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La dottrina del fascismo. Storia Opere ed Istituti a cura di A. Marpicati

La dottrina del fascismo. Storia Opere ed Istituti a cura di A. Marpicati, M. Gallian, L. Contu. Cinquantaquattro tavole fuori testo.

MUSSOLINI et al. - [THE COPY OF "THE FATHER OF FASCISM"] Milano, Hoepli, 1935. Small 8vo. Original printed wrappers. Slight wear to spine and light brownspotting to wrappers, but overall very nice. With d’Annunzio’s signature in ink to front free end-paper and a previous owner’s signature in pencil to title-page. (12), 316, (2) pp. Richly illustrated. First edition thus of this magnum opus of Italian fascism – the copy of Gabriele D’Annunzio – "the father of Fascism" – with his ownership signature.This seminal publication of Mussolini’s "The Doctrine of Fascism" – the first part if which was actually written by Gentile – is published together with "Storia del fascismo" by Marcello Gallian, "Istituti ed opere del regime" by Arturo Marpicati and "Appendice legistativa" by Luigi Contu, constituting one of the most important publications of Italian fascism. "The Doctrine of Fascism" was originally published in the Italian Encyclopedia in 1932, as the first section of a lengthy entry on "Fascismo" (Fascism). In its book form, it came to have the greatest impact upon Italian politics. A key concept of the work is summed up in Mussolini’s own words: "Granted that the 19th century was the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy, this does not mean that the 20th century must also be the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy. Political doctrines pass; nations remain. We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the ‘right’, a Fascist century. If the 19th century was the century of the individual (liberalism implies individualism) we are free to believe that this is the ‘collective’ century, and therefore the century of the State."Gabriele D’Annunzio is often seen as a precursor of the ideals and techniques of Italian fascism. His political ideals emerged in Fiume when he coauthored a constitution with syndicalist Alceste de Ambris, the Charter of Carnaro. It was D’Annunzio’s ideas and aesthetics that more than anything else influenced the style of Mussolini, and in turn Adolf Hitler. Mussolini’s culture of dictatorship came directly from D’Annunzio. Described as "the father of fascism" and "John the Baptist of Italian Fascism", virtually the entire ritual of Fascism was invented by D’Annunzio during his occupation of Fiume and his leadership of the Italian Regency of Carnaro. These rituals included the balcony address, the Roman salute, the cries of "Eia, eia, eia! Alala!" (taken from Achilles’ cry in the Iliad), the dramatic and rhetorical dialogue with the crowd, and the use of religious symbols in new secular settings. But also his very method of government constituted the invention of fascism: the economics of the corporate state; stage tricks; large emotive nationalistic public rituals; and blackshirted followers with their disciplined, bestial responses and strongarm repression of dissent. He was even said to have originated the practice of forcibly dosing opponents with large amounts of castor oil, a very effective laxative, to humiliate, disable or kill them, a practice which also became a common tool of Mussolini’s blackshirts.
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Den Danske Atlas. Eller Konge=Riget Dannemark, Med dets Naturlige Egenskaber, Elementer, Indbyggere, Væxter, Dyr og andre Affødninger, dets gamle Tildragelser og nærværende Omstændigheder i alle Provintzer, Stæder, Kirker, Slotte og Herre=Gaarde. Forestillet ved en udførlig Lands=Beskrivelse, saa og oplyst med dertil forfærdigede Land=kort over enhver Provintz samt ziret med Stædernes prospecter, Grund=Ridser, og andre merkværdige Kobber=Stykker. 7 Bd. (alt).

PONTOPPIDAN, ERICH (ERIK). Kiøbenhavn, Godiche,1763-81. 4to. Bind 1-6 indbundet i 6 samtidige, ensartede hellæderbind i flammet kalv. Ophøjede bind på rygge. Rig rygforgyldning. Forgyldte tome- og titelfelter. Bind VII afvigende i samtidigt hldrbd. med rig rygforgyldning. Ryg lidt slidt og forreste fals itu. Med alle 296 kobberstukne plancher, kort, prospekter, grundtegninger m.v. (heraf 17 foldekort, incl. det Generelle Danmarkskort 1763). Enkelte kort og plancher med nogle rifter og forstærkninger på bagsiden. Eksemplaret har tilhørt litteraturhistorikeren Carl S. Petersen og bærer hans navn på alle friblade. Udmærket komplet eksemplar på trykpapir. Originaltrykket af Danmarks topografiske hovedværk. De første tre bind nåede at udkomme inden Pontoppidans død, resten blev redigeret til trykken af Hans de Hoffman.Danske Atlas er den første store omfattende historisk-topografiske beskrivelse af Danmark, der med Hertugdømmet Slesvig dengang strakte sig helt til Eideren. det er et bredt anlagt værk med omfattende billedstof i form af kobberstukne prospekter, byplaner og store udfoldelige specialkort. I de fleste tilfælde er bybillederne ikke alene det ældste kendte af den pågældende lokalitet, men odte også det tidligst kendte.
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L’Histoire du Fleuve Amur et des Pays adjacens, depuis la Conquête des Russes ; avec la Nouvelle Carte qui présente ces Découvertes & le Cours de l’Amur, dressée sur des Mémoires authentiques, publiée par l’Académie des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, & corrigée en dernier Lieu. Ouvrages traduits de l’Allemand de Mr. G.P. Muller, par C.G.F. Dumas.

WITSEN, NICOLAUS) - AMUR RIVER - FLEUVE AMOUR. Amsterdam, Marc-Michel Rey, 1766. Small 8vo. Contemp. full mottled calf. Richly gilt spine. IV,207,(23) pp. Without the map. Clean, faint marginal brownspots. The contemt of this volume (which is volume II of Gerhard F. Müller’s. "Voyages et Découvertes faites par les Russes le long des Côtes de la Mer glaciale & sur l’Océan oriental.) is wholly devoted to the description of the Amur River and its borderlines as extracted and translated from Nicolaus Witsen’s work "Sur la Tartarie Septentrionale & Orientale" (Noord en Oost Tartarye, Ofte Bondig Ontwerp Van eenig dier Landen en Volken., Amsterdam 1692)."In the nineteenth century, Russian historians and ethnographers discovered that Witsen had used many Russian sources that had since been lost, and they praised Noord en Oost Tartarye ‘as the most remarkable book about Asiatic Russia ever written by a foreigner.’ During the Soviet period, Witsen was seen as scholar who had ‘opened up a new era in the study of Siberia.’ Nowadays, he is respectfully mentioned on many local Russian websites as the first to have reported on their town, province, nationality or language."(huygens.knaw.n.).
El Capital. Resumido y acompanado de un estudio sobre el socialismo científico por Gabriel Deville. Primera edición.

El Capital. Resumido y acompanado de un estudio sobre el socialismo científico por Gabriel Deville. Primera edición.

MARX, CARLOS. - [FIRST SPANISH EDITION OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ABRIDGED VERSION OF "THE CAPITAL"] Madrid, Ricardo Fé, 1887. 8vo. Very nice recent pastiche binding of brown half calf with gilt lines and gilt lettering to spine. Internally evenly browned, due to the paper quality, but otherwise very nice. Fully complete, also with the extremely scarce half-title, which is mounted on a strip at inner margin. LVI, 263 pp. The exceedingly scarce first Spanish edition of the most important abridged version of Marx’s Capital ever to have appeared, published in the same year as what is generally accepted as the first Spanish edition of "Das Kapital" (Zafrilla’s abridged version – defectively translated from Roy’s French version – which was published in newspaper installments 1886-87).This Spanish translation was made from the French of Gabriel Deville (1854 -1940), the great French socialist theoretician, politician and diplomat, who did more than almost anyone else to raise awareness of Karl Marx’s theories of the weaknesses of capitalism – most effectively through the present work, which came to have a profound influence upon the spreading of Marxist thought throughout the Spanish speaking part of the world. "The epitome, here translated, was published in Paris, in 1883, by Gabriel Deville, possibly the most brilliant writer among the French Marxians. It is the most successful attempt yet made to popularize Marx’s scientific economics. It is by no means free from difficulties, for the subject is essentially a complex and difficult subject, but there are no difficulties that reasonable attention and patience will not enable the average reader to overcome. There is no attempt at originality. The very words in most cases are Marx’s own words, and Capital is followed so closely that the first twenty-five chapters correspond in subject and treatment with the first twenty-five chapters of Capital. Chapter XXVI corresponds in the main with Chapter XXVI of Capital, but also contains portions of chapter XXX. The last three chapters-XXVII, XXVIII, and XXIX-correspond to the last three chapters-XXXI, XXXII, and XXXIII-of Capital." (ROBERT RIVES LA MONTE, Intruductory Note to the 1899 English translation).The Spanish translator of the work is Antonio Atienza, a typographer and translator at the press of Ricardo Fé, who in 1886 volunteered his work at the newly founded "El Socialista", the Spanish flagship publication of Marxist socialism. It was also in 1886 that Atienza translated the present work, with the publication following in 1887. This translation happened almost simultaneously with the "translation" by Zafrilla, which appeared in weekly installments in the rival newspaper "La Républica", and the two first versions of "Das Kapital" to appear in Spanish tell the story of more than just the desire to spread Marx’s ideas in Spain. Both versions were part of an ongoing struggle between political parties vying for the loyalty of Spain’s workers (see more below). THE WORK IS OF THE UTMOST SCARCITY, WITH MERELY THREE COPIES LISTED ON OCLC (two in Bristish Library and one in Bibliothèque Nationale) and none at auction over the last 40 years at least.Backgrund for the publication:Among the numerous nascent political organizations that sprouted in the last half of 19th century Spain, many of them as a result to the tumultuous years after the so-called "Glorious Revolution" of 1868, was the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE). The party was founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1879, and it was the second socialist party in Europe, preceded only by the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD). Notably, of the original twenty-five founding members sixteen were typographers. March of 1886 was a turning point for the PSOE, as they began to publish a weekly newspaper, "El Socialista", in order to reach a wider audience throughout Spain and thus advance the Marxist socialist agenda, of which the paper became the flagship. (To this day, it is the official paper of the PSOE, the present ruling party in Spain, although it was suppressed during the years of Franco’s dictatorial regime and published sporadically in exile, in France, or clandestinely in Spain. It was again published regularly since 1978. The PSOE gave up Marxism in 1979 in favor of Democratic Socialism.)In 1886 the translator of the present work, Antonio Atienza, was a typographer and translator at the press of Ricardo Fé. At the same time, he volunteered his work at the newly founded El Socialista, as the PSOE funds were quite limited-he wouldn’t have a paid position in the paper until 1913. He translated articles by Engels, Guesde, and Buechner, among others."Das Kapital" had been published twenty years earlier. That it took so long to reach Spain in book form reveals, among other things, that up to that moment most of Marx’s thoughts had filtered through to the workers’ unions and parties by way of the writings of his followers as they were interpreted and explained by the intellectuals in charge of these organizations. It is also evident that the complexity of the book wouldn’t be of much use to the average worker, factory and otherwise. Enter Deville’s abridged version, which was more accessible in that some of the most basic ideas of Marx were digested and re-explained. The point was not to publish a book that could only be only be understood by economists and philosophers, but one that could be given to the workers. A rival party leftist party, considered by the PSOE as bourgeois, was the Partido Republicano Federal. One of its members, Pablo Correa y Zafrilla, undertook the task of translating the first volume of Das "Kapital". Quite usual for Spain at the time, the translation was published in weekly instalments to subscribers of their newspaper, "La República", starting in 1886 and ending in 1887. The paper then sold the cloth binding to its subscribers and offered to collect the installments to have the book bound for its customers. According to the ad in "La República" (22/1/1886), the translation is purportedly from the German origina
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Brief Descriptions of several Terrestrial Planariae, and of some remarkable Marine Species, with an Account of their Habits.

CHARLES DARWIN. - [DARWIN’S FIRST PUBLICATION ON TAXONOMY] London, Taylor and Francis, 1844. 8vo. In a nice later half morocco binding with five raised bands and gilt lettering to spine. Blind stamped to upper outer corner of first leaf of table of contents. In "The Annals and Magazine of Natural History", volume 14. A very fine and clean copy. [Darwin’s paper] pp. pp. 241-251. [Entire volume:] vii, [1] – 472 + 12 plates. First edition of Darwin’s paper on flatworms collected by him during the Beagle voyage, one of the important early papers by Darwin on invertebrates originally intended for publication in The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle. This is Darwin’s first publication on taxonomy: illustrated with a plate drawn by Darwin, it describes a new genus and 15 new species of flatworm. Extremely rare on the market."The paper on flatworms [.] was Darwin’s first venture into taxonomy. In it, he described a new genus and 15 new species; most of the latter are still recognised as valid. He took a great deal of interest in these animals, making extensive notes on their morphology and behaviour" (Porter, Darwin’s Sciences).Previously familiar only with marine species, Darwin was astounded to discover two new species of flatworm living on dry land in Brazil. He was intrigued by their close resemblance to snails, and evolutionary questions may well lie behind his strong interest in them. PROVENANCE: From the collection William Pickett Harris, Jr. (1897 – 1972) (pencil note on p. iii). American investment banker and biologist. Following a career in banking, Harris was appointed Associate Curator of the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan in 1928. "[Harris] played a highly important role in developing mammalogy and systematic collections of mammals at the University of Michigan" (Hooper p. 923).Freeman 1669
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Kapital. Kritika Politicke Ekonomije.

MARX, KARL], KARLA MARKSA - [FIRST SERBIAN TRANSLATION OF MARX'S "DAS KAPITAL"] Beograd, Izdavacka Knjizarnica Gece Kona, 1924. 8vo. In the original printed wrappers. Spine renewed, preserving most of the original spine. Ink stain to front wrapper. Previous ower’s name to top of title-page. First leaves with a few underlignings, otherwise internally fine and clean. 198, (4) pp. Rare first Serbian translation of Marx’s Das Kapital. Translator Mosa Pijade, a Serbian Sephardic Jew, were sentenced 20 years of prison in 1925 because of ‘revolutionary activities’, partly because of making the present translation. In prison he meet Josip Broz-Tito and Pijade became Tito s right hand, one of the leaders of Tito s Partisans during WWII and after the war the President of the Yugoslavian Parliament.During WWII Pijade became one of the leaders of Tito s partisans and after the war the President of the Yugoslavian Parliament between 1954 and 1955. In 1948, Pijade convinced Tito to allow the Yugoslav Jews to immigrate to Israel. The book was issued by Geca Kon (Géza Kohn), a Jewish publisher, born in Hungary, who owned the biggest publishing house in Yugoslavia, operating from 1901 until the occupation by Germany in 1941. After the Germans marched into Belgrade, Kon was arrested and shot. Most of his family, who were also active in the business, were taken to a concentration camp in Vojvodina and shot in the same year. OCLC only list three copies: University of Pittsburgh, Philosophical Faculty; Ljubljana and Zagreb City Library
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Account of a Comet.

HERSCHEL, WILLIAM. - [THE DISCOVERY OF URANUS] London, Lockyer Davis, and Peter Elmsly, 1782. 4to. In recent marbled paper wrappers. Extracted from "Philosophical Transactions", vol. 71, read April 26, 1781. Including title-page of volume. Leaves reinforced in margin. (2), V-VII, 492-501 pp. + three folded plates. First edition of Herschel’s seminal paper being the first recorded discovery of a new planet. Herschel’s "discovery [was] unprecedented in human history. [.] Herschel’s "new" planet demonstrated that there is much more to the universe – even to our tiny solar system – than the eye can discern on its own." (Lemonick, The Georgian Star).British astronomer William Herschel commenced "his first review of the heavens, in which he examined stars down to the fourth magnitude. In August of that year he began a second review, more systematic and extensive than the first, and concentrated on the discovery of double stars" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography)In March 1781, during his search for double stars, Herschel noticed an object appearing as a disk. Herschel originally thought it was a comet or a stellar disc, which he believed he might actually resolve. He reported the sighting to Nevil Maskelyne the Astronomer Royal. He made many more observations of it, and afterwards Russian Academician Anders Lexell computed the orbit and found it to be probably planetary. Herschel agreed, determining that it must be a planet beyond the orbit of Saturn. He called the new planet the "Georgian star" (Georgium sidus) after King George III, which also brought him favour; the name did not hold. In France, where reference to the British king was to be avoided if possible, the planet was known as "Herschel" until the name "Uranus" was universally adopted. The same year, Herschel was awarded the Copley Medal and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1782, he was appointed "The King’s Astronomer" (not to be confused with the Astronomer Royal). Dibner 13Sparrow 157Norman 1058.
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On the Ring of Saturn, and the Rotation of the fifth Satellite upon its Axis. Read December 15, 1791 (+) Miscellaneous Observations. Account of a Comet. Read December 22, 1791.

HERSCHEL, WILLIAM. London, Peter Elmsly, 1792. 4to. In recent marbled paper wrappers. Extracted from "Philosophical Transactions". Including title-page of volume. Leaves reinforced in margin. (2), iii-vi, (2), 28 pp. + 1 folded plate. First edition of Herschel’s important paper on his observations of the rings of Saturn. "Saturn exercised a special fascination for Herschel, and between 1789 and 1808 he devoted seven papers and part of an eighth to the planet, its ring, and its satellites.On 19 August 1787 Herschel suspected he had found a sixth and previously unknown satellite, but he was not able to confirm this until 28 August 1789, when his forty-foot telescope came into commission. A few days later he found a seventh satellite. For some months he carefully tracked the satellites, establishing for Mimas and Enceladus periods within seconds of the modern values, and giving evidence to show that Iapetus rotates in its period of revolution.He also made careful observations of the rings, which he believed to be solid. As the earth happened to be in the plane of the ring structure at the time, he compared the thickness of the ring when seen edge-on with the diameter of Jupiter’s satellites; and although his estimate exceeds modern values, his method showed that the thickness did not exceed a few hundred miles." (DSB)
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O kulcie jednostki i jego nastepstwach. Referat I Sekretarza KC KPZR tow. N.S. Chruszczowa na XX Zjezdzie Komunistycznej Partii Zwiazku Radzieckiego 25 lutego 1956 r. [i.e. On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences. Keynote address by First Secretary of the CC of the CPSU tov. N. S. Khrushchev at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union].

KHRUSHCHEV, NIKITA. Warsaw, March (27th) 1956. 8vo. Original printed wrappers. Spine quite worn and with a tear to the front wrapper (no loss). Internally fine and clean. With "Wylacznie do uzytku organizacji partyjnych" ("Exclusively for inner-party use") printed to top of front wrapper. Stamped serial number to front wrapper: 2899. 71, (1) pp. Extremely rare first printing, printed for private circulation only ("exclusively for inner-party use"), of one of the most important documents of the 20th century, namely Khrushchev’s so-called "Secret Speech", also known as the "Khrushchev Report". This seminal speech was delivered at an unpublicized closed session of Communist Party delegates, with guests and members of the press excluded, and the present Polish version of it was the only one that circulated during the Cold War, the official Russian text being unknown until its 1989 publication. The CIA counterfeit edition [falsely stating Moscow 1959] was in fact a translation into Russian from the present Polish text, which was smuggled out of Moscow and leaked, via Israel, to the USA. There are two impressions of the first edition of Khrushchev’s speech, both bearing the date March 1956 and both ordered by the Polish communist party authorities in the span of March 27 – March 31. The present is the first. The present publication shook the Western world and changed our history for good. "Its consequences, by no means fully foreseen by Khrushchev, shook the Soviet Union to the core, but even more so its communist allies, notably in central Europe. Forces were unleashed that eventually changed the course of history. But at the time, the impact on the delegates was more immediate. Soviet sources now say some were so convulsed as they listened that they suffered heart attacks; others committed suicide afterwards." (John Rettie, in The Observer, Sunday 26 February 2006 ).On February 24, 1956 before assembled delegates at a secret session of the Communist Party’s Twentieth Congress, Nikita Khrushchev delivered his so-called "Secret Speech", denouncing Stalin for his transgressions. The public session of the 20th Congress had come to a formal end on 24 February 1956 when word was spread to delegates to return to the Great Hall of the Kremlin for an additional "closed session," to which journalists, guests, and delegates from "fraternal parties" from outside the USSR were not invited. Special passes were issued to those eligible to participate, with an additional 100 former Party members, recently released from the Soviet prison camp network. The speech was thus secretly held in this closed session, without discussion, and it was neither published as part of the congress’ proceedings nor reported in the Soviet press. The speech that sent shock waves through the congress participants denounced Stalin, describing him as satanic despot and terrorist who had committed the greatest of crimes. Quoting from correspondence, memoranda and his own observations, Khrushchev gave details of Stalin’s horrible actions during the Terror of the late 1930’ies, the unpreparedness of the country at the time of the Nazi invasion in June 1941, numerous wartime blunders, the deportation of various nationalities in 1943 and 1944, and the banishing of Tito’s Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc after the war. Absolving the party itself of these grave actions, Khrushchev attributed them to the "cult of personality" that Stalin encouraged and his "violations of socialist legality". According to Khrushchev’s speech, Stalin was a tyrant, a murderer and torturer of party members.Khrushchev gave his grim tale of the obscene crimes committed by his predecessor, Josef Stalin, only three years after the death of Stalin, who was then celebrated as a great leader and whose death was mourned by the great majority of Soviet citizens, who saw him as a divine father. It is no wonder that this lengthy speech from their new leader completely shocked Soviet communists, being told so soon after his death that far from far from being divine, their hero Stalin was actually outright satanic. The leaders who inherited the party from the old dictator had agreed – after months of furious argument – that Khrushchev should make the speech, but on the condition that it should never be published.Khrushchev read from a prepared report and no stenographic record of the closed session was kept. No questions or debate followed Khrushchev’s presentation, and it is reported that delegates left the hall in a state of complete disorientation. It is even said that several delegates suffered heart attacks and that some even committed suicide upon listening to the horrifying speech. On the evening of the congress, delegates of foreign Communist parties were called to the Kremlin and given the opportunity to read the prepared text of the Khrushchev speech, which was treated as a top secret state document. Reports of the speech soon reached the West and as early as March the contents were reported in Western media. "The content of the speech reached the west through a circuitous route. A few copies of the speech were sent by order of the Soviet Politburo to leaders of the Eastern Bloc countries. Shortly after the speech had been disseminated, a Polish journalist, Viktor Grayevsky, visited his girlfriend, Lucia Baranowski, who worked as a junior secretary in the office of the first secretary of the Polish Communist Party, Edward Ochab. On her desk was a thick booklet with a red binding, with the words: "The 20th Party Congress, the speech of Comrade Khrushchev." Grayevsky had heard rumors of the speech and, as a journalist, was interested in reading it. Baranowski allowed him to take the document home to read.As it happened, Grayevsky, who was Jewish, and had made a recent trip to Israel to visit his sick father, decided to emigrate there. After he read the speech, he decided to take it to the Israeli Embassy and gave it to Yaakov Barmor who had helped Grayevsky make his trip to visit Graye
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Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern umliegenden Ländern. Erster- (Zweyter) Band.

NIEBUHR, CARSTEN. Kopenhagen, Nicolaus Möller, 1774-78. 4to. Bound in 2 contemp. full mottled calf. Gilt spines. Title-and tome-labels with gilt lettering. Wear to top of spine on vol. I. Fronthinge on vol. II cracked and loosening. 2 engraved titlevignettes. Halftitles. XVI,(6),505,(1);(16),479 pp. 1 large folded map, outlinecoloured "Tabula Iteneraria. Terrae Yemen. 1763." and 124 engraved maps and plates (complete). Internally fine and clean, a few marginal brownspots. Printed on good paper. Scarce first edition of Niebuhr’s great travel account of Arabia. Like his "Beschribung von Arabien", his "Reisebeschreibung von Arabien" "provided a mass of new geographical, regional, and historical information. Among is many exact maps and plans, the map of the Red Sea and of Yemen served as the most reliable information for more than 50 years."Despite its tragic course, the expedition was a complete success with regard to its scientific and scholarly results. It was especially due to Niebuhr’s efforts to preserve and continue his and his collegues’ , that the Royal Danish Library was eventually equipped with a host of oriental manuscripts, maps, and drawings, as well as many botanical and zoological specimens. It was Niebuhr who edited and published Forskåll’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica (1775) and Descriptiones Animalium (1775), together with the drawings of Bauerfeind. In 1772 he had alredy published his systematic and geographically organized beschreibung von Arabien, which was followed between 1774 and 1778 by the first two volume of his three-volume chronologically arranged Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien. (the item offered, the third volume was published many years later, 1837). Both works, written in a clear and sober language and illustrated with numerous precise drawings, maps, and plans, provided a mass of new geographical, regional, and historical information. Among is many exact maps and plans, the map of the Red Sea and of Yemen served as the most reliable information for more than 50 years."(Josef Wiesehöfer).
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Observations on the Structure and Propagation of the genus Sagitta.

CHARLES DARWIN. - ["ONE OF THE MOST ANOMALOUS ANIMALS IN THE WORLD"] London, Taylor and Francis, 1844. 8vo. In a nice later half morocco binding with five raised bands and gilt lettering to spine. Blind stamped to upper outer corner of first leaf of table of contents. In "The Annals and Magazine of Natural History", volume 13. A very fine and clean copy. [Darwin’s paper] pp. (1)-6 + 1 plate. [Entire volume:] viii, [1] – 528 + 14 plates (4 hand-coloured). First edition of Darwin’s paper on marine arrow worms collected by him on his voyage on the Beagle. It is one of Darwin’s early papers on invertebrates which originally was intended for publication in The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle. Described by Darwin as "one of the most anomalous animals in the world," the origin of these strange carnivorous animals, which Darwin found highly interesting, is still unresolved. These early works are rarely seen on the market. The plate, drawn by Darwin, is based on his drawings made during the Beagle Voyage.Darwin arrived back in England from his voyage around the world on the Beagle in October 1836. He immediately set about writing up the results of the expedition-first, his general account, the Journal of the Beagle, and then, publishing the scientific observations and collections he had made while on the Beagle. The majority of these were published in the Zoology-including parts on mammals, fish, birds, and reptiles but Darwin ran out of funds beforehe could bring out the volume on invertebrates:"Darwin undertook to provide a comprehensive programme for the publication of the zoological results of the Beagle voyage – he obtained a Treasury grant to pay for the necessary engravings, and, having enlisted the leading taxonomical specialists in the several fields, he superintended the publication of the Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle from February 1838 to October 1843 – The work comprises five parts: Fossil Mammalia, by Richard Owen; Mammalia, by G. R. Waterhouse; Birds, by John Gould; Fish, by Leonard Jenyns; and Reptiles, by Thomas Bell-a total of nineteen quarto issues. Darwin contributed a substantial portion of the text, drawing uponhis field notes for geological and geographical data and for the descriptions of the habits and habitats of the species – Darwin had originally planned to include descriptions of invertebrates in the Zoology but the exhaustion ofthe government grant forced him to abandon the idea. Instead he decided to publish his own observations and descriptions of the specimens that he considered to be important new discoveries, and did so in articles on Sagitta finished during the autumn of 1843, and Planariae, described in 1844" (Burkhardt 1986 p. xv.).PROVENANCE: From the collection William Pickett Harris, Jr. (1897 – 1972) (pencil note on p. iii). American investment banker and biologist. Following a career in banking, Harris was appointed Associate Curator of the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan in 1928. "[Harris] played a highly important role in developing mammalogy and systematic collections of mammals at the University of Michigan" (Hooper p. 923).Freeman 1664.
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Nieopublikowane materialy doreczone delegatom XX Zjazd KPZR (Polish, i.e.: Unpublished Materials Delivered to the Delegates of the 20th CPSU Congress).

LENIN, STALIN, KHRUSHCHEV]. - [THE PREVIOUSLY UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS THAT LED TO KHRUSHCHEV'S SECRET SPEECH] Warszawa, March (presumably 27th, but no later than 31st) 1956. 8vo. Original printed wrappers. With "Wylacznie do uzytku organizacji partyjnych" ("Exclusively for inner-party use") printed to top of front wrapper. Stamped serial number to front wrapper: 0563. Some creases to spine and corners of wrappers and a tear to the back wrapper. Title-page a little cleased and with two small marginal holes caused by the original clips. All in all a fairly well preserved copy. 32 pp. Extremely rare first printing thus (presumably the first printing at all, and definitely the first separate printing), printed for private circulation only ("exclusively for inner-party use"), of the previously unpublished materials that led to one of the most important moments of 20th century politics, namely Khrushchev’s so-called "Secret Speech", also known as the "Khrushchev Report". This seminal speech was delivered at an unpublicized closed session of Communist Party delegates, with guests and members of the press excluded. The "Unpublished materials" contain Lenin’s "Testament", Lenin’s "On the National Question", and Stalin’s notes.The speech itself appeard in two different printings. As the present publication, those the two printings of the speech also bear the date March 1956 and all three publications were ordered by the Polish communist party authorities in the span of March 27 – March 31. The extremely scarce first printing of the speech consisted in 71 pages, namely Khrushchev’s speech with the recorded interjections and ovations; the second printing, which appered four days later, consisted of 96 pages, was edited to give only Khrushchev’s speech (without the recorded interjections and ovations), but containing also a second part, "Unpublished materials" with Lenin’s "Testament", Lenin’s "On the National Question", and Stalin’s notes.The present publication constitutes the "Unpublished materials" alone, with a separate pagination (pp. 1-32, including a title-page) – exactly the same material as pp. 71-(96) of the second printing of the speech from March 31st, but here published separately, with its own title-page. Thus, the present publication was most likely published at the same time as the first printing of Khrushchev’s Speech, March 27th, and meant to be an accompaniment to this. And later, it was thus incorporated into the edited second edition of the speech and publised after that, as pp. 71-(96). Khrushchev’ Speech shook the Western world and changed our history for good. "Its consequences, by no means fully foreseen by Khrushchev, shook the Soviet Union to the core, but even more so its communist allies, notably in central Europe. Forces were unleashed that eventually changed the course of history. But at the time, the impact on the delegates was more immediate. Soviet sources now say some were so convulsed as they listened that they suffered heart attacks; others committed suicide afterwards." (John Rettie, in The Observer, Sunday 26 February 2006 ).On February 24, 1956 before assembled delegates at a secret session of the Communist Party’s Twentieth Congress, Nikita Khrushchev delivered his so-called "Secret Speech", denouncing Stalin for his transgressions. The public session of the 20th Congress had come to a formal end on 24 February 1956 when word was spread to delegates to return to the Great Hall of the Kremlin for an additional "closed session," to which journalists, guests, and delegates from "fraternal parties" from outside the USSR were not invited. Special passes were issued to those eligible to participate, with an additional 100 former Party members, recently released from the Soviet prison camp network. The speech was thus secretly held in this closed session, without discussion, and it was neither published as part of the congress’ proceedings nor reported in the Soviet press. The speech that sent shock waves through the congress participants denounced Stalin, describing him as satanic despot and terrorist who had committed the greatest of crimes. Quoting from correspondence, memoranda and his own observations, Khrushchev gave details of Stalin’s horrible actions during the Terror of the late 1930’ies, the unpreparedness of the country at the time of the Nazi invasion in June 1941, numerous wartime blunders, the deportation of various nationalities in 1943 and 1944, and the banishing of Tito’s Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc after the war. Absolving the party itself of these grave actions, Khrushchev attributed them to the "cult of personality" that Stalin encouraged and his "violations of socialist legality". According to Khrushchev’s speech, Stalin was a tyrant, a murderer and torturer of party members.Khrushchev gave his grim tale of the obscene crimes committed by his predecessor, Josef Stalin, only three years after the death of Stalin, who was then celebrated as a great leader and whose death was mourned by the great majority of Soviet citizens, who saw him as a divine father. It is no wonder that this lengthy speech from their new leader completely shocked Soviet communists, being told so soon after his death that far from far from being divine, their hero Stalin was actually outright satanic. The leaders who inherited the party from the old dictator had agreed – after months of furious argument – that Khrushchev should make the speech, but on the condition that it should never be published.Khrushchev read from a prepared report and no stenographic record of the closed session was kept. No questions or debate followed Khrushchev’s presentation, and it is reported that delegates left the hall in a state of complete disorientation. It is even said that several delegates suffered heart attacks and that some even committed suicide upon listening to the horrifying speech. On the evening of the congress, delegates of foreign Communist parties were called to the Kremlin and given the opportunity to read the prepared text of the Khrushchev speech, which was treated as a top secr
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La Dottrina del Fascismo. Cun una Storia del Movimento Fascista di Gioacchino Volpe.

MUSSOLINI, BENITO. - [THE KEY POLITICAL DOCUMENT OF FASCIST THOUGHT] Milano, Treves, 1932. 4to. Original printed wrappers. Uncut and unopened. With a brindstamped publisher’s mark to title-page. A very nice copy, with slight marginal wear. (8), 133, (3) pp. The scarce first edition in book form, fourth thousand (i.e. with mention of "quinto migliaio" on title-page), of the key political document of fascist philosophical thought – the publication in which the ideological cornerstones of The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) are officially established. "The Doctrine of Fascism", the first part of which was actually written by Giovanni Gentile, who is not mentioned as the author, was originally published in the Italian Encyclopedia Vol. 14, 1932, as the first section of a lengthy entry on "Fascismo" (Fascism). Gioacchino Volpe’s "History on the Fascist Movement" was also published in that volume, as an appendix to Mussolini’s entry, and immediately after the Encyclopaedia-publication, the two pieces were published together, in the first book form of the work, under the title "La Dottrina del Fascismo. Con una Storia del Movimento Fascista di Giocchino Volpe", by the "Biblioteca della Enciclopedia Italiana", which undertook the separate publishing of the most important entries of the Encyclopaedia. Mussolini added a series of notes that appered for the first time in the first publication in book-form. The present copy bears the imprint "Quinto migliaio" at the foot of the title-page. We have been unable to determine whether this actually means that the issues of the first edition were in fact divided into thousands and this thus the fourth thousand, or whether, as would have been common practice with eg. propagandist literature, the "fourth thousand" was a way to boost the public perception of the immediate reception of the work. No matter whther the "Quinto migliaio" was a boosting gimmick or not, the work ended up being published in enormous numbers after its initial publication in 1932. Not only did it appear in several newspapers already in 1932, it was also published again in book form already in 1933 and kept appearing in different versions, with other additions on the subject, throughout the following decades. It was also translated into numerous other languages and came to have a tremendous impact on the spreading of fascist thought. This magnum opus of Italian fascism came to have the greatest impact upon Italian politics and the entire political climate of Europe. A key concept of the work is summed up in Mussolini’s own words: "Granted that the 19th century was the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy, this does not mean that the 20th century must also be the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy. Political doctrines pass; nations remain. We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the ‘right’, a Fascist century. If the 19th century was the century of the individual (liberalism implies individualism) we are free to believe that this is the ‘collective’ century, and therefore the century of the State."
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Den Rette Judske Lowbog, Nu Nylige offuerseet, Corrigerit oc Forbedrit, som Anno M.D.LXXXX er udgangen. Og nu paa ny igien oplagt. (+) Christian III’s Recess (+) Frederich II’s Recess. (+) Frederich II’s Handfestning. (+) Fr. II. Gaards Rætten (+) Fr. II Søræt. (+) Frederich dend Andens Obne Breffve. (+) Fr. II Om nogle viise Vilkaar. som de Fremmede. (+) Christian 4. Recess. (+) Hereffter Følger de Forordninger. (+) Christians dend Fierdis Rigens Ræt oc Deele. (+) Christians dend Fierdis Bircke Ræt. (+) Register. Jydske Low etc. etc.

JYSKE LOV - JYDSKE LOV - CHRISTIAN IV'S STORE RECESS M.V. Kiøbenhaffn, Peder Hake (og) Jørgen Holst, 1642-4333. 4to. Samtidigt hellæderbind med ophøjede bind på ryggen. Lukkestroppe fornyede. Forgyldte stregrammer på permer. I permernes midterfelt et lille forgyldt ovalt bogmærke med bladkrans (blot dekorativt ?) i hvis midte et forgyldt blomsterstempel som går igen på hjørnerammerne. Øverst på forpermen initialerne I.E.R (?) og nederst årstallet 1643. På bagpermen i svagt guldtryk "In Silentio – et Spe" (I Stilhed og Håb (Luthers valsprog var "I Stilhed og Håb skal Jeres Styrke være")). 2 kobberstukne titelblade og 5 i træsnit samt flere gengivelser af rigsvåbnet i træsnit på bagsider af titelblade. Ialt omkring 900 pp. Indvendig særdeles velbevaret. En af de store lovsamlinger fra Peter Hake og Jørgen Holsts trykkerier, som i store træk udgør den danske lovgivning op til Danske Lov. Samlingen indeholder både Chrstian IV’s Store Recess og Den rette Jüdske Lowbog (se Thesaurus 422 og 427 med varianter i kollationeringen). – Bibl. Danica I,629-30.
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On the Theory of Light and Colours (+) An Account of some Cases of the Production of Colours, not hitherto described.

YOUNG, THOMAS. - ["AN EPOCH-MAKING CONTRIBUTION TO THE THEORY OF LIGHT IN ALL ITS PHASES" - PMM 259] London, Bulmer, 1802. 4to. In recent marbled paper wrappers. Extracted from "Philosophical Transactions", Read as the Bakerian lecture, November 12, 1801. Including title-page of volume. Top of verso of title-page reinforced. Inner margin of leaves reinforced. (2), iii-vi, 11-48, (2), 387-398 pp + plate. First appearance of Young’s landmark paper: "an epoch-making contribution to the theory of light in all its phases" (PMM 259).Young was the last of the natural philosophers who could know all that there was to be known. He was the perfector of the wave theory of light, he expounded the mechanism of vision, stated the laws of blood circulation, introduced the modern conceptions of energy’ and work done’, evolved a sound theory of tides, and helped to decipher the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone.This Bakerian Lecture delivered in November 1801 is an epoch-making contribution to the theory of light in all its phases. Hooke, Huygens and above all Newton had discussed the nature of light in the seventeenth century.but Young, in this and two subsequent papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions, July 1802, and his Bakerian Lecture, November 1803, based himself firmly on the theory that radiant light consists of undulations of the luminous ether : a theory that held the field until the latter-day notions of Planck and J.J. ThomsonPMM 259Dibner 152 Garrison and Morton 1488 Norman Library 2275