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Maus. A Survivor's Tale

Maus. A Survivor’s Tale

SPIEGELMAN, ART FIRST BOOK EDITION, WITH LARGE SIGNED INK DRAWING BY SPIEGELMAN; WITH THE FIRST EIGHT ISSUES OF RAW MAGAZINE -SIGNED BY SPIEGELMAN IN SEVEN ISSUES – WHERE THE COMPLETE FIRST PART OF MAUS FIRST APPEARED. "Art Spiegelman’s father Vladek was a Polish Jew who survived the Holocaust. When Spiegelman told his father’s story in Maus, he depicted all the Jews as mice and all the Nazis as cats. Strangely, the cartoonish conceit doesn’t trivialize the story, it makes it viscerally real – it strips away our practiced indifference to an all too familiar story. Those mice are more human than most people. Alongside his father’s tale Spiegelman lovingly but honestly depicts his own relationship with his father, who has aged into a difficult, prickly, fearful man. Maus won a Pulitzer in 1992, a landmark event in the history of the medium – its sheer power forced the mainstream world to take comics seriously" (Lev Grossman, Time, "Top 10 Graphic Novels", March 5, 2009). The first chapter of Maus first appeared in December 1980 in the second issue of the magazine Raw, an indie magazine founded by Spiegelman and his wife Francoise Mouly. A new chapter appeared in each issue until 1991 when the magazine folded. (All but the final chapter originally appeared in Raw). "After ‘Maus’ comics had appeared in the biannual RAWfor about five years, Spiegelman pitched the work to publishers – meeting little enthusiasm. Then, in 1985, Ken Tucker’s essay for the New York Times hailed the work-in-progress as ‘a remarkable feat of documentary detail and novelistic vividness,’ and it quoted a Library of Congress graphic-art curator who said that the cutting-edge ‘Maus’ returned ‘an excitement that has been lost in comic art.’ "’The result,’ Spiegelman says, ‘was all of a sudden, Pantheon was interested in putting out the first volume.’ It landed in August 1986, inspiring a generation of up-and-comers who held no prejudices about the comics form" (Michael Cavna, The Washington Post, "Why ‘Maus’ remains ‘the greatest graphic novel ever written,’ 30 years later," August 11, 2016). Note: This rare true first book edition of Maus, issued in 1986, is not to be confused with the later (much more common) 1991 edition released to coincide with the publication of part II (not included here). Raw Magazine. New York: Raw Books & Graphics, 1980-1986. Large (approx. 10.5×14.5 inches) illustrated wrappers. Eight issues. In outstanding condition with all inserts. In addition to seven issues signed by Spiegelman, four issues are signed by François Mouly, six by Gary Panter, and one by Charles Burns. Each part of Maus is included as an inserted booklet in each issue with a large descriptive illustrated page surrounding each booklet. Maus. A Survivor’s Tale. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986. Octavo, original wrappers. Near-fine with only slight general wear. Ink drawing by Spiegelman on epigraph page. A RARE COLLECTION OF AN IMPORTANT AND GROUNDBREAKING WORK.
Autograph Letter Signed

Autograph Letter Signed

GRANT, ULYSSES S. AUTOGRAPH LETTER BY GRANT MENTIONING HIS PLANS FOR HIS FIRST VISIT TO GETTYSBURG. Although Gettysburg, Pennsylvania towers over the Civil War in importance, by 1867 – a full two years after the war ended – General Grant, the Commanding General of the Union Forces, had never visited the site of the bloodiest battle of the war. (During the Battle of Gettysburg, Grant, then commander of the Army of the Tennessee, was in the midst of conducting his historic siege of Vicksburg.) Grant was, of course, eager to see the historic grounds, but other obligations always prevented him from doing so. In this letter, Grant writes to his good friend George W. Childs, the publisher of the Philadelphia Public Ledger, turning down an invitation to a dinner on June 20, 1867, celebrating the dedication of the Ledger’s new headquarters, noting that he will be at Gettysburg on that day. The letter, dated June 18, 1867, and written on "Head-Quarters Armies of the United States" stationery, reads in full: "I regret that an engagement to be at Gettysburg, Pa. the very day for which I am indebted to you for a most cordial invitation to dine with you in Philadelphia will prevent my acceptance. With great respect?" [Signed] U.S. Grant / General Grant would indeed arrive at Gettysburg on June 20, touring the battlefield the following morning with Major-General Samuel W. Crawford, Major-General John White Geary, and Brigadier-General Porter. The recipient, Childs, was close to Grant, owning an adjacent seaside cottage to the Grant’s. In 1864, he purchased the failing Philadelphia Public Ledger, turning it into one of the leading journals in the country. The new building for the headquarters referred to in Childs’s invitation was hailed by the New York Times as "the finest newspaper office in the country." WITH: Accompanying letter (on the same stationery) to Childs by Grant’s aide-de-camp, Horace Porter. Porter served the Union with great distinction in the war, becoming an important member of Grant’s staff and rising to the rank of brevet brigadier general. In his letter he offers apologies for Grant’s delayed response and offering regrets at his inability to attend. Porter’s letter is dated September 17, 1867, so it seems he was late in getting Childs Grant’s letter. Octavo, one page. Washington, D.C.: June 18, 1867. On "Head-Quarters Armies of the United States" stationery. Published in full in The Public Ledger Building, Philadelphia: with an Account of the Proceedings Connected with its Opening June 20, 1867. Framed together with Porter’s letter and an engraving of Grant from the first edition of his Memoirs. The text of Porter’s letter, dated Sept. 17, 1867: "An absence from the city has prevented me from answering your letter of the 11th sooner. The General was very glad to have an opportunity of writing you the enclosed letter, which I hope will be satisfactory. Had there been a little better management on the part of the Committee, at Gettysburg, he could have visited that place and been present at your dinner also. I feel greatly obliged to you for the information communicated in your letter, and appreciate very highly the interest you take in my Chief I assure you. Hoping you will not hesitate to command me if I can be of any service to you in Washington. I am very truly yours?".
Travels with my Aunt [AND] The Honorary Consul
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Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians

Catlin, George FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE of Catlin’s monumental work on the North American Indians. Complete with three maps (one folding), and over 300 illustrations on 177 plates. Catlin "had been interested in Native American life from his boyhood, and in 1828, after encountering a delegation of Plains Indians in Philadelphia on their way to Washington, D.C., he became determined to record the Native American heritage before it was destroyed by the onslaught of the advancing American frontier. In 1830 he traveled west to St. Louis, and he began a series of visits to various tribes, chiefly in the Great Plains. He made more than 500 paintings and sketches based on his observations during his travels and exhibited these works in the United States and Europe from 1837 to 1845 as the ‘Indian Gallery.’ In 1841 he published his best-known book, the two-volume Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, which was illustrated with many engravings" (Britannica). London: by the author, 1841. Two volumes. Octavo, contemporary three-quarter calf over marbled boards rebacked. First issue, with "Frederick" for "Zacharias" on page 104 in vol I. Some rubbing to bindings. Front hinge on volume I split but holding; dampstaining to margin of frontispiece and foxing to endpapers. Plate 5/6 stained, one-page map in volume II with foxing; other plates and maps generally very clean with only the occasional spot of foxing.
Die Radiolarien (Rhizopoda radiolaria); WITH: Die Radiolarien (Zwitter Theil); WITH: Die Radiolarien (Dritter und Vierter Theil)

Die Radiolarien (Rhizopoda radiolaria); WITH: Die Radiolarien (Zwitter Theil); WITH: Die Radiolarien (Dritter und Vierter Theil)

HAECKEL, ERNST VERY RARE COMPLETE SET, WITH 141 LITHOGRAPHED FOLIO PLATES. Complete set of the monograph, including the rare first volume, with a total of 141 beautiful lithographed plates (some colored) after drawings by the author, biologist-artist Ernst Haeckel, based on his microscopic observations of radiolarian species. "Radiolarians are an ancient group of single-celled organisms that have existed since the Proterozoic eon in Precambrian time? Radiolarians are free-swimming protozoa that occur in all the world’s oceans. They are microscopically small, with only some forms reaching a few millimetres in size. Although related to amoebas? radiolarians frequently possess a spherical or helmet-like skeleton whose diversity of form fascinated the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel" (Olaf Breidbach, Ernst Haeckel: Art Forms from the Ocean: The Radiolarian Atlas of 1862). "At the end of November [1859], with just a few months left for his research in Italy, Haeckel finally decided to focus on just one group of animals, the almost unknown radiolaria. ? Initially Haeckel prepared a report on his radiolarian work, which [Wilhelm Peters] presented to the [Berlin Academy of Sciences]? All of this was reiterated, with an elaboration of the systematics of the known species, in Haeckel’s Habilitationsschrift, rendered into Latin and completed in 1861. Yet neither the readers of the academy report nor of the Habilitationsschrift would have been prepared for the large two-volume monograph Haeckel produced in 1862? The first two of these exercises announced a scholar of competence and promise; the latter showed the promise already brilliantly fulfilled. The monograph – which so astonished Darwin and which would be awarded the prestigious Cothenius gold medal of the Leopold-Caroline Academy of German Natural Scientists? displayed through its over 570 pages of the first volume and the 35 copper plates of the second many extraordinary features. "First of all, with his discoveries Haeckel increased by almost half the number of known species of radiolarian. Second, he provided the most careful description of the distinguishing characteristics of the skeletons and soft parts, including extraordinarily exact measurements. He employed, though, some rough models in this effort: he would stud a potato with rods to get the perspective correct, and then allow his painterly eye to take over. The technique yielded not only amazingly precise but beautiful depictions? [O]f considerable significance, he attempted to arrange his species into a ‘natural system’ based on homology? "Haeckel said he was inspired to attempt a natural system because of the extraordinary book he had read while preparing his specimens, [the German translation of Darwin’s Origin of Species]? [T]he zeal of [Haeckel’s] conviction [for Darwin’s theory] never cooled. "What kept Haeckel’s enthusiasm for evolutionary theory glowing was the special contribution he thought he could make, namely, to establish it empirically" (Richards, Robert J., The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought). "Die Radiolarien (Rhizopoda radiolaria). Eine Monographie" (1862); with id., "Zwitter Theil" and "Dritter und Vierter Theil" (1887-88). Four folio (approx. 11×15 inches) volumes bound in three, the original (1862) text and plates in a late 20th-century three-quarter morocco; the 1887-88 volumes in contemporary half cloth over the publisher’s printed boards. (Although the 1862 text and plates were published in separate volumes, they were apparently treated as parts of a single volume for purposes of numbering the 1887-88 publications, which are described as the second, third, and fourth volumes of the monograph.) Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1862; 1887, 1888. Cloth spines on 1887/88 volumes faded. Very handsome copies, with text and plates exceptionally clean. A SCARCE SET, COMPLETE WITH ALL FOUR VOLUMES.
The Works of William Blake; poetic

The Works of William Blake; poetic, symbolic, and critical. Edited with Lithographs of the Illustrated "Prophetic Books," and a Memoir and Interpretation

BLAKE, WILLIAM; YEATS, WILLIAM BUTLER; ELLIS, EDWIN JOHN FIRST EDITION EDITED BY YEATS, with beautiful lithographed reproductions of Blake’s Prophetic Books. One of only 500 copies of the regular paper issue (out of a total of 650). Yeats "marked down William Blake as a master early on, and with Edwin Ellis produced a large-scale commentary on Blake’s prophetic writings in 1893. While often erratic and idiosyncratic, it helped establish the importance of Blake’s esoteric verse" (Dictionary of National Biography). "From 1889 to 1893 Yeats was involved with Edwin Ellis, a minor painter and poet, in a three-volume edition of Blake’s works, with a memoir and interpretation of the symbolism. He was pleased to find that Blake’s ideas harmonized with those of the Theosophists and the Hermetic Students of the Golden Dawn, for he now had the authority of a great poet for using occult material. Blake, in short, bore an astonishing resemblance to Yeats. Here was a lofty justifying precedent" (Richard Ellman, Yeats: The Man and the Masks). This set contains the likely the first reproduced illustrations of Blake’s Prophetic Books and is the first collection to publish Blake’s "Vala, or the Four Zoas". London: Bernard Quaritch, 1893. Quarto, original vibrant green cloth, spines and upper covers elaborately decorated in pictorial gilt with a figure inspired by the frontispiece of Blake’s Songs of Experience. Complete with three portrait frontispieces and many illustrations and lithographed facsimiles, chiefly in volume III. Usual occasional scattered foxing to text (plates generally clean); Contents gathering detached from volume III (only noticeable if you pull it out); light wear to cloth at spines and joints; cover gilt exceptionally bright. A very nice copy of a difficult set to find in collectible condition.
Mathematicae collectiones [Books III- VIII] a Federico Commandino. in latinum conversae et commentariis illustratae

Mathematicae collectiones [Books III- VIII] a Federico Commandino. in latinum conversae et commentariis illustratae

PAPPUS OF ALEXANDRIA FIRST EDITION of arguably the most important source book for the works of the Greek mathematicians. The magnificent Horblit copy in contemporary (probably original) boards. Pappus of Alexandria , (fl 320AD) was "the most important mathematical author writing in Greek during the later Roman Empire, known for his Synagoge ("Collection"), a voluminous account of the most important work done in ancient Greek mathematics. Pappus seldom claimed to present original discoveries, but he had an eye for interesting material in his predecessors’ writings, many of which have not survived outside of his work. As a source of information concerning the history of Greek mathematics, he has few rivals." Pappus’s principal work "was the Synagoge (c. 340), a composition in at least eight books (corresponding to the individual rolls of papyrus on which it was originally written). The only Greek copy of the Synagoge to pass through the Middle Ages lost several pages at both the beginning and the end; thus, only Books 3 through 7 and portions of Books 2 and 8 have survived. A complete version of Book 8 does survive, however, in an Arabic translation. Book 1 is entirely lost, along with information on its contents. Such a range of topics is covered that the Synagoge has with some justice been described as a mathematical encyclopedia. "The Synagoge deals with an astonishing range of mathematical topics; its richest parts, however, concern geometry and draw on works from the 3rd century BC, the so-called Golden Age of Greek mathematics. The longest part of the Synagoge, Book 7, is Pappus’s commentary on a group of geometry books by Euclid, Apollo Eratosthenes of Cyrene, and Aristaeus, collectively referred to as the "Treasury of Analysis." "Analysis" was a method used in Greek geometry for establishing the possibility of constructing a particular geometric object from a set of given objects. The analytic proof involved demonstrating a relationship between the sought object and the given ones such that one was assured of the existence of a sequence of basic constructions leading from the known to the unknown, rather as in algebra. The books of the "Treasury," according to Pappus, provided the equipment for performing analysis. With three exceptions the books are lost, and hence the information that Pappus gives concerning them is invaluable. "Pappus’s Synagoge first became widely known among European mathematicians after 1588, when a posthumous Latin translation by Federico Commandino was printed in Italy. For more than a century afterward, Pappus’s accounts of geometric principles and methods stimulated new mathematical research, and his influence is conspicuous in the work of René Descartes (1596-1650), Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665), and Isaac Newton (1642 [Old Style]-1727), among many others. As late as the 19th century, his commentary on Euclid’s lost Porisms in Book 7 was a subject of living interest for Jean-Victor Poncelet (1788-1867) and Michel Chasles (1793-1880) in their development of projective geometry" (Britannica). Provenance: Harrison D. Horblit, with his bookplate on front pastedown. Pesaro: Girolamo Concordia, 1588. Folio (315x220mm), contemporary (probably original) boards; old paper spine label and ink "Pappus" written on spine; "Pappi Alexandrini" written neatly on bottom edge. Soiling and light wear to boards. Early cross-out of early signature on title, very light marginal dampstaining to a few early gatherings. An outstanding copy with exceptionally wide margins.
The Temple. Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations

The Temple. Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations

HERBERT, GEORGE THE RARE 1633 SECOND EDITION (FOLLOWING THE EXTREMELY SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THE SAME YEAR) OF ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL WORKS OF ENGLISH POETRY. A BEAUTIFUL COPY. "Educated at home, at Westminster School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, [Herbert] was in 1620 elected orator of the university, a position that he described as ‘the finest place in the university.’ His two immediate predecessors in the office had risen to high positions in the state, and Herbert was much involved with the court. During Herbert’s academic career, his only published verse was that written for special occasions in Greek and Latin. By1625 Herbert’s sponsors at court were dead or out of favour, and he turned to the church, being ordained deacon. He resigned as orator in 1627 and in 1630 was ordained priest and became rector at Bemerton. He became friends with Nicholas Ferrar, who had founded a religious community at nearby Little Gidding, and devoted himself to his rural parish and the reconstruction of his church. Throughout his life he wrote poems, and from his deathbed he sent a manuscript volume to Ferrar, asking him to decide whether to publish or destroy them. Ferrar published them with the title The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations in 1633. "Herbert described his poems as ‘a picture of the many spiritual conflicts that have passed between God and my soul, before I could subject mine to the will of Jesus, my Master, in whose service I have now found perfect freedom.’ Herbert shares his conflicts with John Donne, the archetypal metaphysical poet and a family friend. As well as personal poems, The Temple includes doctrinal poems, notably ‘The Church Porch,’ the first in the volume, and the last, ‘The Church Militant.’ Other poems are concerned with church ritual. "The main resemblance of Herbert’s poems to Donne’s is in the use of common language in the rhythms of speech. Some of his poems, such as ‘The Altar’ and ‘Easter Wings,’ are ‘pattern’ poems, the lines forming the shape of the subject. Samuel Taylor Coleridge in the 19th century wrote of Herbert’s diction, ‘Nothing can be more pure, manly, and unaffected.’ Herbert was a versatile master of metrical form and all aspects of the craft of verse" (Britannica). Enormously popular upon publication, The Temple went through thirteen editions by 1709 and appealed to a readership spanning the political and ecclesiastical spectrum: Charles I read Herbert’s poems when imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle before his execution, while at the same time The Temple was undoubtedly admired by at least one of the regicides (Herbert’s own stepfather) and recommended as devotional reading by the chaplain to Oliver Cromwell, Peter Sterry. Herbert’s verses were put to an extraordinary variety of uses: The Temple was cited in treatises against Quakers and to reform ‘drunkards and tipplers’; parts of it were translated into scholarly Latin while other verses were turned into a devotional alphabet for children; lyrics were set to music by Lawes, Purcell, and Blow, and in 1697 a volume of Select Hymns Taken out of Mr Herbert’s ‘Temple’ was published for congregational use (Wilcox, 153-68). The moderate nonconformist Richard Baxter spoke for many seventeenth-century readers when he praised The Temple as a text in which ‘Heart-work and Heaven-work’ were combined (Baxter, sig. A7r)" (Oxford National Biography). Herbert’s reputation was further elevated in the 20th century when the Metaphysical Poets were championed by influential literary figures, most notably T.S. Eliot. Provenance: The Robert S. Pirie copy, bought by Pirie from Seven Gables in 1964; Rufus Greene (inscription on title-page: "London July 23 1728 | Rufus Greene | his Book"); Catharine Amory (inscription on title-page verso: " formerly belonging to her Great Grandfather Rufus Greene"). Cambridge: T. Buck, and R. Daniel, 1633. 12mo (5 3/4 x 3 1/8 in.; 146 x 147 mm), contemporary sheep with blind- and gilt-ruled boards with a gilt angel in the c
A Treatise of Fluxions

A Treatise of Fluxions

NEWTON, ISAAC]. MACLAURIN, COLIN FIRST EDITION of MacLaurin’s most important work, including a strong defense of Isaac Newton and the first full presentation and development of Newton’s calculus. The William Jones- Macclesfield copy. "Colin MacLaurin was a younger contemporary, and to some extent a protégé of Isaac Newton, and he wrote the first thorough, systematic, axiomatic development of the method of fluxions, the Newtonian version of the calculus. MacLaurin’s magnum opus, the Treatise of Fluxions, published in 1742, was begun as a response to Berkeley’s Analyst. MacLaurin founded the method of fluxions on a limit concept drawn from the method of exhaustions in classical geometry, avoiding the use of infinitesimals, infinite processes, and actually infinite quantities, and avoiding any shifting of the hypothesis. In addition, he went on in this treatise of over 760 pages to demonstrate that the method so founded would support the entire received structure of fluxions and the calculus, and could deal effectively with all of the challenge problems then being exchanged between British and continental mathematicians" (Oxford National Biography). Provenance: Williams Jones, the great mathematician and champion and publisher of Newton, with his signed manuscript note on p. 621: "His collection of some 15,000 books was considered to be the most valuable mathematical library in England and was bequeathed to George Parker, the second earl of Macclesfield." The Macclesfield copy, with Macclesfield bookplates and embossed stamps in each volume. Edinburgh: T.W. and T. Ruddimans, 1742. Quarto (234x175mm), contemporary full calf with elaborately gilt-decorated spines. With half-title in volume 1. A little worming in lower margins of first few leaves of volume 2. An outstanding set with a distinguished provenance.
Ariel

Ariel

PLATH, SYLVIA SCARCE UNCORRECTED PROOF OF THE FIRST EDITION OF ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL WORKS OF AMERICAN POETRY. Ariel(1965)-a collection of Plath’s later poems that included ‘Daddy’ and another of her well-known poems, ‘Lady Lazarus’-sparked the growth of a much broader following of devoted and enthusiastic readers than she had during her lifetime. Ariel received a review in The New York Times that praised its ‘relentless honesty,’ ‘sophistication of the use of rhyme,’ and ‘bitter force,’ and Poetry magazine noted ‘a pervasive impatience, a positive urgency to the poems.’ Plath quickly became one of the most popular American poets" (Britannica). Ariel, Plath’s second book of poetry, was (controversially) edited by her husband Ted Hughes and published in 1965, two years after her death. Provenance: With ownership signature of Peter du Sautoy, director and chairman of Faber and Faber, on the front cover: "In 1946 du Sautoy joined Faber and Faber, then at the height of its prestige, largely because he wanted to be poet, but he always kept his personal aspirations in the background out of modesty. He was nevertheless a sensitive and recondite poetry editor, following in the steps of T.S. Eliot, who at the time was gradually retiring from active editorial involvement in the affairs of the company. Du Sautoy continued to accept new poets and other writers and was kind and helpful with advice to those he felt unable to accept at the time. He was made a director in 1946, vice-chairman in 1960 and chairman in 1971, a position he held until his retirement in 1977" (from his Obituary in The Independent, July 19, 1995). London: Faber and Faber, 1965. Octavo, original printed wrappers with only light soiling. EXTREMELY RARE. Uncorrected Proof Copy of the First edition.
Elementorum libri XV una cum scholiis antiquiis [Elements]

Elementorum libri XV una cum scholiis antiquiis [Elements]

EUCLID FIRST EDITION OF THE MAGNIFICENT COMMANDINO EUCLID. THE DE-CHAMBRAY- MACCLESFIELD COPY. "Almost from the time of its writing, the Elements exerted a continuous and major influence on human affairs. It was the primary source of geometric reasoning, theorems, and methods at least until the advent of non-Euclidean geometry in the 19th century. It is sometimes said that, other than the Bible, the Elements is the most translated, published, and studied of all the books produced in the Western world. Euclid. set a standard for deductive and geometric instruction that persisted, practically unchanged, for more than 2,000 years" (Britannica). Translated into Latin with extensive commentary by the noted scholar Federico Commandino. Commandino’s edition was "made use of by subsequent editors for centuries" (Thomas-Stanford). The Commandino Euclid is a gorgeously printed book, profusely illustrated with 865 in-text diagrams. Provenance: Roland Fréart de Chambray, with his ownership signature on front free endpaper (dated Paris, 1645); The Earl of Macclesfield, with his bookplate and embossed stamps from Shirburn Castle, Oxfordshire. de Chambray was an important figure in seventeenth-century French culture. In 1640 he was sent by Richelieu to Rome "to bring back to Paris the best artists of the time with the aim of making France the new artistic centre of the time." (It is likely he brought this copy of Euclid back with him.) He was an influential architectural and aesthetic critic, publishing the widely read Parallel of Antique and Modern Architecture in 1650 and translating into French the works of Palladio and Da Vinci. (Lefaivre and Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture). The library of the Earl of Macclesfield was one of the most renowned scientific libraries ever assembled, remaining largely untouched since the 18th-century until it was sold in a series of sales in 2004-2005. At the time, the Macclesfield sale realized the highest total ever for any sale of scientific books and manuscripts. Elementorum libri XV una cum scholiis antiquiis. A Federico Commandino Urbinate nuper in latinum conversi, commentariisque quibusdam illustrati. Pesaro: Camillo Franceschini, 1572. Folio (209x300mm), early full calf rebacked with original spine laid-down, gilt-ruled boards and gilt-decorated spine; edges speckled red. A few early notations in margins (possibly de Chambray’s). Very occasional light browning but text exceptionally clean; CCC2 torn in margin. A few scuffs to binding. An outstanding wide-margined copy with distinguished provenance.
Autograph Letter Signed

Autograph Letter Signed

GRANT, ULYSSES S. THE END OF THE CIVIL WAR: IN THE LAST WEEKS OF THE WAR, GRANT DIRECTS HIS GENERALS FOR THE FINAL PUSH ON RICHMOND AND PETERSBURG. By March, 1865, the Richard-Petersburg campaign was in its ninth month of operation and the Union forces were putting a stranglehold around General Lee’s vaunted Army of Northern Virginia. The Union army was getting reports from Confederate deserters detailing the desperate state of Lee’s army due to lack of food and supplies. It seemed only a matter of time before Lee would have to make a move: either try to flee with his army, or surrender to the Union forces. The Union forces were in control of the waterways surrounding the Confederate capital of Richmond and began to press their advantage. Norfolk and Ft. Monroe, VA were at the mouth of the James River to the southeast of Richmond, and White House, VA lay to the northwest along the South Fork Shenandoah River and by mid-March Grant was keenly concerned with gathering and organizing his troops along these strategic strongholds. On March 14, Grant sent orders for Colonel Sumner to "report by telegraph his arrival at Norfolk to Gen. Ord" and had ordered Major General Philip Sheridan to move his forces to White House. In the present letter – sent on March 16 – Grant’s tone changes, reflecting newfound urgency. From his headquarters in City Point, Virginia (at the meeting of the James and Appomattox Rivers, near Richmond), Grant writes to Major General Edward Ord of the mighty Army of the James: "Maj. Gen. Ord, You can send a dispatch to F. Monroe and Norfolk directing that when Sumner reaches there he will come up the river without debarking his troops. I think he will not leave White House earlier than tomorrow noon. Last night Sheridan had not reached there." [signed] U.S. Grant Lt. Gen. Lee’s vulnerability was now at a critical stage and the final push was on. There was no time to waste, no time for the troops to rest at Ft. Monroe and Norfolk, but rather press up the river towards Petersburg and Richmond. Sheridan would reach White House on 18 March and Ord began to coordinate his (and Sumner’s) troop movements with Sheridan’s. On 20 March, Grant felt comfortable enough with the situation to write to his father "I think we will be able to wind up matters about Richmond soon. The rebellion has lost its vitality and if I am not much mistaken there will be no rebel Army of any great dimentions a few weeks hence." Grant’s prophecy became true: On April 2, Grant entered Petersburg and Lee’s army was on the run and by April 9, a trapped Lee surrendered his forces to General Grant, effectively ending the war. The recipient of the letter, General Edward Ord, "was one of Grant’s favorites, a twice-wounded West Point veteran whom he appreciated as ‘skillful in the management of troops. brave and prompt’" (Chernow, Grant). Edwin Vose Sumner, Jr., at the time of this letter, was the colonel of the 1st New York Mounted Rifles. Included in The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, Vol. 14. Magnificently framed in a shadow-box style with a portrait of Grant and illustrative engraved plaques. Autograph letter signed: "U.S. Grant / Lt. Gen." On official letterhead with "Head Quarters Armies of the United States" printed along top. Dated: "City Point, Va. March 16th 1865" in Grant’s hand. "Sent" written in a different hand in top left corner. Pinhole in top left margin, two mild folds; nearly fine condition with ink strong. One sheet, 7.5 x 10 inches; framed to an overall size of 33 x 30 inches. A RARE AND IMPORTANT GRANT LETTER CONCERNING TROOP MOVEMENTS DURING THE CLIMACTIC FINAL WEEKS OF THE WAR.
Mutable loci in maize. [WITH:] Some parallels between gene control systems in maize and in bacteria

Mutable loci in maize. [WITH:] Some parallels between gene control systems in maize and in bacteria

McCLINTOCK, BARBARA FIRST EDITION OFFPRINT of the first of the papers documenting McClintock’s discovery of ‘control elements,’ for which she was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. "Between 1948 and 1951, McClintock carried out a series of sophisticated experiments with variegated maize that revealed mobile genetic elements that could move from one chromosome to another. Since the mobile elements possessed the ability to alter the function of neighboring genes, McClintock called them ‘control elements.’ Because of the focus, in the 1950’s, on the discovery by Watson and Crick of the structure of DNA and its genetic implications, McClintock’s discovery of ‘jumping genes’ was not appreciated at the time. Although she had suggested that mobile genetic elements were probably present in insects and higher organisms, it was not until the mid-1960’s that mobile elements were found to play a role in the spread of antibiotic resistance from resistant to sensitive strains of bacteria. In the 1970’s, the formation of antibodies was found to be based in genetic transposition. In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, it was discovered that growth-regulating genes, or oncogenes, are transposed from one chromosome to another in certain forms of cancer. McClintock’s discovery of mobile genetic elements in maize has counterparts in bacteria, animals, and humans; more-over, it also helped to explain how genes can change during evolution and to elucidate a series of complicated medical problems" (Magill 3, pp. 1435-4). In the second offered paper, McClintock first suggested the existence of mobile genetic elements in bacteria. F. N. Magill, The Nobel Prize Winners: Physiology or Medicine, 1991; L. Pray & K. Zhaurova, ‘Barbara McClintock and the discovery of jumping genes (transposons),’ Nature Education, Vol. 1 (2008). Provenance: With ink stamp of Norman H[enry] Giles (1915-2006) on "Mutable loci". Giles was an American microbial geneticist who studied mutations of Neurospora crassa. "Mutable loci in maize." Offprint from: Annual Report of the Director of the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 47, for the year 1947-1948. Washington: Carnegie Institution. [With:] "Some parallels between gene control systems in maize and in bacteria." Offprint from: The American Naturalist, Vol. XCV, No. 884, September-October, 1961 8vo, pp. 155-169 & 265-277. Self-wrappers, McClintock’s name written on first page of both offprints. RARE.
A New Modification of the Cloud Method of Determining the Elementary Electrical Charge and the Most Probable Value of that Charge

A New Modification of the Cloud Method of Determining the Elementary Electrical Charge and the Most Probable Value of that Charge

MILLIKAN, ROBERT ANDREWS FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the account of Millikan’s famous experiment, later known as the ‘oil-drop experiment’, in which he first provided the definitive proof that all electrical charges are exact multiples of a definite, fundamental value-the charge of the electron. Millikan’s experiment is nowadays known as the ‘oil-drop experiment’ due to a later improvement by Millikan and his student Harvey Fletcher in 1910 – using oil in the cloud chamber – but it was in this paper (although water and alcohol were the liquids used) that Millikan first made precise measurements of the charge on single isolated droplets instead of as earlier just statistical averages on the surface of clouds of droplets. Although important, the fundamental breakthrough in Millikan’s work was not his measurement of the actual value of the electron’s charge (in fact he was as close to the correct value in this paper dated October 1909 as he was in the later oil experiment of 1910), but the fact that Millikan was able to produce, isolate, and observe single droplets with electrical charges, and show that repeated measurements of the charges always revealed exact integral multiples of one fundamental unity value. Previous experiments by Thomson and Wilson had in fact revealed the same value of the electron’s charge as Millikan’s experiment did but their determinations were based on statistical averages on the surface of large clouds of numerous water droplets and repeated measurements on the clouds gave fractional values of the electron’s charge. This fact implied to some antiatomistic Continental physicists that it was not the constant of a unique particle but a statistical average of diverse electrical energies. However, in this 1909 experiment Millikan showed that his single droplets could not hold a fractional charge but always had a charge that was an exact integral multiple of an electron’s charge (e.g., 2e, 3e, 4e, ?). In 1910 Millikan and Fletcher improved and simplified the whole experiment by using oil, mercury, and glycerin as liquids instead of water; they could now observe the droplets for several hours instead of just under one minute and also neglect having to compensate for the evaporation of the water and alcohol droplets. And thus the experiment became known as the ‘oil-drop experiment’, but the crucial breakthrough had already taken place in this 1909 experiment. In this paper Millikan emphasized that the very nature of his data refuted conclusively the minority of scientists who still held that electrons (and perhaps atoms too) were not necessarily fundamental, discrete particles. And he provided a value for the electronic charge which, when inserted in Niels Bohr’s theoretical formula for the hydrogen spectrum, accurately gave the Rydberg constant-the first and most convincing proof of Bohr’s quantum theory of the atom. In 1923 Millikan became the first American-born Nobel laureate for this work together with his1916 determination of Planck’s constant on the basis of Einstein’s theory of the photoelectric effect. Contained in: The Philosophical Magazine for February 1910, vol 19, no. 110, pp. 209-228. Octavo, original wrappers. London: Taylor & Francis, 1910. The entire issue offered here, uncut and unopened in the original blue printed wrappers (spine strip with some very good restoration, hardly noticable). Rare in wrappers in such good condition.
Photograph Signed

Photograph Signed

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE BEAUTIFUL SIGNED AND INSCRIBED PHOTOGRAPH OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT. Signed and inscribed by Roosevelt in ink on the matte below the image: "Inscribed for / Thruston Ballard / with the high regard of / Theodore Roosevelt / Feb 6th 1915". The photograph depicts a classic Roosevelt image, looking straight at the camera and elegantly attired in jacket, waistcoat and tie with his classic pince-nez. With "Copyright Harris & Ewing, Washington, D.C." blind-stamp on the bottom left of the image. Harris & Ewing was a prominent photographic studio (by the 1930s it was the largest in the United States) based in Washington, D.C. It was formed by George W. Harris and Martha Ewing in 1905 under the encouragement of Theodore Roosevelt after Harris had served as part of Roosevelt’s press entourage. The dedicatee, S. Thruston Ballard (1855-1926), was a contemporary politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky from 1919-1923. Image: 6×9 in; including original matte: approx. 8.25 x 11.5 in; archivally framed and matted under UV-protecting glass to an overall size of approx. 12×15 in. Washington, D.C.: Harris & Ewing, 1915. Silver print. Silvering around Harris & Ewing blindstamp, otherwise photograph strikingly fine, with signature and inscription exceptionally sharp. Uniform (and quite handsome) age-toning to matte, with whiter border visible that was presumably hidden under a previous frame. A RARE SIGNED AND INSCRIBED CLASSIC IMAGE OF ROOSEVELT.
Le Petit Prince [The Little Prince]

Le Petit Prince [The Little Prince]

SAINT-EXUPÉRY, ANTOINE DE FIRST EDITION IN THE ORIGINAL FRENCH OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S MOST BELOVED BOOKS. The Little Prince was "published in French, with [Saint-Exupéry’s] own watercolor illustrations, as Le Petit Prince in 1943. Translated into hundreds of languages, some 150 million copies of the novella have sold worldwide, making it one of the best-selling books in publishing history. "Saint-Exupéry believed firmly that children see the important things in life-such as the bonds of friendship and responsibility-more clearly than adults do because they see with their hearts, not just with their eyes. (‘One sees clearly only with the heart,’ says the fox to the prince in the story’s most quoted lines. ‘The essential is invisible to the eye.’) In other words, children see with awe what adults look at with cynicism, and in the conversations between the pilot and the Little Prince the former is reminded of what childhood was like. By the end of the book he has been changed totally by the encounter. "Younger children have long loved this simple story, while older readers have been moved by its deep and multilayered message" (Cathy Lowne, Britannica). Note: The French-language edition and English-language edition (The Little Prince, translated by Katherine Woods) were both issued in New York (where Saint-Exupery was living) in April 1943, with the English issued a few days before the French. It was not published in France until after the liberation in late 1945. With correct first printing points: $2.00 and Reynal and Hitchcock’s Fourth Avenue address on the dust jacket; page 63 with the "mark of the raven" on the illustration. Housed in a spectacular custom half-leather box by noted book artist Sjoerd Hofstra. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1943. Small quarto, original light brown cloth with illustration on front board, original pictorial dust jacket. With color illustrations by the author throughout. Book exceptionally fine; dust jacket with some toning (as usual), particularly to spine; rear panel with uniform toning except for rectangular patch that is not toned. A particularly nice copy of a book that is prone to wear and notoriously difficult to find in collectible condition. Original cloth, original dust jacket
Typed Letter Signed

Typed Letter Signed

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE PASSIONATE AND IMPORTANT LETTER BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT DEFINING THE NATURE OF THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY. The letter, signed and typed by Roosevelt on letterhead of The Outlook magazine (where Roosevelt was a contributor and associate editor) and dated February 14, 1913, is addressed to Progressive Party Committeeman Henry Wallace and reads in full: The Outlook 287 Fourth Avenue New York February 14, 1913 My dear Mr. Wallace, I have written a letter to Mr Watkins which I hope he will show you. Michigan is to elect a number of State officer and various county, city and township officers this Spring. I hope we shall have a straight Progressive ticket put up in the State and in every city and township. I see in the press that the regulars of the Republican Party are endeavoring to absorb our representatives. Now the Progressive Party stands for principals, not men. We have in our ranks very many ex-Democrats just as we have very many ex-Republicans. Our loyalty is due to both. The present Republican Party is under the absolute control of the men who stole from the rank and file of the Republican Party last June their right to their own choice for President, when Mr Taft was fraudulently nominated; and he and his supporters Messrs Barnes, Penrose, Guggenheim, Lorimer and company have no claim to the support of any honest man. The men who follow and support these men can have nothing in common with our plans and ideas of government. The Progressive Party was formed on principles which we believe to be eternal, which will live long after the men of this generation have been gathered to their fathers. We are the spiritual heirs of Abraham Lincoln. The feat accomplished last election was an extraordinary feat. It is necessary to continue with the organization and to make a clearcut fight against both the old party machines. I earnest hope that you will make as hard a fight in Michigan as you know how for a straight-out Progressive ticket. Incidentally let me say that the unjustifiable action of the returning officer of Michigan in stealing away from the legally elected candidate in the Twelfth District his office, should be used for all that it is worth. This action of itself shows that the Republican leaders in Michigan are not to be trusted in any shape or way, and that their protestations of good conduct are worse than worthless. Wherever the Republican Party has had the opportunity since election, as in Maine and Massachusetts, it has put in office reactionaries, men of the old machine, men committed to the system of bossism in politics and privilege in business. In Michigan in the Twelfth Congressional District these men showed that they are still committed to the principal [corrected by hand to "practice"] of utter political dishonesty, and to the breaking down of the power of the people in favor of the bosses. We are fighting for great principles, and we are also fighting for honest citizenship against dishonesty in citizenship. We have a right to hope that Michigan will come to the front on this issue. I would rather that you did not make this letter public, but if you desire that any letter shall be made public, if you will write to me I will answer it along substantially the lines of this letter. Faithfully yours, [signed] Theodore Roosevelt Background: The date is February 14, 1913. The past year – the election year of 1912 – had been quite eventful for Theodore Roosevelt and for the nation. Tensions were high within the Republican Party after President William Howard Taft, presidential successor to Roosevelt and fellow Republican, failed to carry out the anti-trust crusade that Roosevelt had begun in his own presidential term. Infighting and hostility during the 1912 Republican National Convention in Michigan led to a major schism in the Republican party; namely, the creation of the "Progressive" or "Bull Moose" Party led by Theodore Roosevelt, the Party’s presidential candidate. Although Roosevelt lost to the Democrat Woodrow Wilson, he received more votes than the Republican Taft, becoming the only third-party candidate in U.S. history to finish higher than third in a presidential election; it was because of the splitting the Republican votes between Taft and Roosevelt that Democrat Woodrow Wilson was able to seize the victory. During this tumultuous political moment, Roosevelt reveals in this letter to Progressive Party Committeeman Henry Wallace what he views to be the essence of the Party and outlines a plan for the future. Defining the Progressive Party: Roosevelt emphasizes that the Progressive Party stands for "principles, not men", noting specifically that "The Progressive Party was formed on principles which we believe to be eternal, which will live long after the men of this generation have been gathered to their fathers. We are the spiritual heirs of Abraham Lincoln." This a critical point for Roosevelt as he tries to elevate the Party beyond the personalities of the moment. It also allows him to underscore the corrupt nature of the Republican Party which (as opposed to the Progressives, according to Roosevelt) has become a reflection of the self-interest of a handful of powerful men. Roosevelt then names some of these men to further illustrate their influence and to reinforce one of his major themes: that it is essential for the Progressives to work hard to restore power to the citizens. On the failures of the Michigan convention and his plan for the future of the Party: "Michigan is to elect a number of State officer and various county, city and township officers this Spring. I hope we shall have a straight Progressive ticket put up in the State and in every city and township. I see in the press that the regulars of the Republican Party are endeavoring to absorb our representatives." One of the central tenants of the Progressive platform was a restructuring of American politics through the growth and development of localized parties to best foster direct links between governm
Instauratio magna [Novum organum]

Instauratio magna [Novum organum]

BACON, FRANCIS FIRST EDITION OF ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE: FRANCIS BACON’S ARGUMENT FOR AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD. A BEAUTIFUL COPY. "The writings of Lord Bacon, and especially the "Novum Organum," possess a fourfold interest: They have a direct bearing upon the history of philosophy, literature, logic, and physical science; and whatever estimate we may form of their influence upon each of these branches of knowledge, we think that few will fail to admit that Bacon threw a bridge over that vast and deep gulf which separates the ancient from the modern modes of thought, and directly opened a way to our present philosophy and science" (G.F. Rodwell, Bacon’s Novum Organum). Bacon "insisted on experiment in determining truth in nature and the above book is a proposed method for the assessment of all knowledge. The accumulation of observation and fact must be the basis of a new philosophy and not the authority of Aristotle or anyone else. Bacon’s inspiration led directly to the formation of the Royal Society. The famous engraved title-page showing a ship boldly sailing beyond the Pillars of Hercules (the limits of the old world) is interpreted to represent the bold spirit of adventure and research of the new age of science" (Dibner 80). "Bacon conceived a massive plan for the reorganization of scientific method an gave purposeful thought to the relation of science to public and social life. His pronouncement ‘I have taken all knowledge to be my province’ is the motto of his work. The frontispiece to his magnum opus shows a ship in full sail passing through the Pillars of Hercules from the old to the new world. It symbolizes the vision of its author whose ambitious proposal was: ‘a total reconstruction of sciences, arts and all human knowledge. to extend the power and dominion of the human race. over the universe’" (Printing and the Mind of Man 119). Second issue (as usual) with "Billium" only (omitting Bill Norton) in colophon and added errata. Complete with the famous engraved title by Simon van de Passe. London: John Bill, 1620. Folio (292×190 mm), contemporary full calf rebacked with original spine laid-down; custom box. Some soiling to binding and repairs to corners. Title page with early signature and notation in top margin, a few scattered rust spots, tiny tear to corner of B2. Overall, text extremely clean and crisp with wide margins. AN OUTSTANDING COPY OF ONE OF THE FOUNDATIONAL WORKS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE.
Paterson: Books I-V
Grapefruit

Grapefruit

ONO, YOKO EXTREMELY RARE FIRST EDITION of Yoko Ono’s highly influential conceptual art book, SIGNED AND INSCRIBED BY YOKO ONO on the front free endpaper: "To Claire / Yoko / 1965, Summer". One of only 500 copies, published by Ono’s own imprint, Wunternaum Press, in Tokyo. "Somewhere between Zen poetry and a series of instructions for living, Grapefruit is literature as conceptual art, a sheaf of ‘event scores’ that suggest how to turn daily life into something more engaged. Perhaps the best-known effort in the collection is ‘Cloud Piece,’ originally composed in 1963, which reads, in its entirety: Imagine the clouds dripping. / Dig a hole in your garden to /put them in. It appeared on the back cover of Lennon’s 1971 album ‘Imagine’ and is said to have inspired the title track? "I’ve loved Grapefruit from the moment I laid eyes on it, loved its sense of whimsy, its sense of play. The instructions range from the inspirational (‘A dream you dream alone may be a dream, but a dream two people dream together is a reality’) to the prosaic (‘Step in all the puddles in the city’) to the surreal? What all this has to offer is a way of thinking, of being conscious in the world. The universe is a place of wonder, Ono means to tell us, but we must remind ourselves to look. This is the key to creativity, to being present, which Grapefruit insists, begins with every one of us" (David L. Ulin, Los Angeles Times, 2/8/13). "Yoko hooked John’s support for her artwork with a copy of her book Grapefruit, which she sent to him the following spring; he may have likened the instructionals therein as similar to Timothy Leary’s. With a £5000 contribution, he finally sponsored her ‘Yoko Plus Me’ show–a.k.a ‘Half a Wind Show,’ where the entire contents of an all-white bedroom were displayed neatly cut in half–at the Lisson Gallery, October 9–November 14, 1967. Thus began a collaboration that in the coming year would change his life and have great significant for the Beatles" (Walter Everett, The Beatles as Musicians). Small square quarto (5 1/2 x 5 1/2 in), original perfect-bound paper wrappers. Soiling to wrappers (as always), upper joint split at bottom and possibly later adhesive added to upper joint (presumably to prevent the first few leaves from separating – a common problem with this book). Housed in a custom box by noted book artist Sjoerd Hofstra. SCARCE, especially signed.
A Mathematical Theory of Communication; Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems

A Mathematical Theory of Communication; Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems

SHANNON, CLAUDE FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF BOTH PARTS of Shannon’s extremely influential theory of communication and essential to the development of the computer. WITH: Shannon’s important paper on cryptography. Virtually all electronic forms of communication today are indebted to Shannon’s work. "In 1948, Dr. Shannon published his masterpiece, ‘A Mathematical Theory of Communication,’ giving birth to the science called information theory. The motivation again was practical: how to transmit messages while keeping them from becoming garbled by noise. To analyze this problem properly, he realized, he had to come up with a precise definition of information, a dauntingly slippery concept. The information content of a message, he proposed, has nothing to do with its content but simply with the number of 1’s and 0’s that it takes to transmit it. This was a jarring notion to a generation of engineers who were accustomed to thinking of communication in terms of sending electromagnetic waveforms down a wire. ‘Nobody had come close to this idea before,’ Dr. Gallager said. ‘This was not something somebody else would have done for a very long time. The overarching lesson was that the nature of the message did not matter – it could be numbers, words, music, video. Ultimately it was all just 1’s and 0’s.’ Today, when gigabytes of movie trailers, Napster files and e-mail messages course through the same wires as telephone calls, the idea seems almost elemental. But it has its roots in Dr. Shannon’s paper, which may contain the first published occurrence of the word "’bit’." (New York Times, obit. 27 Feb, 2001). "American mathematician Claude Shannon developed information theory by 1948. He reduced the notion of information to a series of yes/no choices, which could be presented by a binary code. Each choice, or piece of information, he called a ‘bit.’ In this way, complex information could be organized according to strict mathematical principles. His methods, although devised in the context of engineering and technology, were soon seen to have applications not only to computer design but to virtually every subject in which language was important, such as linguistics, psychology, cryptography, and phonetics; further applications were possible in any area where the transmission of information in any form was important" (Mount and List, Milestones, 65; Dictionary of Scientists, 436). On "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems: "The seeds of Shannon’s information theory appeared first in a Bell Labs classified memorandum dated 1 September 1945, "A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography." It was declassified and published in a revised form after World War II as "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems," in the Bell System Technical Journal. "Cryptographic problems fit well with information theory. Shannon saw that the encoding of military messages into secret codes theoretically amounted to adding deceptive noise to the original messages. By using the appropriate equipment at the receiver end, the disguised message can be decoded by removing the noise (that is if one understood how the noise had been generated at the encoding end of the process). So the classified cryptography research that Claude Shannon conducted at Bell Labs was a specific application of his emerging information theory. Given that Shannon was developing his information theory at the same time that he worked on cryptography, it is not surprising that he utilized such terms as ‘encoding’ and ‘noise’ in his communication model" (Ruben, Between Communication and Information). In The Bell System Technical Journal, Volume XXVII, No. 3 & 4, p.379-423 (part I, July 1948) & p.623-656 (part II, October 1948). WITH: Volume XXVIII, No, 4, (October 1949), pp. 656-715. New York: American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 1948-1949. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. With contents/index sheets (separately stapled pamphlets, as issued) for Vol XXVII (1948) and Vol XXVIII (1949). Fading to wrapper
L'Apocalisse [The Apocalypse]

L’Apocalisse [The Apocalypse]

DE CHIRICO, GIORGIO ONE OF THE MOST MAGNIFICENT ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF THE 20TH CENTURY: de Chirico’s series of original lithographs illustrating The Apocalypse, complete with 20 large lithographs – 10 hand-colored with pastels – EACH SIGNED BY DE CHIRICO. With an important provenance: An out-of-commerce copy (out of an edition of only 150 numbered copies) for Massimo Bontempelli, who wrote the introduction. "It was almost certainly the feeling of impending doom during the Second World War (1939-1945) that drew de Chirico to illustrate the Apocalypse. He may have felt particularly threatened because his wife, Isabella, was Jewish. He may also have been attracted by the fantastical aspect of the Revelations of St John the Divine in the Bible. De Chirico was also very interested in the work of great artists of the past, and would have been familiar with many earlier Apocalypse illustrations, particularly those by the Renaissance German artist Albrecht Dürer. Parallels can be drawn between Dürer’s illustrations and de Chirico’s for many of the plates." (Victoria and Albert Museum). Provenance: An out-of-commerce copy with "Massimo Bontempelli" printed in the colophon. WITH: A letter from the editor Raffaele Carrieri dated Milan, 16 December 1940, to Bontempelli, asking him to write the introduction. The letter (translated from the original Italian) reads: "Dear Bontempelli, Mrs. Marzoli called you to request the introduction to and adaptation of the Apocalypse. We have not received any answers yet. I would very much like your name to be linked to this great work that, as you know, will be illustrated by Giorgio De Chirico with twenty large original lithographs. Please, as I urgently need to finish, let me know something about it soon. Good work. I shake your hand, Yours. " Signed by Carrieri and with the additional autograph comment: "Your Colombo is fabulous!". Bontempelli would indeed write the introduction and this copy contains corrections to the text in pencil, almost certainly made by Bontempelli. Bontempelli (1878-1960) was a major figure in Italian and European literature and art in the first half of the 20th century, spreading surrealism and futurism in his work as poet, novelist, dramatist, and critic. He won countless awards, including the prestigious Strega Prize – Italy’s highest literary award – for a collection of surrealistic stories. Total edition: 150 numbered copies, printed on Japan paper in the Officina d’Arte Grafica A. Lucini & C. in Milan, on April 5, 1941. The lithographs were printed by hand in the studio of the painter Piero Fornasetti and are all signed by de Chirico in pencil. Milan: Edizioni Della Chimera, 1941. Folio (347 x 272 mm), original illustrated wrappers, original glassine, original chemise. Illustrated with 20 lithographs signed by De Chirico, of which 10 are colored by hand with pastels. Title page in red and black. Initials in red. Original wrappers with illustration by de Chirico on front cover. Without original slipcase around chemise, but with custom box by noted book artist Sjoerd Hofstra. Some wear to chemise, book and plates in fine condition. A SCARCE, COMPLETE COPY WITH A STRONG PROVENANCE.
Zur Quantentheorie aperiodischer Vorgänge

Zur Quantentheorie aperiodischer Vorgänge

BORN, MAX; JORDAN, PASCUAL EXTREMELY RARE FIRST EDITION OFFPRINT of a critical paper by Max Born and Pascual Jordan that "defines the direction towards a valid Quantum Theory". "The decisive step, which defines the direction towards a valid Quantum Theory, is contained in the publication by Max Born and Pascual Jordan (Z. Phys. 33, 11 June 1925)? Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics without Quantum Optics is logically inconsistent; quantization of the action variable has to affect all physical variables ands all lakes of nature. Born’s conviction was strengthened by new experimental information, which had become available. Coincidence experiments by W. Bothe and H. Geiger had shown that Einstein’s photon concept requiring momentum and energy conservation for all elementary processes gained strong support from their experimental results on the Compton Effect? "In is in this paper of June 1925 that Born’s quantization concept is extended from Quantum Mechanics to include Quantum Optics. The introduction of Quantenmechanik by Born had been based on quantization of the action variable, requiring discontinuous dynamic; but this same reasoning has to affect not only mechanical variables but the radiation field as well. Born and Jordan introduce the expression "Quantenoptik", attributing its basic laws to Einstein. Born’s intention to transform continuous classical mechanics into a discontinuous Quantum Mechanics logically had to be compatible with Einstein’s Quantum Optics. "A general principle is formulated, which serves as guide on the path from classical to quantum behavior: ‘A fundamental principle of wide range and fruitfulness states that the true laws of nature contain only such quantities which can be observed and determined in principle.’" (Herbert Capellmann, The Development of Elementary Quantum Theory). Born and Jordan’s "fundamental principle" provides philosophical underpinning for their following papers of 1925 and 1926 that, along with Heisenberg’s work, established the theoretical foundation for quantum mechanics. Max Born shared (1/2) of the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction". OFFPRINT ("SONDERABDRUCK") FROM: Zeitschrift Für Physik, Band 33, Heft 7, pp. 479-505. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1925. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. Stamp of the Dunbar Laboratory, Harvard on rear wrapper. Only very minor wear. In outstanding condition. RARE.
Die formale Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. [The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity]

Die formale Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. [The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity]

EINSTEIN, ALBERT FIRST EDITION, COMMERCIAL OFFPRINT ISSUE, of Einstein’s important 1914 paper on the development of general relativity. "In summer 1914, Einstein felt that the new theory [general relativity] should be presented in a comprehensive review. He also felt that a mathematical derivation of the field equations that would determine them uniquely was still missing. "Both tasks are addressed in a long paper, presented in October 1914 to the Prussian Academy for publication in its Sitzungsberichte. It is entitled ‘The formal foundation of the general theory of relativity’; here, for the first time, Einstein gave the new theory of relativity the epithet ‘general’ in lieu of the more cautious ‘generalized’ that he had used for the Entwurf" (Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940). "According to John Norton (‘How Einstein Found His Field Equations’), this major review article was intended to convey the full content of the 1913 ‘Entwurf’ theory: ‘The principal novelty lies in the mathematical formulation of the theory. Drawing on earlier work with [Marcel] Grossman, Einstein formulated his gravitational field equations using a variation principle. Using this richer mathematical structure Einstein offered a proof purporting to demonstrate that his theory had the maximum covariance compatible with the hole argument; that is, covariance under ‘justified’ transformation between the ‘adapted coordinate systems’ he had introduced with Grossman’" (Calaprice, The Einstein Almanac). Offprint from: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, XLI, 19 November 1914, pp. 1030-1085. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1914. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. Neat early ownership name on front wrapper. Only the slightest wear; a fine copy. Rare.
Autograph Letter Signed [ALS]

Autograph Letter Signed [ALS]

FAULKNER, WILLIAM WILLIAM FAULKNER GIVES ADVICE AND ENCOURAGEMENT TO A YOUNG ASPIRING WRITER. Dated March 15, 1937 and addressed to William Stevens at Swarthmore College, the letter reads in full: "Dear Mr. Stevens, Thank you for your letter about ‘Jefferson’ article. I see no reason why a man should not write about anything he wants to, granted he either knows about it or feels deeply and sincerely about it. Carry on with it and good luck to you. [Signed] Wm Faulkner Beverly Hills. Cal. 15 March 1937" Faulkner, of course, was famous for writing what he "knows about", namely the American South, creating an entire fictional world based upon his experiences growing up in Mississippi. Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for 1949 "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel." The recipient, Willam Stevens, graduated with a B.A. from Swarthmore in 1937 (the same year of this letter). The "Jefferson" article Faulkner refers to was Stevens’s thesis on Faulkner titled "The Jefferson Chronicles of William Faulkner". With the original envelope addressed by Faulkner and signed by him above the return address. The envelope is from the Twentieth-Century Fox Film Corporation where Faulkner was working at the time as a screenwriter. One page (8.5×11 inches); custom folder. Usual mailing folds, a few spots of soiling. SCARCE: Faulkner letters with any literary content are exceedingly rare on the market.
Nova Stereometria doliorum vinariorum

Nova Stereometria doliorum vinariorum

KEPLER, JOHANNES SCARCE FIRST EDITION of one of the most significant works in the prehistory of calculus. With the rare errata leaf present in two variant states. "The task of writing a complete treatise on volumetric determination seems to have been suggested to Kepler by the prosaic problem of determining the best proportions for a wine cask. The result was the Nova stereometria, which appeared in 1615. This contains three parts, of which the first is on Archimedean stereometry, together with a supplement containing some ninety-two solids not treated by Archimedes. The second part is on the measurement of Austrian wine barrels, and the third on applications of the whole" (Boyer, The History of the Calculus). Kepler’s basic method was to regard the circle as a polygon with an infinite number of sides and its area as being composed of an infinite number of infinitesimal triangles with vertex at the centre of the circle and base one of the sides of the polygon. Similarly, the volume of a sphere was made up of an infinite number of pyramids, the cone and cylinder of infinitely thin circular discs or of infinitesimal wedge-shaped segments radiating from the axis. "Kepler then extended his work to solids not considered by the ancients. The areas of the segments cut from a circle by a chord he rotated about this chord, obtaining solids which he designated characteristically as apple or citron-shaped, according as the generating segment was greater or less than a semi-circle. Kepler’s Doliometha. exerted such a strong influence in the infinitesimal considerations which followed its appearance, and which culminated a half century later in the work of Newton, that it has been called [by Moritz Cantor] the source of inspiration for all later cubatures" (Boyer). Kepler’s book on integration methods also contains the germ of the differential calculus. "The subject of the measurement of wine casks had led Kepler to the problem of determining the best proportions for these. This brought him to the consideration of a number of problems on maxima and minima . he showed, among other things, that of all right parallelepipeds inscribed in a sphere and having square bases, the cube is the largest, and that of all right circular cylinders having the same diagonal, that one is greatest which has the diameter and altitude in the ratio of [square root of 2]:1. These results were obtained by making up tables in which were listed the volumes for given sets of values of the dimension. He remarked that as the maximum volume was approached, the change in volume for a given change in the dimensions became smaller" (Boyer). Kepler had noted, in modern terms, that when a maximum occurs the rate of change becomes zero, a basic principle of the differential calculus that is usually credited to Fermat later in the century. Nova Stereometria doliorum vinariorum, in primis Austriaci, figurae omnium aptissimae; et usus in eo virgae cubicae compendiosossimus & plane singularis. Accessit Stereometriae Archimedae Supplememtum. Linz: J. Plancus for the author, 1615. Folio, contemporary calf sympathetically rebacked. With two errata leaves, woodcut on H3v shaved at foot as usual, occasional foxing, small closed tears to final leaf; a very good crisp copy. RARE.
Typed Letter Signed

Typed Letter Signed

EINSTEIN, ALBERT EINSTEIN RESPONDS TO A STUDENT, EXPLAINING A CENTRAL TENET OF RELATIVITY. The schoolboy David Cumberland had answered a test question saying that vertical lines are parallel; his answer, however, was marked as incorrect by his teacher on the grounds that the lines would converge at the earth’s center. After Cumberland insisted he was correct, the teacher made a deal with him: if he could find an authority that would support his claim, his grade would be changed. Cumberland, apparently quite an enterprising young student, wrote to Einstein asking if vertical lines are indeed parallel and Einstein, in the present letter, responded, using relativity theory to provide support for the student’s test answer: October 28, 1950 Mr. David Cumberland 924 S.E. 2nd Str. Fort Lauderdale, FL Dear Sir: The concept "vertical" has meaning only with respect to the earth and cannot be used beyond that context. But there is the other concept, lines vertical to an euclidian plane. Those lines are parallel. Sincerely yours, [signed] A. Einstein Albert Einstein. One of the central components of relativity is that our understanding of space and time is subject to the relevant frame of reference. In this letter, Einstein uses relativity – namely a shift in the frame of reference – to prove that boy’s answer can be interpreted to be correct. Upon showing his teacher Einstein’s letter, the boy’s grade was indeed raised. One 8.5×11 inch sheet of Institute for Advanced Study letterhead. Usual folds; some water spots to page, not affecting text. A WONDERFUL LETTER SHOWING A VERY HUMAN SIDE OF EINSTEIN AND EXPLAINING A BASIC CONCEPT OF RELATIVITY.
Amazon Parrots

Amazon Parrots

LOW, ROSEMARY; BUTTERWORTH, ELIZABETH FIRST EDITION, ONE OF ONLY 70 "SPECIAL" COPIES ISSUED WITH A SIGNED AND NUMBERED HAND-COLORED ETCHING. COMPLETE WITH 27 ADDITIONAL STUNNING TIPPED-IN PLATES OF TROPICAL PARROTS. "Elizabeth Butterworth trained as an artist rather than as an ornithologist. Since first exhibiting her work in 1978 she has been specifically commissioned to paint birds, although her range includes portraits, landscapes and botanical art. "Together with Rosemary Low who is considered the leading authority on caged parrots in Britain, Butterworth planned a monograph on the Amazon parrots. They were supported in their project by Rodolphe d’Erlanger an aviculturist and banker who was concerned with the continuance of several of the species in the wild, threatened by the loss of their natural habitat. "Surprisingly this is the first important book, in the tradition of John James Audubon, John Gould and Edward Lear, to be published on the Amazon parrots. Of these artists Lear would have been the most likely to have painted the Amazon parrots, but never completed his proposed 14 part series Illustrations of the family of psittacidae or parrots. Audubon and Gould both produced portfolios of birds specific to continents other than South America. "Amazon Parrots utilises modern techniques of reproduction. Photographic lithography is used for the colour printing and the text has been set using Monotype Calvert, the first type in the United Kingdom designed for laser composition" (State Library of South Australia). The hand-colored etching is signed and numbered by Butterworth; the book is signed by both Butterworth and Low. One of 70 copies, out of an entire edition of 515. London: Rodolphe d’Erlanger/The Basilisk Press, 1983. Large folio (14×17 in), original red cloth, original cloth portfolio box. Extra etching matted and laid-in (as issued). Box a little dusty, otherwise fine. A rare limitation of an extraordinarily beautiful book.
Zur allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie [On the General Theory of Relativity]

Zur allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie [On the General Theory of Relativity]

EINSTEIN, ALBERT FIRST PRINTING IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS IN FINE CONDITION of Einstein’s famous November 4, 1915 paper introducing his new version of general relativity. By autumn 1915, Einstein experienced a "crisis" in his work on his gravitational equations and the general theory of relativity, forcing him to abandon several key elements of his earlier work. In October 1915, "Einstein shifted his focus from the physical strategy, which emphasized his feel for the basic principles of physics, and returned to a greater reliance on a mathematical strategy, which made use of the Riemann and Ricci tensors. ‘Einstein’s reversal,’ writes John Norton, ‘parted the waters and led him from bondage into the promised land of general relativity’. "The result was an exhausting, four-week frenzy during which Einstein wrestled with a succession of tensors, equations, corrections, and updates that he rushed to the Prussian Academy in a flurry of four Thursday lectures. It climaxed, with the triumphant revision of Newton’s universe, at the end of November 1915" (Isaacson). In this November 4th paper and lecture [On the General Theory of Relativity], Einstein presented "to the plenary session of the Prussian Academy a new version of general relativity," explaining "that he had ‘completely lost confidence’ in the equations [he] proposed in October 1914. His answers were still not entirely right. There was still one flaw, a much smaller one, which he eliminated three weeks later. But the road lay open. He was lyrical. ‘No one who has really grasped it can escape the magic of this [new] theory’" (Pais). Three weeks later – on November 25, 1915 – Einstein did indeed eliminate the flaw and "presented to the physics-mathematics section of the Prussian Academy of Sciences a paper in which ‘finally the general theory of relativity is closed as a logical structure’. The work is done" (Pais). See: Isaacson, Einstein, pp. 211-221 and Pais, Subtle is the Lord pp.250-261. Note: Einstein’s November 11 paper was titled "Zur allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie II" but, rather than a continuation or advancement of the November 4 paper, it was a step backwards, introducing a serious mistake that he would correct by November 25. IN: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin: Verlag der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1915. Vol. 44. 778-786. Quarto, original wrappers; custom box. A fine copy. RARE.
Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade [Slaughterhouse Five]

Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children’s Crusade [Slaughterhouse Five]

VONNEGUT, JR., KURT EXTREMELY SCARCE UNCORRECTED PROOF COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION, one of only 39 copies produced, of Vonnegut’s masterpiece; one of the classics of American literature. Vonnegut "deserves full canonical marks for this kaleidoscopic koan of a novel about Billy Pilgrim, a man who has ‘become unstuck in time.’ Pilgrim ricochets helplessly from decade to decade, living the episodes of his life in no particular sequence, not excluding his own death, his capture by aliens called Tralfamadorians, and his traumatic service in World War II, when he lives through the firebombing of Dresden. Slaughterhouse-Five is a cynical novel, but beneath the bitter, grim-jawed humor is a desperate, painfully honest attempt to confront the monstrous crimes of the 20th century" (Lev Grossman, Time Magazine’s 100 Best Novels, 1923-Present). "Slaughterhouse-Five arrived in the bookstores in 1969. Amid the disenchantment surrounding the Vietnam War, this tale of the innocent but decidedly unheroic World War II GI, Billy Pilgrim, hit a nerve and soared to the top of the sales lists. Approaching fifty years of age, Vonnegut became a household name, a rumpled, cigarette-wielding prophet to the younger generation" (American National Biography). This uncorrected proof, preceding the first edition, is extremely rare: Crane Duplicating Service printed only thirty-nine copies. New York: Seymour Lawrence/ Delacorte Press, 1969 (but actually November 1968 for the proof). Tall octavo, original card spiral-bound printed covers; custom box. With original review slip pasted to inside front cover. A few abrasions and spots of soiling to wrappers; neat (inventory?) number written on rear. A remarkable survival. UNCORRECTED PROOF COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION.
Typed Letter Signed [TLS]. WITH: Photogravure Signed

Typed Letter Signed [TLS]. WITH: Photogravure Signed

HEISENBERG, WERNER HEISENBERG PROVIDES HIS RECOLLECTIONS OF THE ORIGINS OF NIELS BOHR’S CONCEPT OF "COMPLEMENTARITY". A UNIQUE ITEM, OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE FOR THE LIGHT IT SHEDS ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AS SEEN BY THE PIONEERS IN THE FIELD. It is by now a commonplace observation that until their properties are determined by a particular experiment or measurement, quantum systems can have a dual or multiple nature – light can be both a wave and a particle, an electron can follow two distinct and inconsistent paths, and so forth. Niels Bohr, in a famous 1928 paper, "The Quantum Postulate and the Recent Development of Atomic Theory," described this aspect of quantum theory as "complementarity." As explained by historian of science Max Jammer, in his magisterial book "The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics": ". Bohr asked himself how it is possible that [the equations governing radiation] relate together characteristics of radiation which, strictly speaking, are contradictory to each other: particle attributes energy and momentum, necessary for the description of the interaction of radiation with matter . and frequency and wave number, necessary for the description of the propagation of light, as in the phenomena of interference and diffraction. "It was this mutual exclusion and, at the same time, indispensability of fundamental notions and descriptions which led Bohr to the conclusion that the problem with which quantum physics found itself confronted could not be solved by merely modifying or reinterpreting traditional conceptions. What was needed, he concluded, was a new logical instrument. He called it "complementarity," denoting thereby the logical relation between two descriptions or sets of concepts which, though mutually exclusive, are nevertheless both necessary for an exhaustive description of the situation." Complementarity is one of the fundamental pillars of the so-called, and much-debated, "Copenhagen Interpretation" of quantum theory that is associated with Bohr and his followers. One of the profoundest philosophical questions posed by quantum theory is the nature of the underlying reality that is reflected in systems exhibiting complementarity. Does a quantum system have only one true underlying nature, governed by "hidden variables" that for some reason cannot be measured or determined? In other words, is complementarity merely an artifact of our incomplete knowledge of a system? Alternatively, do both (or all) of the complementary properties of a system coexist until the system is exposed to a particular measurement or experiment, which forces it to "make a choice"? Or do the relevant properties (e.g., wave or particle nature) simply not exist at all until an experiment is performed? Closely linked to these questions of the fundamental nature of the underlying reality of a quantum system are important terminological issues. Both Einstein and Bohr recognized the importance of finding appropriate words and phrases to describe quantum phenomena, while avoiding meaningless terminology and misleading analogies to more conventional phenomena. (This is made quite clear in, for example, their contributions to Paul Schilpp’s Festschrift "Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist". In his own essay in that collection, "Discussion with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics," Bohr stated that "the difficulties have their root not seldom in the preference for a certain use of language .") Hence, Heisenberg’s recollections in the letter offered here of the early discussions of the term "complementarity" are of the utmost importance. (Heisenberg was by no means merely an onlooker in those discussions. The historical and conceptual relationship between Heisenberg’s own principle of "uncertainty," and Bohr’s principle of "complementarity," is a much-discussed issue in the history of quantum theory. See Jammer.) In this letter from 1973, Heisenberg responds to a letter that had been sent to him by H
Physikalische Grundlagen einer Gravitationstheorie [Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation]; Mathematische Begriffsbildungen zur Gravitationstheorie [Mathematical Concept Formations of Gravitational Theory]

Physikalische Grundlagen einer Gravitationstheorie [Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation]; Mathematische Begriffsbildungen zur Gravitationstheorie [Mathematical Concept Formations of Gravitational Theory]

EINSTEIN, ALBERT; GROSSMANN, MARCEL EXTREMELY RARE AUTHOR’S OFFPRINT ("Überreicht von den Verfassern") IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF THE FIRST PRINTING OF EINSTEIN AND GROSSMANN’S FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRITICAL "ENTWURF" THEORY OF 1913. "Einstein returned from Prague to Zurich in the summer of 1912. He had by then already formulated the fundamental physical principles of the general relativity theory of gravitation, and was now searching for their mathematical structure. At the E.T.H. [the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich], where he now returned as professor of theoretical physics, Einstein met again his old fiend and former fellow student Marcel Grossmann, who was now a professor of mathematics and his colleague. With Grossmann, and under his guidance, Einstein studied the mathematical literature, especially the theory of invariants and the absolute differential calculus of Chirstoffel, Ricci, Levi-Civita and others. Einstein developed the mathematical structure of his theory jointly with Grossmann, and in his celebrated paper on the general theory of relativity in 1916 he acknowledged the help which his friend had given him. It was Grossmann’s help which had, Einstein said, ‘spared me not only the study of the relevant mathematical literature, but who [Grossmann] also assisted me in searching for the field equations of gravitation.’ This study of mathematical literature and the search for the proper mathematical tools led to several joint papers with Grossmann during Einstein’s all too brief stay in Zurich. These papers contained the first attempts toward a generalized theory of relativity, using new mathematical tools, and gave full expression to Einstein’s earlier physical insights" (Jagdish, The Golden Age of Theoretical Physics). The first of Einstein’s papers to present his collaborative work with Grossmann, the famous "Entwurf" paper, appeared in the summer of 1913; the present paper, based on a lecture given on September 9, 1913, to the 96th annual meeting of the Swiss Society for Natural Sciences in Frauenfeld, provides further details on the new generalized theory of relativity. The published paper contains more mathematics than in the given lecture. Weil 57. OFFPRINT FROM: Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, vol. 58, pp. 284-290 [Einstein]; pp. 291-297 [Grossmann]. Zürich: Zürcher & Furrer, 1913. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. Mild dampstaining to extreme top outer margin (away from the text); crease down the center of issue. SCARCE.
Zerstreuung von Röntgenstrahlen und Quantentheorie

Zerstreuung von Röntgenstrahlen und Quantentheorie

DEBYE, PETER FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of Debye’s explanation of the dual wave-particle nature of electromagnetic radiation (the "Compton effect"). Precedes the full account by Compton. In October 1922, Arthur Holly Compton wrote a report for the National Research Council documenting his experimental observations that the wavelengths of X-rays increased when they were scattered by electrons, but did not offer an explanation. "Meanwhile, in Zürich, Peter Debye read Compton’s report to the National Research Council. Debye had already considered the possibility of change in frequency, but had never published it. He might not have thought that the experiment was worth the trouble because it would only prove what everybody, except Einstein, already thought: light quanta do not exist. But after he read Compton’s paper, Debye knew what the data meant. In March, while Compton’s paper was undergoing a leisurely preparation for publication, Debye’s paper arrived at the office of Zeitschrift für Physik the world’s leading journal for news of the quantum revolution. In April, still a month before Compton’s article appeared, Debye’s article was published. Einstein, Planck, Bohr, Heisenberg–every physicist interested in quanta–now knew that the wave theory of electromagnetism was down, possibly (even probably) out. "Debye had gotten into print first and was known to all of Europe’s important physicists. He had been at Göttingen and was now in Zürich. Compton was off in wild-west country. It was Sommerfeld who saved Compton’s fame. Months before the Debye article appeared, Sommerfeld had already begun lecturing in America about the importance of Compton’s work. Furthermore, Sommerfeld was the author of the leading textbook on quantum theory and, in the summer of 1923, as he revised his book for its latest edition he described a ‘Compton effect.’ So Debye was consigned to the role of Alfred Wallace" (Bolles, Einstein Defiant: Genius Versus Genius in the Quantum Revolution). IN: Physikalische Zeitschrift, Vol 24, No. 8, 15 April 1923; pp. 161-166. Leipzig: Hirzel, 1923. Quarto, original wrappers; custom case. A touch of wear to spine, otherwise fine. RARE in original wrappers.
Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorien [The General Theory of Relativity]

Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorien [The General Theory of Relativity]

EINSTEIN, ALBERT FIRST EDITION, monograph issue in original wrappers, of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. PMM 408. Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is a continuation and dramatic expansion of some of the ground-breaking ideas set forth in his 1905 paper on special relativity. Specifically, with general relativity, Einstein applied his revolutionary conceptions of time, space, and matter to all of the universe, and providing, for the first time the definitive reinterpretation of the Newtonian model. "Whereas Special Relativity had brought under one set of laws the electromagnetic world of Maxwell and Newtonian mechanics as far as they applied to bodies in uniform relative motion, the General Theory did the same thing for bodies with the accelerated relative motion epitomized in the acceleration of gravity. But first it had been necessary for Einstein to develop the true nature of gravity from his principle of equivalence . Basically, he proposed that gravity was a function of matter itself and that its effects were transmitted between contiguous portions of space-time . Where matter exists, so does energy; the greater the mass of matter involved, the greater the effect of the energy which can be transmitted. In addition, gravity affected light . exactly as it affected material particles. Thus the universe which Newton had seen, and for which he had constructed his apparently impeccable mechanical laws, was not the real universe . Einstein’s paper gave not only a corrected picture of the universe but also a fresh set of mathematical laws by which its details could be described" (R.W. Clark, Einstein). "This separate [monograph] edition is printed on good, strong paper, the wrappers are of strong material too and it is described now as ‘the original edition’ of this classic paper" (Weil 80a.) Leipzig: Barth, 1916. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. Small split to wrappers at base of spine; neat circular numerical stamp on front wrapper and title. Only a hint of toning to wrappers edges, much less than usual. Rare in such good condition.
Les Diners de Gala

Les Diners de Gala

DALI, SALVADOR FIRST EDITION IN ENGLISH, SIGNED AND INSCRIBED BY DALI AND WITH SKETCH OF A WOMAN’S FACE. AN IMPORTANT ASSOCIATION COPY, AND A NEARLY PERFECT COPY IN ORIGINAL SHIPPING BOX. "Les Diners de Gala, the opulent cookbook that [Dali] conceived and illustrated, sets out a surrealist gastro-aesthetics that is at once visceral and ascetic, Dionysian and Catholic. [It] showcases Dali’s ornamentation of menus from such legendary restaurants as Maxim’s and La Tour d’Argent and features the recipes of their chefs. Dali stages himself within the sumptuous culinary mise-en-scene. Les Diners de Gala moves between ‘sado-masochistic pleasure’, ‘acute sybaritism’, Rabelaisian scatology, religious ecstasy, and anaesthetic asceticism." (Richard Gough, On Cooking). With 136 recipes in 12 categories: exotic dishes; eggs & sea food; first course; meats; snails & frogs; fish & shell fish; game & poultry; pork; vegetables; aphrodisiacs; desserts; hors-d’ oeuvre. Provenance: An important association copy dedicated to Phyllis Lucas, first North American publisher of signed limited edition Dali lithographs. Phyllis and her husband Sydney enjoyed a close relationship with the surrealist artist for several decades. Also dedicated to the noted art collector Ben Fishman. Acquired directly from the heirs to the Fishman estate. Signed and dated (1974) in marker on verso of front free endpaper and with dedication text ("Hommage de Ben Fishman & Phyllis Lucas") and portrait sketch in red ink on flyleaf. Translated by Captain J. Peter Moore. New York: Felicie, 1973. Quarto, original cloth, original illustrated foil dust jacket. Fine condition (with dust jacket extraordinarily bright) in the original shipping box. A remarkable copy with Dali sketch and an important association. Hardcover, original shipping box
The First and second volumes of Chronicles

The First and second volumes of Chronicles, comprising 1 The description and historie of England, 2 The description and historie of Ireland, 3 The description and historie of Scotland. WITH: The Third volume of Chronicles. [The Chronicles]

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM]. HOLINSHED, RAPHAEL THE SECOND EDITION (1587) OF HOLINSHED’S "CHRONICLES": THE BOOK AND THE EDITION USED BY SHAKESPEARE AS A SOURCE FOR A DOZEN OF HIS PLAYS. "In 1548, the prominent London printer and bookseller Reyner (or Reginald) Wolfe ambitiously decided to produce a universal history and cosmography. of the world. After Wolfe’s death in 1573, his assistant Raphael Holinshed took over the project, hired more writers and restrained its scope to the British Isles. The Chronicles was first published in 1577 in a two-volume folio edition, illustrated with numerous woodcuts. After Holinshed’s death in 1580, Abraham Fleming published the significantly expanded revised second edition of 1587 in a larger folio format, this time without illustrations" (British Library). By scholarly consensus, it is the second (1587) edition, offered here, that Shakespeare used as the source of many of plays: "Shakespeare used Holinshed as a source for more than a third of his plays, including Macbeth, King Lear, and the English history plays such as Richard III. He used it in a range of ways, sometimes following the text of the Chronicles closely, even echoing its words and phrases; sometimes using it as an inspiration for plot details; and at other times deviating from its account altogether, either preferring other sources or his own imagination. Comparing Shakespeare’s plays to Holinshed and other sources can provide rich insight into his creative intentions and processes, as well as giving us an idea of some of the context in which Shakespeare’s contemporary audiences would have understood his plays" (British Library). The major use that Shakespeare made of Holinshed was certainly in the British history plays: "[Queen] Elizabeth herself said that [Shakespeare’s history plays] existed ‘aswell for the recreacion of our loving subjects, as for our solace and pleasure.’ Both sovereign and subject certainly found much comfort and recreation in Shakespeare’s histories because they stage a thematic movement that shapes Holinshed’s Chronicles 1377-1485; from the death of a frequently chaotic, violently chivalric, medieval world to the birth of the ‘Peaceable and Prosperous’ early modern commonwealth of their day. "An astute reader, Shakespeare transformed into the medium of drama four major political themes and messages taught by Holinshed and his successors who enlarged the 1587 text: the ideal and decorum of English kingship, the role of France in English public discourse, the idea of Englishness, and the idea of the commonwealth." (Igor Dhjordjevic, "Shakespeare and Medieval History", Oxford Handbook). On the bibliography of the 1587 edition: In February 1587 the Archbishop of Canterbury was ordered by the Privy Council to recall and censor ("reform") the book on the grounds that the new material in the second edition included "sundry things which we wish had bene better considered; forasmuch as the same booke doth also conteyne reporte of matters of later yeeres [i.e., the reign of Elizabeth I] that concern the State, and that "ther is inserted such mention of matter touching the King of Scottes as may give him cause of offence." As a result, some 16 pages in volume II and almost 150 pages in volume III were excised ("castrated") and replaced by a much smaller number of pages (only seven leaves in volume III) to paper over the gaps. (The censors, however, neglected the index, which continued to contain references to the excised pages.) In the early eighteenth century, three separate publishers issued sets of replacement leaves that collectors could use to complete their castrated sets of the 1587 edition. (Cyndia Susan Clegg, "Censorship", in Oxford Handbook; Keith L. Maslen, "Three Eighteenth Century Reprints of the Castrated Sheets in Holinshed’s Chronicles", The Library, 5th Series.) There is wide variation among the surviving sets of the second edition, partly because of the presence of three different eighteenth century sets of replacement leaves, and partly bec
Autograph Letter Signed [ALS]; Typed Letter Signed [TLS]

Autograph Letter Signed [ALS]; Typed Letter Signed [TLS]

TOLKIEN, J.R.R. REMARKABLY REVEALING LETTERS BY TOLKIEN PROVIDING INSIGHT INTO HIS THOUGHTS AND MOTIVATIONS IN THE CREATION OF THE LORD OF THE RINGS. The first letter – a typed letter signed on Tolkien’s Oxford stationery – is dated 16th December 1963 and is a response to a letter from Baronne Baeyens of Bonn, German. In this short letter, Tolkien expresses thanks for her letter, rejects allegorical interpretations of The Lord of the Rings, and admits feeling sympathy for Gollum. It reads in full: Dear Baronne Baeyens, Thank you very much for your letter of 28th September. I am sorry to have been so long in answering it, but I am very busy and not in good health. Your letter gave me great pleasure, and I was glad to hear that you enjoy my books. I was particularly pleased that you find allegorical interpretations of The Lord of the Rings unnecessary; it was simply meant to be a history as it appears. Please give my best wishes to your son, whose sympathy with Gollum agrees with my own. Yours sincerely, [signed]JRR Tolkien Something, however, struck Tolkien about Baeyens letter and upon reflection, it spurred him to write much more. In this long (four full sides), handwritten letter, Tolkien addresses some of the most critical topics associated with his writing. Over the course of the letter he: -insists that The Lord of the Rings is "in no way an ‘allegory’", but "mythical-historical" based on "deeply rooted ‘archetypal’ motifs" -reveals his motivations for writing The Lord of the Rings ("I merely tried to write a story that would be ‘exciting’ and readable, and give me a scope for my personal pleasure in history, languages, and ‘landscape’") -bemoans certain analyses of The Lord of the Rings that focus on symbolism ("they miss the point and destroy the object of their enquiry as surely as a vivisectionist destroys a cat or rabbit") -addresses religious "alignment" of The Lord of the Rings -notes that he plans to produce another book about the same world -explains the purpose and nature of the verses in The Lord of the Rings -admits finding "very moving. the place where Gollum [is] on the brink of repentance" -and in perhaps the most interesting section, in a detailed explanation of the origin of the character Stryder/Aragorn he provides wonderful insights into his method of creating characters. The letter reads in full: Dear Madame, I enclose a merely secretarial letter. I am obliged to leave a large part of the letters to a part-time secretary; but I always re-read them before sending any reply, and I felt that your most charming and interesting letter deserved a personal note, though it must be briefer than it should be. I much appreciate your perception that my story is in no way an ‘allegory’-in any sense of that elusive and misunderstood word; but mythical-historical. It is-for those who like the story (many dislike it, and many think it silly and childish)-the taking up of several deeply-rooted ‘archetypal’ motifs, such as the broken sword, the hidden King, and so on, that gives the tale its moving quality, and the putting of them into an entirely new setting, carefully devised, that gives the sense of ‘reality.’ But that is, of course, for me, as much as for any reader or critic, an afterthought. I did not set out to do this. I merely tried to write a story that would be ‘exciting’ and readable, and give me a scope for my personal pleasure in history, languages, and ‘landscape’-and trees. I feel that I was helped and ‘protected’ (if I may say so) by being unlearned except perhaps linguistically, and in having absorbed early, so that they had descended down into the fertile ‘leafmould’ of the mind beyond the reach of chemical analysis, myths and fairy-stories. I have never found books on myths and symbolisms attractive, even when I have occasionally been obliged to consider them professionally. For me they miss the point and destroy the object of their enquiry as surely as a vivisectionist destroys a cat or rabbit-whatever validity and
Pale Fire

Pale Fire

NABOKOV, VLADIMIR INSCRIBED BY NABOKOV WITH A BUTTERFLY DRAWING TO HIS SISTER-IN-LAW: "For Sonia / [butterfly drawing] / from Vladimir / NY / 1962". Pale Fire is generally considered Nabokov’s most brilliant creation. Its core is a 999-line poem in heroic couplets; the thousandth and last line of which was never written since the putative poet – Professor John Shade of Wordsmith University – was killed before he had a chance to finish it. The poem is accompanied by a foreword, an index, and endnotes, all written by Shade’s university colleague Charles Kinbote. As the reader works his way through the book, it becomes clear that Kinbote is mad. He believes himself to be Charles the Beloved, the exiled king of a northern European country named Zembla, and believes Shade’s poem to be an encoded version of his reign, deposition, and escape to America – a view which is fully explicated in the endnotes. Further ambiguities emerge – many only after multiple re-readings of clues in the poem itself, in the foreword and endnotes, and even in the index – and the reader is soon left wondering whether Shade and Kinbote are both intended to be "real" within Nabokov’s fictional universe, or whether either was a creation of the other. Today, over fifty years after its publication, Pale Fire continues to engender fierce and fruitful critical debate. But the work is not simply a sterile intellectual puzzle. The central poem itself is regarded by many as a masterpiece that can stand alone as a great work – and indeed it has been published as such. Pale Fire includes profound meditations on death and the afterlife, makes clear the anguish of Kinbote’s madness, and incorporates the fiercely tragic story of Shade’s unattractive and lonely daughter, who kills herself after being humiliated by a blind date. The reader is alternately amused, exhilarated, heart-stricken, and sobered; but above all left in awe of Nabokov’s imagination and intelligence, and of this transplanted Russian’s infallible ear for the harmonies of colloquial American English. As both Boyd and McCarthy note in the quotations above, the novel is many things simultaneously, but certainly one of those things – and perhaps the foremost – is a brilliant and devastating put-down of the roles of the commentator, annotator, and critic, who snatch their pale fire from the works they seek to explicate. In creating an annotator whose notes engulf and take over the work he is annotating, Nabokov was perhaps (among other things) engaging in self-parody, since he had recently completed (but not yet published) a massive annotated translation of Pushkin’s novel-in-verse Eugene Onegin, a translation in which a brief mention of, say, a tree in the underlying poem could give rise to a multi-page note seeking to identify the precise species involved. On this copy: AN IMPORTANT ASSOCIATION COPY: First edition, third impression, presentation copy from Nabokov to his sister-in-law Sonia Slonim in the year of publication (1962), and, like many of Nabokov’s inscriptions, particularly to his wife Vera and other family members, includes a drawing of some (perhaps fictitious) species of butterfly. (In addition to being a noted author, Nabokov was throughout his life an enthusiastic lepidopterist – indeed, at one stage he studied butterfly genitalia professionally at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology – and was the author of important papers on lepidopteran taxonomy.) Sonia Slonim was Vera’s sister and a very close member of Nabokov’s family after they emigrated to the United States in 1940. The drawing and inscription are in pencil; the butterfly with highlights in red pencil. With Nabokov’s Palace Hotel, Montreux, Switzerland bookplate on the front pastedown (as is often found in presentation copies). WITH: A first edition, first impression (not inscribed). New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1962. Octavo, original black cloth, original dust jacket. Inscribed with butterfly drawing on half-title. Stain below inscription, othe
Anya v strane chudes [Anya in Wonderland; Alice in Wonderland]

Anya v strane chudes [Anya in Wonderland; Alice in Wonderland]

NABOKOV, VLADIMIR. [SIRIN]. [CARROLL, LEWIS] SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF NABOKOV’S RUSSIAN TRANSLATION OF ALICE IN WONDERLAND, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY ZALSHUPIN. A MAGNIFICENT COPY. Alice’s Adventures in Wonder-Land is a brilliant, famous, and (literally) wonder-ful book, but it can also be a difficult book, since today’s reader is located over 150 years and (in the case of American readers) some three to six thousand miles from the point in space and time at which the work was published. As a result, Lewis Carroll’s jokes are not always readily grasped by the modern reader. What is a comfit? What, applied to beaches, does "shingle" mean? What is a bathing machine? Why did Carroll make the mad tea-party guest a hatter? "You Are Old Father William" is a brilliant parody, but the poem that it parodies is no longer familiar to most readers, even in the English-speaking world. These difficulties are only enhanced when a translator attempts to transpose Carroll’s obscure references, sly nudges, and brilliant British word play to a foreign language and an even more foreign culture. Lengthy treatises have been written about the difficulties of translating Alice, including, notably Warren Weaver’s 1964 work "Alice in Many Tongues" and, more recently, Oak Knoll Press’ "Alice in a World of Wonderlands," in three massive volumes. In 1923 a young Vladimir Nabokov accepted the challenge by translating Alice into Russian. The translation is a marriage made in heaven – an encounter between the greatest Anglophone and Russophone writer of the twentieth century and the author of one of the greatest works of literary imagination of any century. "In the Russian version of his autobiography, Vladimir Nabokov tells us that he translated Alice in Wonderland into Russian during his free-lancing days after returning to Berlin from his studies at Cambridge and that he was paid the sum of five American dollars for the job. In both the English versions of the autobiography (Conclusive Evidence and Speak, Memory) he supplies the additional information that five dollars was ‘quite a sum during the inflation in Germany.’ The translation, signed with the pen-name Nabokov used during his European period, V. Sirin, was brought out in Berlin in 1923 by an émigré publishing house named after the legendary bird of Russian mythology, Gamaiun. The slim volume was illustrated with S. Zalshupin’s drawings (remote and pseudo-cubistic variations on Tenniel)." (Simon Karlinsky, "Anya in Wonderland: Nabokov’s Russified Lewis Carroll", in TriQuarterly, No. 17, 1970). Later in his life, Nabokov would fiercely attack the "miserable paraphrasts" whose translations failed to reflect with the utmost fidelity the precise meaning of the original. In 1923, however, he was a much younger man, and perhaps because of the unique nature of Alice, he felt justified in taking a freer approach. Thus, in order to make the story clearer to Russian readers, he transposed quintessentially British characters, situations, puns, and jokes into approximate Russian equivalents. "Beyond his success with parodies and puns, Nabokov’s version of Carroll is remarkable for its beautifully caught and conveyed tone and diction of the original. If it is not the perfect translation it could have been, it is because it does contain pages not equal in imagination and fidelity to what Nabokov had done in the best and most successful passages. Anya in Wonderland, we must remember, was translated by a very young man, working for money and possibly trying to meet a deadline. Still, with a few subsequent revisions, the book could have easily become one of the finest translations of Alice into any language. Even without these revisions, it is by far the best one that exists in Russian. And yet, apart from a few copies in the largest libraries of the Western world, it is also one of the least available versions of Alice" (Karlinsky, op. cit.). (Karlinsky’s last sentence is no longer quite true, Dover having since 1970 published an inexpensive paperback facsimile o
Typed Letter Signed [TLS]

Typed Letter Signed [TLS]

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE ROOSEVELT’S HISTORIC LETTER INVITING MAUD NATHAN TO LEAD THE SUFFRAGE COMMITTEE OF THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY. Women’s suffrage was a key element of the Progressive Party’s platform during Roosevelt’s unsuccessful third-party presidential bid in 1912. In early 1913, despite his loss, Roosevelt was not about to give up the fight and continued to aggressively campaign for Progressive causes and candidates throughout the country. In this letter, from February 18, 1913, Roosevelt re-affirms his commitment to women’s suffrage by asking the influential reformer and suffragist Maud Nathan to head his "Suffrage Committee" for the Progressive party. Written on Roosevelt’s "Outlook" stationery, the letter reads in full: My dear Mrs. Nathan: The other night we had too much speaking at the Progressive dinner. We should have cut down by one-half the number of speakers, and if possible have cut down the number of subjects touched upon. I had to refuse a request from Teddy Robinson to introduce another matter, and it would have been quite impossible to introduce the question of those concerts. Now may I ask very warmly that you head the Suffrage Committee in the Progressive Service? It is, in my judgment, essential that we have at the head of that committee a women who is known as much more than only an agitator for suffrage for women. She must be a convinced suffragist, eager for the cause; but she must also be identified in the public mind with other movements-that is, she must embody our principle, that we are for suffrage because women are not merely entitled to it as a right, but are entitled to it as a means of rendering more efficient service to the community as a whole. Now, my dear Mrs. Nathan, you embody this principle. I earnestly ask that you will accept the head of this committee. The chairmanship of this committee if accepted by you will make you one of four people who are directing the policy of the popular government department of the Progressive Party. I need hardly say to you that there are few if any positions of leadership in our party so important as this, and I am tempted to say that there are none more important. Earnestly hoping you can accept, even at the cost of considerable personal inconvenience, I am, Very sincerely yours, [signed]Theodore Roosevelt Maud Nathan did indeed accept Roosevelt’s offer and continued to be an aggressive champion for women’s rights throughout her life. The timing of this letter – February 18, 1913 – coincides with a critical moment in the movement, for only a few weeks later – on March 3, 1913 – thousands of suffragists marched down Pennsylvania Avenue to protest the inauguration of the new president Woodrow Wilson (who was hostile to the idea of suffrage), a march that would be instrumental for the future success of the movement. More on Maud Nathan: Maud Nathan "worked tirelessly for woman suffrage, an issue that caused a rift in her relations with her family. Her brothers and sister opposed this reform, while her cousin Benjamin Cardozo supported a constitutional amendment, writing Nathan that his conscience would not allow him to vote against it. "Frederick Nathan shared his wife’s views on equal suffrage, leading the Men’s League for Equal Suffrage, helping to organize the International Men’s League at Stockholm, and marching in the first suffrage parade. Newspaper accounts of conventions and demonstrations often mention his presence at his wife’s side (occasionally referring to him as Mr. Maud Nathan). Maud Nathan won the New York Herald Prize in 1913 for the best letter in favor of woman suffrage" (Jewish Women’s Archive). "Of all the American Jewish women who participated in the suffrage movement, Maud Nathan was probably the best known at the turn of the century. She believed that Jewish women had a special civic responsibility that could best be demonstrated through social reform and political participation" (Melissa R. Klapper, Ballots, Babies, and Banners of Peace: American Jewish Women’s Activism, 1890-1940). Typed Letter Signed. Two 7.5×9.5 inch pages of Roosevelt’s Outlook stationery. A few spots of soiling; usual folds; custom folder. With three handwritten emendations in Roosevelt’s hand. An important letter during a critical time for the women’s suffrage movement.
Imago primi saecvli Societatis Iesu a Provincia Flandro-Belgica eiusdem Societatis repraesentata. [Image of the First Century of the Society of Jesus]

Imago primi saecvli Societatis Iesu a Provincia Flandro-Belgica eiusdem Societatis repraesentata. [Image of the First Century of the Society of Jesus]

BOLLANDUS, J. TOLLENAERE, J. FIRST EDITION of one of the most important and celebrated texts of the Jesuits; a seminal text in spreading the influence of the Jesuits during the Counter-Reformation. Complete with engraved title and 126 engraved emblems including two world maps and the famous "Leone Belgico". In beautiful contemporary binding. "In 1640 the Jesuit order celebrated its 100th anniversary, for which a large number of festivities had been planned. One of the most prestigious events was undoubtedly the publication by the Antwerp Officina Plantiniana of the Imago Primi Saeculi Societatis Jesu. This impressive folio volume would become an icon of the Jesuit order at that time. Though the initiative was highly contested, the Jesuit order itself considered the volume to be a great success, and regarded it as a highly persuasive form of self-representation. A huge tome numbering more than a thousand pages, The Imago presents a chronological-thematic account of the history of the order, and contains a large number of rhetorical exercises, poems and emblems. These emblems were integral to the festivities of the Society’s centennial, while simultaneously functioning as emblematic exhibitions ("affixiones") in the Antwerp Jesuit Church" (Marc van Vaeck, "Emblematic Versatility as a Strategy of Self-Representation"). On the importance of emblems to the Jesuits: "The Jesuits were the principal disseminators of the symbolic language that was developed in emblems and allegories beginning in the sixteenth century. In their influential educational system, the emblematic imagination was fundamental. The practical orientation of their pedagogy and their desire for intervention carried this creativity out to the plazas and streets, with a persuasive intent in the majority of instances. Their presence could be seen in both public and private spaces, but, in a deeper and more subtle manner, it could be appreciated in the mental habits of so many artists and writers who studied under the Jesuits. A disseminating nucleus of ideas and images was thus constituted, one that played with the mystery inherent in the symbolic image, in order to awaken attention and to achieve the maximum power of conviction within the sphere of the Counter-Reformation" (Rev. G. Richard Dimler, S. J., "Emblems and Symbols of the Society of Jesus"). Provenance: With stamps from the Institute of St. Ignatius, Antwerp (now the University of Antwerp) on half-title and title. (The book was published in Antwerp.) Also with stamp from H. Godts (2006) on front pastedown. Antwerp: Ex Officina Plantiniana, Balthasaris Moreti,1640. Folio, contemporary blind-stamped calf rebacked with portions of original spine laid-down; metal clasps. With rare half-title (repaired at top corner). Some early marginal writing and an "x" through one of the cherubs on title. Early owner inscription and small stamp on title; minor dampstaining near the gutter of some early leaves (not affecting text). A excellent copy in very handsome contemporary binding.
Remarques generales sur les Températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires [Fourier]. WITH: Ueber den Einfluss des atmosphärischen Kohlensäuregehalts auf die Temperatur der Erdoberfläche [Arrhenius]

Remarques generales sur les Températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires [Fourier]. WITH: Ueber den Einfluss des atmosphärischen Kohlensäuregehalts auf die Temperatur der Erdoberfläche [Arrhenius]

FOURIER, JOSEPH; ARRHENIUS, SVANTE AUGUST RARE FIRST EDITIONS IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF TWO PIONEERING NINETEENTH-CENTURY PAPERS LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR THE MODERN SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF GLOBAL WARMING – THE 1824 INTRODUCTION OF THE IDEA OF THE "GREENHOUSE EFFECT" AND THE FIRST QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENON. Concerns over the impact of human activities on the earth’s climate are based on the fact that "greenhouse gases" produced by industrial activity, including particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), can absorb, and convert into heat, infrared radiation emitted from the earth’s surface. As a result, increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases can lead, through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, to increases in average global temperatures. Although "the idea of human agency in climatic change goes back at least to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle, who wrote of local changes of climate caused by . agricultural activities" (James Rodger Fleming, "Historical Perspectives on Climate Change" ), the modern understanding of the link between climate and the composition of the atmosphere has its roots in the nineteenth century. The two papers offered here were key milestones in the development of that understanding. Joseph Fourier: Fourier was a mathematical physicist best known for his work on the representation of periodic functions using "Fourier series" and for the development of a mathematical model of heat flow. He seems to have had a gift for always winding up on the wrong side of the political transformations that racked France in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries – a sort of reverse Vicar of Bray. Like Lavoisier, he ran afoul of the Reign of Terror. "During the Revolution, Fourier was prominent in local affairs, and his courageous defense of the victims of the Terror led to his arrest in 1794," but he survived long enough to be released after Robespierre’s execution. After the Thermidorean reaction to the Terror had set in, he was again arrested, this time, ironically, "as a supporter of Robespierre," but again he survived. Under Napoleon he was appointed prefect of the departments of Isère and Rhône, and was later granted a barony, but "before the end of Napoleon’s Hundred Days, [he] had resigned his new title and prefecture in protest against the severity of the regime ." Despite this, he was later blocked from becoming a member of the Académie des Sciences "because Louis XVIII could not forgive his having accepted the prefecture of the Rhône from Napoleon ." (Dictionary of National Biography). "It was in the 1820s that [Fourier] first realized that the Earth’s atmosphere retains heat radiation. . [W]ith a leap of physical intuition, he realized that the planet would be significantly colder if it lacked at atmosphere." (Spencer Weart, "The Discovery of Global Warming".) In the 1824 paper offered here, "Fourier pointed out that the thickness of the atmosphere and the nature of the surface ‘determine’ the mean value of the temperature each planet acquires. He also observed that, in very general terms, ‘the motion of the air and waters, the extent of the seas, the elevation and form of the surface, the effects of human industry and all the accidental changes of the earth’s surface, modify the temperatures of each climate.’ He admitted, however, that it is ‘difficult to know how far the atmosphere influences the mean temperature of the globe; and in this examination we are no longer guided by a regular mathematical theory.’" (Fleming, op cit.). Fourier argued that the temperature of the Earth could be "augmented by the interposition of the atmosphere, because heat in the state of light [chaleur lumineuse – in effect, infrared radiation] finds less resistance in penetrating the air, than . when converted to non-luminous heat [chaleur obscure]." Although many later popularizers of Fourier’s work claimed that he had compared the atmosphere to the glass walls of a greenhouse, the paper in fact did not use that analogy. Instead, he referred to "experiments conducted by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of natural history in Geneva. De Saussure had constructed an instrument he called a ‘solar captor’ consisting of a box with an interior covered with black cork in which were inserted layers of glass at equidistance. He used his instrument . to show that the temperature under the glass was much higher than on the outside ." (Elisabeth Crawford, "Arrhenius’ 1896 Model of the Greenhouse Effect in Context", Ambio 26:6-11 (1997)). Although the 1824 paper did not develop any quantitative theory of the role of the atmosphere in retaining the earth’s heat, its fruitful speculations were cited by and influenced those who came after Fourier, including John Tyndall (who published a series of papers in the 1860s concerning experiments he had conducted on the absorption of radiant energy by different gases) and Svante Arrhenius (see below). Note: Offered here is the October 1824 issue of Annales de Chimie et de Physique, in original wrappers, containing the first printing of Fourier’s paper, and not the (more frequently cited) 1827 reprint that was published in Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences. Svante Arrhenius: Arrhenius was "one of the founders of modern physical chemistry," and is particularly known for his theory of the dissociation of ionic compounds in solution, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1903. In 1896 Arrhenius published the first quantitative study of how changes in atmospheric CO2 levels might affect climate. Notably, Arrhenius’ model attempted to take into account not only the direct effects of infrared absorption by CO2, but also indirect "feedback" effects. For example, the higher atmospheric temperatures resulting from infrared absorption could lead to increased melting of polar ice, thus reducing the earth’s albedo (reflectivity), leading to reduced reflection of solar radiation back into space, and thus to further temperature
Varia Opera Mathematica

Varia Opera Mathematica

FERMAT, PIERRE DE EXTREMELY RARE FIRST EDITION of Fermat’s Collected Works, containing the first publication of most of his work. Fermat is ?often called the founder of the modern theory of numbers. Together with Descartes, Fermat was one of the two leading mathematicians of the first half of the 17th century. Independently of Descartes, Fermat discovered the fundamental principle of analytic geometry. His methods for finding tangents to curves and their maximum and minimum points led him to be regarded as the inventor of the differential calculus. Through his correspondence with Blaise Pascal he was a co-founder of the theory of probability? (Carl B. Boyer, Britannica). Fermat was famously averse to publishing and very little of his work appeared in print during his lifetime; the Varia Opera, assembled and edited by his son Samuel, appeared posthumously in 1679 and ?remained the only published collection of Fermat’s papers until the late nineteenth century" (Mahoney, The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat). Dibner 108. Provenance: The Inner Temple Library, with small ink stamp on title and a few other leaves. (The Inner Temple library is one of the most renowned private legal reference libraries in the world, dating back to 1506.) English mathematician and member of the Royal Society Francis Maseres’s (1731-1824) copy with his signature on front flyleaf and annotations in text. (Maseres became affliated with the Inner Temple in 1750 and remained associated with the library throughout his life.) Toulouse: Jean Pech, 1679. Folio (208x340mm), contemporary calf rebacked. With five engraved folding plates; engraved head- and tail-pieces, diagrams in text. As usual, without the exceedingly rare portrait. Front free endpaper hinge split but holding, title page hinge tender; occasional light browning and foxing. A very good copy. RARE.
Bucaniers of America; or

Bucaniers of America; or, A True Account of the Most Remarkable Assaults Committed of Late Years upon the Coasts of the West Indies

EXQUEMELIN, ALEXANDRE OLIVIER FIRST EDITION IN ENGLISH OF ALEXANDER EXQUEMELIN’S "BUCANIERS OF AMERICA" (1684), AN IMPORTANT SOURCE FOR HISTORIANS OF PIRACY AND A MAJOR INFLUENCE ON OVER THREE CENTURIES OF PIRATE FICTION. From Long John Silver, Captain Hook, and Captain Blood to the Dread Pirate Roberts and Jack Sparrow, pirates and piracy have had an outsized influence on the public imagination. And the plot, characters, settings, themes, costumes, and stage dressing used in the novels, plays, and movies that have created and fed that imagination are in large part derived, directly or indirectly, from the work offered here – a work that is also regarded by historians, although not uncritically, as an important sourcebook for the field now known as Atlantic history. Rafael Sabatini – the author of Captain Blood and The Black Swan – acknowledged his debt to Exquemelin; and George Macdonald Fraser (quoted above) listed Exquemelin as one of the influences for his great comic novel "The Pyrates." Although less scholarly or less diligent authors – as well as screenwriters and costume artists and set designers – may have received their doses of Exquemelin at second- or third-hand, it is indisputable that his influence strongly permeates the genre even today. "The most vivid account of the activities of the buccaneers is contained in a remarkable book by Alexander Exquemelin entitled The Bucaniers of America. Exquemelin’s book is so packed with detail about the lives and customs of the buccaneers that it is not surprising that it proved popular" (David Cordingly, Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates). The frequent reprints of this work in the late seventeenth century attest to its influence and popularity. "The original 1678 publication in Dutch was entitled De americaensche Zed Roovers. It was followed by a German translation in 1679 entitled Der Americanische See-Raüber, a Spanish translation in 1682, Piratas de la America, two English translations in 1684 entitled Bucaniers of America and The History of the Bucaniers [the first of which is offered here], and a French translation in 1686 entitled Histoire des Aventuriers" (Jason M. Payton, "Alexander Oliver Exquemelin’s ‘The Buccaneers of America’ and the Disenchantment of Imperial History"). It is, of course, the English-language editions, starting from the one offered here, that have left their mark on the Anglo-American literature, drama, and cinema of piracy. Interestingly, the first two English editions were the subject of a libel trial brought by Henry Morgan, "a Welshman whose exploits on the Spanish Main became legendary. Whether Morgan was a pirate, a corsair, or a privateer is a matter of debate." "When the English edition of Exquemelin’s book was printed in London by two publishers, Morgan was sent copies and decided to sue both publishers for libel. The matter was settled out of court. Subsequent editions were amended and Morgan received £200 in damages in the King’s Bench Court against each of the publishers" (Cordingly). On Alexander Oliver Exquemelin: "While our knowledge of Exquemelin’s life is almost entirely limited to what he tells us in the narrative itself, the autobiographical narrative contained therein is gripping for its commentary on life at the edge of empire. Exquemelin left Europe for the Caribbean in 1666 as an indentured servant of the French West India Company, likely hoping to establish himself as a colonial planter or trader upon the expiration of his term. The collapse of the company ended those hopes and sent Exquemelin into the hands of a number of abusive pirate masters before his was able to purchase his freedom in 1670. Once he had gained his freedom, Exquemelin joined the buccaneer settlement at Tortuga, where he enlisted as a barber-surgeon and accompanied the buccaneers on numerous raids from 1670-1674" (Payton). It is this first-hand knowledge that lends authority and color to Exquemelin’s narrative. As stated by the (unnamed) tr
Danorum historiae libri XVI [Hamlet Source]

Danorum historiae libri XVI [Hamlet Source]

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM]. SAXO GRAMMATICUS THE SECOND EDITION (1534) OF SAXO’S HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL DENMARK, CONTAINING THE STORY THAT BECAME SHAKESPEARE’S HAMLET. "The first connected account of the hero whom later ages know as Hamlet is that of Saxo, called Grammaticus, in [the work offered here], written at the end of the twelfth century and first published in 1514" (Harold Jenkins, ed., Introduction to The Arden Shakespeare Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare). "The [1514 editio princeps] of Saxo probably had a political purpose, to strengthen the legitimacy of the young Danish king, Christian II, vis-a-vis his new family-in-law, the Hapsburg dynasty. Saxo’s patriotic history of Denmark, written in language which the Renaissance humanists could appreciate, had finally reached a European public, and thus after a long delay it contributed to the reputation of Saxo’s country and its kings, exactly as he would have liked" (Karsten Friis-Jensen, ed., Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum: The History of the Danes). Saxo’s preface to his book is charmingly modest: "Because other nations are in the habit of vaunting the fame of their achievements, and joy in recollecting their ancestors, Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, had always been fired with a passionate zeal to glorify our fatherland; he would not allow it to go without some noble document of this kind and, since everyone else refused the task, the work of compiling a history of the Danes was thrown upon me, the least of his entourage; his powerful insistence forced my weak intellect to embark on a project too huge for my abilities" (Peter Fisher’s translation, in Friis-Jensen, op. cit.). Yet whatever the deficiencies of the author or the work, Saxo deserves credit for passing on the story that fired Shakespeare’s imagination and led him to create what is arguably the greatest play ever written in the English language. "In this primitive and sometimes brutal story the essentials of Shakespeare’s plot – fratricide, an incestuous marriage, feigned madness, and the ultimate achievement of a long-delayed revenge – are already present. And it is the kind of potentially dramatic story in which ‘carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts’ show ‘ purposes mistook Fall’n on th’inventors’ heads’ ([Hamlet] v.ii.386-90) The woman who waylays the hero, the man who spies on him in his mother’s chamber, and the retainers who escort him to England to be killed already adumbrate the roles of Ophelia, Polonius, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Likenesses do not stop at incidents. In Shakespeare’s big set scene between Hamlet and his mother [Act III, sc. 4], the very drift of the dialogue is anticipated in Saxo. Something of Saxo also remains in Hamlet’s savage contempt for Polonius’s corpse [Act IV, sc. 3]" (Jenkins, op. cit.). Opinions differ on whether Shakespeare ever read Saxo, the majority view being that he did not, and instead got the story indirectly, through the adaptation of it by François Belleforest in his Histoires Tragiques, which first appeared in 1570. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that Shakespeare did at least consult Saxo. For example, Gunnar Sjögren, the Swedish Shakespeare scholar, states that "It is not generally believed that Shakespeare had read Saxo at all. Yet, there are in Hamlet what I take to almost literal, but seemingly unintentional, echoes from Saxo’s text which I find otherwise difficult to explain away" (Sjögren, "Hamlet the Dane"). Whatever Shakespeare may have borrowed from Saxo and other sources, the play that survives today is uniquely his own: "Saxo has no ghost demanding vengeance, and the identity of the murderous uncle is known from the start. There is no Osric, no gravediggers or play within a play. The legend lacks a Laertes character and the young woman does not go mad or kill herself. Perhaps most crucially, Amleth lacks Hamlet’s melancholy disposition and long self-reflexive soliloquies, and he survives after becoming king" (British Library). This second edition of Saxo – following the v
Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae [HAMLET SOURCE]

Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae [HAMLET SOURCE]

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM]. SAXO GRAMMATICUS THE VERY RARE FIRST EDITION (1514), EDITIO PRINCEPS, OF SAXO’S HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL DENMARK, CONTAINING THE STORY THAT BECAME SHAKESPEARE’S HAMLET. "The first connected account of the hero whom later ages know as Hamlet is that of Saxo, called Grammaticus, in [the work offered here], written at the end of the twelfth century and first published in 1514" (Harold Jenkins, ed., Introduction to The Arden Shakespeare Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare). "The [1514 editio princeps] of Saxo probably had a political purpose, to strengthen the legitimacy of the young Danish king, Christian II, vis-a-vis his new family-in-law, the Hapsburg dynasty. Saxo’s patriotic history of Denmark, written in language which the Renaissance humanists could appreciate, had finally reached a European public, and thus after a long delay it contributed to the reputation of Saxo’s country and its kings, exactly as he would have liked" (Karsten Friis-Jensen, ed., Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum: The History of the Danes). Saxo’s preface to his book is charmingly modest: "Because other nations are in the habit of vaunting the fame of their achievements, and joy in recollecting their ancestors, Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, had always been fired with a passionate zeal to glorify our fatherland; he would not allow it to go without some noble document of this kind and, since everyone else refused the task, the work of compiling a history of the Danes was thrown upon me, the least of his entourage; his powerful insistence forced my weak intellect to embark on a project too huge for my abilities" (Peter Fisher’s translation, in Friis-Jensen, op. cit.). Yet whatever the deficiencies of the author or the work, Saxo deserves credit for passing on the story that fired Shakespeare’s imagination and led him to create what is arguably the greatest play ever written in the English language. "In this primitive and sometimes brutal story the essentials of Shakespeare’s plot – fratricide, an incestuous marriage, feigned madness, and the ultimate achievement of a long-delayed revenge – are already present. And it is the kind of potentially dramatic story in which ‘carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts’ show ‘ purposes mistook Fall’n on th’inventors’ heads’ ([Hamlet] v.ii.386-90) The woman who waylays the hero, the man who spies on him in his mother’s chamber, and the retainers who escort him to England to be killed already adumbrate the roles of Ophelia, Polonius, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Likenesses do not stop at incidents. In Shakespeare’s big set scene between Hamlet and his mother [Act III, sc. 4], the very drift of the dialogue is anticipated in Saxo. Something of Saxo also remains in Hamlet’s savage contempt for Polonius’s corpse [Act IV, sc. 3]" (Jenkins, op. cit.). Opinions differ on whether Shakespeare ever read Saxo, the majority view being that he did not, and instead got the story indirectly, through the adaptation of it by François Belleforest in his Histoires Tragiques, which first appeared in 1570. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that Shakespeare did at least consult Saxo. For example, Gunnar Sjögren, the Swedish Shakespeare scholar, states that "It is not generally believed that Shakespeare had read Saxo at all. Yet, there are in Hamlet what I take to almost literal, but seemingly unintentional, echoes from Saxo’s text which I find otherwise difficult to explain away" (Sjögren, "Hamlet the Dane"). Whatever Shakespeare may have borrowed from Saxo and other sources, the play that survives today is uniquely his own: "Saxo has no ghost demanding vengeance, and the identity of the murderous uncle is known from the start. There is no Osric, no gravediggers or play within a play. The legend lacks a Laertes character and the young woman does not go mad or kill herself. Perhaps most crucially, Amleth lacks Hamlet’s melancholy disposition and long self-reflexive soliloquies, and he survives after becoming king" (British Library). Title page with de
The Goshawk

The Goshawk

WHITE, T.H. [WHITE, TERENCE HANBURY] FIRST EDITION, INSCRIBED BY WHITE: PERHAPS THE BEST POSSIBLE ASSOCIATION COPY, WITH A WARM AND LENGTHY INSCRIPTION TO HIS GOOD FRIEND SYDNEY COCKERELL – CONNOISEUR, BIBLIOPHILE, AND DIRECTOR OF THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. T.H. White is best known for his magnificent re-telling of the Arthurian saga in his Once and Future King tetralogy – The Sword in the Stone, The Queen of Air and Darkness, The Ill-Made Knight, and The Candle in the Wind. His life – as described by his biographer Sylvia Warner Townsend, and more recently in Helen Macdonald’s prize-winning memoir H is for Hawk – was a sad one. He was a heavy drinker, pathologically fearful, estranged from humanity, emotionally crippled by a turbulent upbringing, troubled by dark sado-masochistic fantasies, and isolated, in a homophobic era, by his (likely) homosexuality. As an adult, he attempted to exorcise his demons through psychoanalysis; by attempting to model himself on Sir Lancelot, "whose character White made his own" ("Lancelot was a sadist who refrained from hurting people through his sense of honour. White always took great pains to be gentle precisely because he wanted to be cruel"); and by his efforts to train a hawk, described in the book offered here. (MacDonald). "All those elements of himself that he’d pushed away, his sexuality, his desire for cruelty, for mastery: all these were suddenly there in the figure of the hawk. He would train it. He would teach the hawk, and he would teach himself, and he would write a book about it and teach his readers this doomed and ancient art. It was as if he were holding aloft the flag of some long-defeated country to which he staked his allegiance. He’d train his hawk in the ruins of his former life. And then when the war came, as it surely would, and everything around him crumbled into ruin and anarchy, White would fly his goshawk. far from the bitter, sexual confusion of the metropolis or the small wars of the schoolroom" (Macdonald). The project did not go well – the goshawk escaped – and White abandoned his plans to publish an account of the training. However, years later a publisher saw the manuscript and asked White if he could publish it. The Goshawk finally appeared in 1951. On White’s relationship to Sydney Cockerell: One of the bright spots that punctuated White’s gloomy life was his warm friendship with Sydney Cockerell, who was, in the words of Noel Perrin, "one of the few human beings the author of The Once and Future King had much use for." Cockerell was a connoisseur, a bibliophile, and the Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, of which he famously said, "I found it a pigsty; I turned it into a palace." "The collections and buildings were not just rearranged but much augmented. [and] his success was recognized by the award of an honorary LittD in 1930. [and] he was knighted in 1934" (Dictionary of National Biography). White and Cockerell first encountered each other – if that is the right word – anonymously and at a distance. In a November 1944 letter, White recalled the incident to Cockerell: "Shall I startle you into answering by confessing something which has been on my conscience for eighteen years? Cast your mind back to the extension of the Fitzwilliam Museum, and you will probably remember that the ‘Cambridge Correspondent’ of the then Saturday Review made some nasty remarks about the pilasters of your godchild. You crushed that correspondent by some excellent replies in which you cruelly referred to him as ‘he or she’ and he or she made exit crawling backwards mumbling. He or she was me." Whether or not Cockerell ever knew the "Cambridge Correspondent’s" identity until White spilled the beans in 1944, the two later met face to face in Siegfried Sassoon’s home. Cockerell "discerned a character he would like to add to his collection of acquaintances, and invited him for a visit to Kew. . In the course of his visit, White was asked to wash his hands; when he had done so he was allowed to examine his host’s trea
Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist

Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist

EINSTEIN, ALBERT; SCHILPP, PAUL ARTHUR THE MAGNIFICENT SIGNED LIMITED FIRST EDITION, ONE OF ONLY 760 COPIES SIGNED BY EINSTEIN. AN OUTSTANDING COPY IN ORIGINAL SLIPCASE, GLASSINE, AND SHIPPING BOX. The seventh volume in "The Library of Living Philosophers" series, Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist is a tribute volume with essays by some of the most important scientists of the era reflecting on the importance of Einstein’s work. Contributors include: Wolfgang Pauli, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Arnold Sommerfeld, Georges Lemaitre, Kurt Gödel, and many more. Of special note is the essay by Niels Bohr, "Discussion with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics", which gives Bohr’s perspective of the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. As Paul Schilpp notes in his Preface, "These recollections of conversations with Einstein on the epistemological aspects of physical science would never have come into being, were it not for the peculiar nature of this series." Also included, as a first chapter, is Einstein’s important "Autobiographical Notes" in German and English and, a final chapter by Einstein entitled "Remarks to the Essays Appearing in this Collective Volume". With frontispiece portrait of Einstein by Yousef Karsh. Number 715 of the 760. Evanston, IL: The Library of Living Philosophers, Inc., 1949. Thick octavo (approx. 6.75×9.75×1.75), original publisher’s leatherette with gilt image of Einstein’s signature on front board, bevelled edges, top edge gilt, pages uncut; original glassine, slipcase, and shipping box. Book fine, fragile glassine (usually lacking) with chips to spine and edges, slipcase with a few spots of wear at edges. An outstanding copy of an essential Einstein item – very rare in complete original condition with glassine, slipcase, and shipping box.
The Doctrine of Chances; or

The Doctrine of Chances; or, a method for calculating the probabilities of events in play

MOIVRE, ABRAHAM DE FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST TEXTBOOK ON PROBABILITY THEORY. "De Moivre expanded his paper ‘De mensura sortis’ (written in 1711), which appeared in Philosophical Transactions, into The Doctrine of Chances (1718). Although the modern theory of probability had begun with the unpublished correspondence (1654) between Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat and the treaties De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae (1657; ‘On Ratiocination in Dice Games’) by Christiaan Huygens of Holland, de Moivre’s book greatly advanced probability study. The definition of statistical independence-namely, that the probability of a compound event composed of the intersection of statistically independent events is the product of the probabilities of its components-was first stated in de Moivre’s Doctrine. Many problems in dice and other games were included, some of which appeared in the Swiss mathematician Jakob (Jacques) Bernoulli’s Ars conjectandi (1713; ‘The Conjectural Arts’), which was published before de Moivre’s Doctrine but after his ‘De mensura.’ He derived the principles of probability from the mathematical expectation of events, just the reverse of present-day practice" (Britannica). Complete with dedication to Isaac Newton. London: W. Pearson for the Author, 1718. Quarto, modern antique-style paneled calf. Very minor scattered foxing; text generally clean with wide margins. A beautiful copy of a classic and highly influential work.
Grundbegriffe Der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung

Grundbegriffe Der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung

KOLMOGOROFF, ANDREY NIKOLAEVICH THE FIRST EDITION, IN ITS ORIGINAL WRAPPERS, OF KOLMOGOROV’S FAMOUS PAPER PUTTING PROBABILITY THEORY ON A FIRM AXIOMATIC BASIS. A formal system is a set of precisely-specified definitions, axioms, and rules of inference relating to a particular domain (such as geometry or arithmetic) that allow the rigorous development of theorems within that domain. Such systems replace vague and intuitive conceptions of a domain, or empirical rules of thumb, with rigorous standards of proof. The first formal system to be developed in the West was of course the system set forth in Euclid’s Elements (see quotation above). Recognizing in that system, or at least in idealized versions of it, the gold standard of rigor, mathematicians in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries began trying to develop comparable systems outside the domain of geometry. Peano, for example, famously developed an axiomatic basis for natural-number arithmetic, Zermelo axiomatized set theory, and others sought to develop formal systems for symbolic logic and real-number arithmetic. In the meantime, Hilbert and others sought to refine Euclidean geometry in a way that would eliminate the unstated assumptions that underlie many of Euclid’s theorems and constructions. Still others, perhaps stretching matters a trifle, attempted to axiomatize ethics, theology, and other branches of metaphysics. In a famous talk to a mathematical Congress in 1900, Hilbert proposed twenty-three problems that mathematicians should endeavor to solve in the twentieth century. His sixth problem challenged his listeners to develop a way "to treat in the same manner [as geometry], by means of axioms, those physical sciences in which already today mathematics plays an important part; in the first rank are the theory of probabilities and mechanics." In the work offered here, Kolmogorov solved the first part of the sixth problem by developing an axiomatic framework for probability theory. This framework was based on a recently-developed branch of mathematics known as "measure theory," a formalized and abstract version of the notions underlying such concepts as length, area, and volume – or, more generally, the "size" of a set. (For more on the details of Kolmogorov’s axioms, see Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Interpretations of Probability".) "Kolmogorov was one of the twentieth century’s greatest mathematicians . [His] most famous contributions are to the foundations of probability theory. From the mid-seventeenth century, probability had been explored in a somewhat unsystematic fashion. By bringing to bear on the topic the apparatus of measure theory, Kolmogorov’s principal work in probability theory, [the work offered here] established probability theory as a core area of rigorous mathematics." (Dictionary of Scientific Biography). Berlin: Julius Springer, 1933. Octavo (243x165mm), original wrappers. Small crease to bottom outside corner of front wrapper; neat old Berlin bookseller’s sticker on inside of front cover. An outstanding copy. EXCEEDINGLY RARE IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS.