ministerial sentence of death or abject submission." Excerpts:"The Congress took the said resolution into consideration, and are thereupon of opinion, THAT the colonies of America, are entitled to the sole and exclusive privilege of giving and granting their own money. and that it is a high breach of this privilege for any body of men, extraneous to their constitutions, to prescribe the purposes for which money shall be levied on them, to take to themselves the authority of judging of their conditions, circumstances and situations; and of determining the amount of the contribution to be levied.""That as the colonies possess a right of appropriating their gifts, so are they entitled . to see that they be not wasted among the venal and corrupt for the purpose of undermining the civil rights of the givers, nor yet be diverted to the support of standing armies, inconsistent with their freedom, and subversive of their quiet.""it is not just that the colonies should be required to oblige themselves to other contributions, while Great-Britain possesses a monopoly of their trade. if we are to contribute equally with the other parts of the empire, let us equally with them enjoy free commerce with the whole world." (p2/c2)"We are of opinion the proposition is altogether unsatisfactory, because it imports only a suspension of the mode, not a renunciation of the pretended right to tax us: because too it does not propose to repeal the several acts of Parliament passed for the purposes of restraining the trade and altering the form of government of one of our colonies; extending the boundaries and changing the government of Quebec; enlarging the jurisdiction of the Courts of Admiralty and Vice-Admiralty; taking from us the rights of trial by jury of the vicinage in cases affecting both life and property; transporting us into other countries to be tried for criminal offences; exempting by mock-trial the murderers of colonists from punishment; and quartering soldiers on us in times of profound peace. Nor do they renounce the power of suspending our own legislatures, and of legislating for us themselves in all cases whatsoever.""Upon the whole, this proposition seems to have been held up to the world, to deceive it into a belief that there was nothing in dispute between us but the mode of levying taxes. This leaves us without any thing we can call property. But, what is of more importance, and what in this proposal they keep out of sight, as if no such point was now in contest between us, they claim a right to alter our charters and establish laws, and leave us without any security for our lives or liberties." (p2/c3)Historical BackgroundIn January 1775, Parliament considered petitions opposing the Coercive Acts (known in America as the Intolerable Acts). On February 20, Prime Minister Lord North laid before the House of Commons a "conciliatory resolution" proposing that any colony that provided support for the British military and civil government would pay no taxes or duties except those necessary to regulate commerce. Parliament passed the resolution a week later. Nova Scotia accepted North’s resolution, but most colonies treated it with hostility. In May 1775, the assemblies of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, (See website for full description)
General Edward Hand on Framing a New Constitution in Pennsylvania

General Edward Hand on Framing a New Constitution in Pennsylvania

EDWARD HAND Autograph Letter Signed, to Jasper Yeates, February 4, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa. 2 pp., 6 3/4 x 8 in. Edward Hand apprises a Pennsylvania political ally of recent developments at the state convention for framing a new constitution. "Some time ago I forwarded you the plan of the Legislative Branch, & now send those for the Executive & Judicial, as agreed on by the Committee of the whole." Complete Transcript Philadelphia 4th. Feby. 1790Dear Yeates I last evening recd. your favr. of 10th. Ultimo. I have no doubt of receiving your depretiation interest in money or a rect. from Turbet before I return the treasurer told me as much the evening before last.Some time ago I forwarded you the plan of the Executive Legislative Branch, & now send those for the Legislative Executive & Judicial, as agreed on by the Committee of the whole[.] the Bill of rights is gone through, one Section, (on the liberty of the press) excepted, expect the Committee of the whole will report tomorrow, and as the business has already been so amply discussed [2] hope it will pass easiely thro the Convention unless our absentees give an opening to the Overhill gentlemen, and some of them are well dispose to profit by such an advantage[.]with Complements to Mrs. Yeates and the family, I am Dr. Yeates your very affectionate Hble Servt. Edwd: HandHistorical BackgroundThe new Pennsylvania Constitution was passed just two days following this letter, on February 6, 1790. Whereas the 1776 state constitution was characterized by a dominant, unicameral legislature, Pennsylvania Republicans (most of whom were Federalists in national politics) sought a bicameral legislature and a stronger executive on the model of both the Massachusetts constitution of 1780 and the U.S. Constitution.Dr. Edward Hand (1744-1802) commanded troops in the battles of Long Island and Trenton. As Adjutant General of the Continental Army, he assisted George Washington in the siege of Yorktown, and was a member of the board convened by Washington to investigate Benedict Arnold’s treason. After the war, Hand resumed the practice of medicine. He served as a member of the Confederation Congress (1784-1785) and the Pennsylvania Assembly (1785-1786), as well as a Delegate to the convention for the 1790 Pennsylvania Constitution.Jasper Yeates (1745-1817) was a successful Lancaster attorney who was selected as a delegate to the Pennsylvania convention for considering the U.S. Constitution. He was a Federalist, and he supported like-minded Republicans in Pennsylvania politics such as Hand, who sought to reform the state constitution. Yeates was later a justice on the state Supreme Court, and he published the Reports of Cases Adjudged in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 1791-1808.
Samuel Huntington Speech on Education

Samuel Huntington Speech on Education, Liberty, and "Acts of Insolvency Repugnant to the Constitution"

SAMUEL HUNTINGTON Autograph Speech Signed, October 11, 1792, [Conn.] 4 pp., 8 x 12 3/4 in. Governor Huntington, in a "state of the state"-style address, proposes modifying the taxation system and state militia, building new roads, and granting the Superior Court power to send a wider range of convicts to New Gate Prison. The speech also emphasizes the importance of education, for the continued strength and vitality of republican institutions, a recurring theme in his administration. "Let me observe.a firm belief that it is Impossible for a free people to preserve their liberties & privileges. unless useful knowledge is generally diffused among them, & the principles of Virtue & religion included .; and were these favours properly bestowed upon every rising generation, .all Arbitrary & Despotic Government would vanish away." Complete TranscriptGentlemen of the CouncilMr. Speaker, & Gentlemen of the Houseof RepresentativesWhen we take a survey of the various Kingdoms and Nations of the Earth, especially those with which we are most acquainted, and behold the disorders & distress which their Inhabitants are now suffering in many places for want of a wise & well-administered Civil Government; and consider our happy situation compared with theirs; we have abundant reason with gratitude to acknowledge the Divine goodness & superintending providence in the distinguishing favors conferd upon us: we are neither oppressed with the rod of Dispotisim on the one hand; nor enduring the more dreadfull calamities of Anarchy on the other: a consideration Sufficient to excite in the Breast of every freeman, constant & vigilant exertions by all proper means to preserve, maintain & wisely Improve the happy Constitution & privileges which we at present enjoy; a consideration, I trust, that will not be overlooked by this or any future assembly in their deliberations.In bringing the various matters that may come before you at this time, you will take up of course the annual business of [2] the October session, and also resume the consideration of some matters that were left unfinished the last session.It is expected your Committee appointed to inspect the grand list for a member of years past will make their report at this time, which may throw light upon that subject, and assist your endeavors to make such alterations in the mode of taxation as may appear more equitable & just if such can be devised.A revision and alteration of our militia laws in conformity to the Act of Congress as near as may be will not escape your attention.The improving and repairing the more important public roads is an object worthy the notice of the Legislation.The salutary effects which have resulted from the institution of New Gate prison, urges me to refer to your consideration, whether it may not be wise to vest in the Superior Court a discretionary power to commit to that prison certain offenders who may be convicted of crimes not mentioned in the Statute, such as the willful burning of houses & some other attrotious offences that may be mentioned.The applications for particular Acts of Insolvency seem to be increasing, & as Congress have made no provision in such cases, is it not expedient [3] that the legislature of this state should make some regulation relative to the subject, in particular to prevent a preference of debts in favor of the first attacking creditors of a bankrupt estate.There exists also another difficulty respecting those particular Acts of Insolvency: They appear prima facie, to be ex post facto laws, and in that view may perhaps be called in question as being repugnant to the Constitution of the nation & void; to the great disadvantage of honest debtors who may have religiously conformed to such Acts.You will remember that no provision hath been made by Government for the Support of Schools the present year.Perhaps it may be thought by some that this subject hath been too frequently reiterated from the Chair; But let. (See website for full description)