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A group of rare Mexican pamphlets on Freemasonry

A group of rare Mexican pamphlets on Freemasonry

"Freemasonry in Early XIXth Century Mexico – Collection of 11 Rare Pamphlets-". Various sizes and bindings. [see detail below]. Most of these pamphlets belong to the early post-Independence period which was a crucial period in the history of freemasonry in Mexico. Freemasonry had arrived in colonial Mexico during the second half of the 18th century (the first Masonic Lodge in México dates from 1806) but it was not until after Independence in 1821 that the existing lodges came out of hiding and increased greatly in number. The pamphlets shed light the two rival masonic organizations which flourished at this period in Mexico: the Scottish rite and the York rite. The dispute between them kept the country in profound turmoil, bordering on civil war (Peter Ingram, Early Mexican Freemasonry: A Confused Chapter in Our History, United Masters Lodge No. 167, Vol. 28, No. 14 October 1990). The pamphlets are extremely rare: some untraced, others surviving in only single print copies. Some exist only in microform. List of pamphlets: a) Examen crítico de las causas de la persecución que han experimentado los francmasones y explicación de las Bulas de los Sumos Pontífices Clemente XII y Benedicto XIV. México; Reimpreso en la Oficina de D.J.M.B. y socios; 1822. 34p. Small 4to. Unbound. # World Cat records copies in BL, University of Florida; BNE; Universities of Mexico, Seville and Navarra. (RF 1203/ G. 6182). b) Algo de mazones o sea Diálogo entre un Filósofo y una Maestra de amiga. México; reimpreso en la Oficina de D.J.M.B. y socios; 1822. 8p. Small 4to. Unbound.# Not in WorldCat. (RF1203/G.6183). c) Discurso masónico en que se da una idea sucinat del origen y progresos y estado actual de la masonería en Europa. Mexico; en la oficina de Betancourt; 1822. 8vo. Unbound. # WorldCat records one copy inBL. (RF1203/G.6178). d) Prontuario de los diez y ocho primeros G* de la mazonería escocesa. Traducida del francés. Escocia; Imprenta Fraternal; 1824. 2ll., 36pp. Masonic emblem on half title, title page within decorative border. Small 8vo. Paper covers. # Not in World Cat. (RF 1203/ G. 6176). e) Reglamentos de la R. L. Nº 3º Titulada la Independencia mejicana. Méjico; Imprenta de la suprema G. L. N. M.; año de la verdadera luz 5826; en vulgar 1826. Title page with masonic emblem + 33pp. Small 8vo. Unbound. # Not in World Cat. (RF 1203/ G. 6177). f) El primo de Dª Tecla da Pascuas a los masones. Diálogo entre D. Celedonio y D. Eustaquio. Mexico; Imprenta de Mariano Galvan, calle del Alfaro Nº 8; 1826. 8vo. Lacking pp. 3 to 6. Unbound. # Not in WorldCat. (RF1203/G.6179). g) Algo más de masones. Segunda parte o sea Diálogo entre un filósofo y una maestra de amiga. México; Oficina de la testamentaria de Ontiveros; 1826. 8p. Small 4to. Disbound. # World Cat records copies in Tec de Monterrey and BNE. (RF 1203/ G. 6185). h) Algo de masones o sea segunda parte del Diálogo entre Doña Tecla y D. Canuto, México; [Imprenta del Águila dirigida por José Ximeno]; 1827. 8p. Small 4to. Small paper loss in last leaves. Disbound. * OCLC Number: 877587354. (RF1203/G. 6184). i) Defensa de los yorkinos en el partido de Santa-Anna. Mexico; Imprenta del C. Alejandro Valdés a cargo de José María Gallegos; 1828. [4] pp. 8vo. Disbound. # WorldCat records only one copyat the Tec de Monterrey. (RF1203/G.6180). j) Almoneda de las joyas, instrumentos y muebles mazónicos que por fallecimiento del rito yorkino venden sus albaceas para cubrir á sus s infinitos acreedores. Puebla; Imp. del C. Pedro de la Rosa; 1830. 14 p. Small 4to. # WorldCat: 2 copies UC Berkeley Libraries and BNE. (RF1203/G.6181). k) Misterios de los conservadores o sea diálogo entre Dª Conserva y la hacha. Colima; Imprenta de Benito García; 1860. Small 8vo. Red editorial cloth, blind-stamped with title stamped in gold. * OCLC Number: 22872715. (RF 1203/ G. 6175).
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Arte de ingenio, Tratado de la agudeza. En que se explican todos los modos y diferencias de Conceptos. Dedicala al Principe Nuestro Señor

Gracián, L. "Edition princeps of one of the most influential works of Spanish literature of the Golden Century – only one copy in OCLC -". 12vo; full morocco, signed "V. Arias, Madrid"; boxed. FIRST EDITION, OF NOTABLE RARITY. The theories regarding the concepts presented by Gracián in this work illuminated the literary production of the writers of the Golden Century. The work of Gracián is not one more rhetoric among those of his time since his analysis of literary works comes from the examples taken from the texts and not from a previous concept. This work is considered the most brilliant treatise on rhetoric in Spanish literature. According to OCLC there is only one copy in America. "Edición princeps del Arte de ingenio de Gracian, una de las más influyentes obras de la literatura Española del siglo de Oro". 12vo; encuadernación de Vicente Arias en tafilete rojo de grano largo, doble hilo dorado en ambas tapas, lomero con nervios; contracantos y cortes dorados; doblada en tafilete azul con greca, hilos y arquillos dorados; estuche protector. PRIMERA EDICIÓN DE NOTABLE RAREZA. Las teorías sobre el concepto abordadas por Gracián en esta obra iluminaron la producción literaria de los escritores del siglo de oro. El libro de Gracián no es una retórica más entre las de su tiempo, pues su análisis del hecho literario parte de los ejemplos extraídos de los textos y no de una preceptiva previa. Esta obra está considerado el mas brillante tratado de retórica de la literatura española. Solo un ejemplar en América de acuerdo a OCLC.
EN LA CIUDAD DE LA HAVANA

EN LA CIUDAD DE LA HAVANA, en diez y ocho de Septiembre de mil setecientos ochenta y tres, Señor D. Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga, Mariscal de Campo de los Reales ExercitosÂÂ.

Ayala, I. de "Rare 18th Century Cuban Imprint ÂÂ- If You Are a Plebeian You Will Not Inherit the Privileges of Nobility — APPARENTLY UNIQUE". Small folio; 4 h; unbound. Don Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga (Málaga, 1721-1792), was a Spanish military man and administrator who served in the Americas as Governor of the provinces of Louisiana, Venezuela and Cuba. He also lent military aid to the thirteen colonies in their struggle with Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. This Royal Decree addresses the regulation of unequal marriages between two people of unequal social rank, such as those between noble and plebeian, between price and countess, etc. which prevented the spouse or any child born of such unions to inherit or obtain titles, privileges and properties belonging to those of noble rank. This document makes reference to the fact that in 1779 Unzaga married a plebeian, the daughter of a wealthy French merchant and military man from Louisiana. * Medina 75. # WorldCat: no copies. EN LA CIUDAD DE LA HAVANA, en diez y ocho de Septiembre de mil setecientos ochenta y tres, El Señor D. Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga,Mariscal de Campo de los Reales Exercitos. Dixo: que ha recibido la Real Cédula por la qual S.M. se digna a aprobar el zelo con que el Ilmo. Sr. Obispo de esta Diócesis ha solicitado el cumplimiento de la Pragmática-Sanción de Matrimonios. La Habana, 18 de septiembre de 1783. El Sr. Don Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga (Málaga,1721-1792), fue un militar y administrador español en América, gobernador de las provincias de Luisiana, Venezuela y Cuba. Ayudó militarmente a las Trece Colonias, en su lucha contra Gran Bretaña durante la guerra de la Independendencia. Esta Real Cédula trata de la regulación de los matrimonios desiguales o morganáticos, realizados entre dos personas de rango social desigual., entre noble y plebeyo, entre príncipe y condesa.lo cual impedía que el cónyuge y cualquier hijo de dicha unión herede u obtenga los títulos, privilegios y propiedades del noble. Este documento se refiere al hecho de que Unzaga se casó en 1779 con una plebeya, hija de un acaudalado comerciante y militar francés de Luisiana. * Medina 75. # WorldCat: no copies.
Real orden. Instruido el Rey de los favorables efectos que en algunos parages de América ha producido à la Real Hacienda la puntual observancia de las Leyes y Reales órdenes. Decreto

Real orden. Instruido el Rey de los favorables efectos que en algunos parages de América ha producido à la Real Hacienda la puntual observancia de las Leyes y Reales órdenes. Decreto

Havana imprint] [Ramirez y Blanco, A.] "Rare Cuban Imprint. Keep the Taxes Flowing. No More Excuses". [4] pp. Bifolium. 11.5 x 8.5 inches. Disbound. Ineptitude, corruption, and lax enforcement of revenue collection was a problem in the Spanish America which a new intendant of Havana was determined to cure, issuing a Royal order reminding government officals that they are required to log in receipt of payments especially as it involves sales taxes and tobacco payments, as noted in the original decree of 14 March 1807, an order which many ministers had either claimed ignorance of or ignored. Signed in print "Ramirez," and dated Habana 4 deciembre de 1816, six months after he become superintendent of Cuba and intendant of Havana. Before tackling Cuba’s problems, Alejandro Ramirez y Blanco (1777-1821) first took on Puerto Rico, becoming Indentant in December 1812, where "he found a bankrupt colony and began reformation of its tax structure and diversification of its economy. He retired an inflationary issue of paper money, founded an economic society and edited its newspaper, and opened vocational schools for women and night schools for artisans. Despite efforts from peninsular officials to thwart his reforms, the island became self- sufficient during his tenure. On 3 July 1816, he became superintendent of Cuba and intendant of Havana and pursued his policies of economic diversification and tax reform, doubling royal revenues by 1820. Recognizing the problems of monoculture, he introduced new crops to be utilized by small landowners. He obtained abolition of the tobacco monopoly, thus invigorating the industry. He also created a school of chemistry and a botanical garden and school of botany, and his efforts led to public education programs and support of charitable institutions for women and orphans. Due to opposition from sugar interests and peninsular Spaniards, he became the first colonial official to utilize the press to defend his actions. Ramirez showed that a liberal official, cooperating with creole interests, initiated outstanding successes utilizing Bourbon Reform policies. His legacy was the economic success in the colonies he served and a reputation for outstanding honesty." Tenenbaum, Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, (NY: Scribners, 1996), Vol. 4, p.535). *José Maris Samora y Coronado’s. Registro de Legislación Ultramarina y Ordenanza General de 1803 (Havana: 1840), pp. 233-235. # WorldCat: one copy only (BPL).
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Arte de la lengua mexicana

Sandoval, R. T. "Mexican Grammar by an Indian Nobleman". Small 8vo; Provenance: Gift of Benjamin Blinkhorn to the British and Foreign Bible Society 1833; contemporary vellum. FIRST EDITION, rare – the only auction record is from 1967; born in Mexico City, Sandoval was an Indian nobleman, a descendant of illustrious Spaniards and Mexican chiefs. He was also a bachelor of theology and parish priest in several towns in the vicinity of Mexico City. He was appointed professor of the Nahuatl language at the Royal College of Tepotzotlán and at the University of Mexico. Shortly before his death in 1817, he was appointed canon of the collegiate church of Guadalupe. In the "dedicatoria" to his work Sandoval protests against those "who, basing their argument on the Real Cedula of 1770 in which Charles III allowed parishes to be entrusted to men of learning and virtue even if they did not understand the language of the Indians, falsely argue that the King has forbidden all languages, so that only Castilian can be used to preach to the Indians, and that the Indians must learn the doctrine, even though they understand nothing". The book was conceived by Sandoval as an introductory text for priests who wanted to learn the native language in order to better carry out their pastoral work in indigenous communities. As was typical of the grammarians of New Spain, Sandoval concludes his "Arte" with two pamphlets, the ‘Doctrina breve sacada del Catecismo mexicana que dispuso el P. Ignacio de Paredes` and an "Alabado en mexicano" del bachiller Jose de la Mota. * Sabin 76430; Leclerc (1867) 1368; Medina (Mexico) 10514; Palau 297166. Viñaza 404. (G. 5839/LA16/85). "Gramática mexicana por un indio de la nobleza".
Defensa Mylitar por el Capitan de Fragata Don Juan Antonio de la Colina

Defensa Mylitar por el Capitan de Fragata Don Juan Antonio de la Colina, en justyfycacion de la conducta del Teniente General Don Andrés Reggyo.

Colina, J. A. de la "The English Against the Spanish in Havana, Cuba; "Libro Raro y Curiosisimo" (Palau)* Only One Copy in WorldCat". 4to, contemporary stiff vellum over boards, with a small portion of vellum gone, spine chipped. A fine copy, very fresh and clean, title page restored with small portion of paper excised and replaced, contemporary ownership inscription only partially visible as a result. First edition: "Libro muy raro y curiosísimo para el estudio de aquel combate naval" (Palau). Internal referentes suggest a publication date of circa 1754. Reggio commanded the naval squadron based permanently at Havana and achieved a considerable degree of success in transporting substantial shipments of treasure to Spain. In October 1748 he engaged a force of six British chips cruising off Havana under the command of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles. In the course of a rather confused action, during which neither side seems to have aggressively pressed home a concerted attack, the Spanish line was broken and their flagship, the Africa, was driven ashore and burnt to avoid capture, but the other Spanish chips escaped, having inflicted severe damage on the Cornwall, Knowle’s flagship. Both commanders were subsequently summoned to courts martial. Knowles’s trial, based exclusively on points of seamanship and tactics, was necessarily extremely technical; he was reprimanded, but much acrimony ensued among his fellow captains, culminating in a series of duels finally stopped by royal command. Reggio entrusted his defence to Colina, who had served in the Africa during the battle. The Defensa Mylitar contáis the case for the defence, living both general accounts of the action and a detailed refutation of all the charges against Reggio. The testimony of several officers is simissed as unreliable since they themselves had been arrested by Reggio after the action and the prosecution case is attacked for its failure to conform to regulations, in particular its attempt to employ evidence presented at Knowles’s court martial. Colina conducted the defence so ably that Reggio was not only cleared of all charges but also earned the King’s praise for the courage and dignity whith which he had defended the Spanish flan; his career continued to proper and he died in 1780 as Capitán General of Cadiz. * Palau 56806. # WorldCat: one copy only in USA (LC).
Sanctus Bonaue[n]tura De instructione nouitiorum; et De quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus

Sanctus Bonaue[n]tura De instructione nouitiorum; et De quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus

Bonaventure Saint, Cardinal - Martin of Braga, Saint "SPANISH Incunable Â- Printed in a Small Press in a Monastery in Barcelona. Illustrated with Woodcuts – One Copy Only in U.S. Libraries". 12vo (13 x 10 cm). 40 pp. Signature: ab8 c4. Gothic characters. 27 line per pages. Two woodcut illustrations representing the mountain, monastery and Virgin of Montserrat. The second work (De quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus) is now ascribed to St. Martin of Braga; modern vellum, housed in a modern box. FIRST EDITION. BEAUTIFUL ILLUSTRATED SPANISH INCUNABLE, PRINTED ON A SMALL PRESS AT THE MONASTERY OF MONTSERRAT. The Monastery of Santa María de Montserrat (in Catalan, Monestir de Santa Maria de Montserrat) is a Benedictine monastery in the Province of Bages near Barcelona. Although it would seem that there were 800 copies made of this book, it is difficult to find complete copies, as noted in Analecta Monserratense. The explanation lies in the use that was made of these Instructions as a textbook, by the novices of the Monastery of Montserrat. Our copy is complete and in good condition. In chronological order, this is the fifth book produced in the printing press of the Monastery of Montserrat during its first year of operation. The first one was printed on 16 April 1499 and our copy bears the date June 16. In addition to these Instructions for novices and admonitions on the four cardinal virtues, Saint Bonaventure also wrote Meditations on the Life, Passion and Death of Our Lord Jesus Christ; New Psalter; Life of Father Saint Francis; and Apology of the Poor. These Instructions for the edification of novices were later widely published in Europe and constitute an important work for the study of life in monasteries of the time. Joan o Hans Luschner, the printer of the book, settled in Barcelona in 1495 as an associate of Gerard Preus and in 1499 he signed a contract with the monks of Montserrat to establish his print shop there. * Hain-Reichling 3508. Haebler 62. Gesamkatalog 4736. Vindel I, 139. Kurz, 74. Goff, B-889. Albareda, 5. # WorldCat: one copy in US Libraries (Harvard).
A collection of six rare manuscripts in Spanish relating to Juan de Palafox y MendozaÂ's dispute with the Jesuits and the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the second half of the seventeenth century

A collection of six rare manuscripts in Spanish relating to Juan de Palafox y MendozaÂ’s dispute with the Jesuits and the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the second half of the seventeenth century

Palafox y Mendoza, Bishop of Puebla.] "Anti Jesuitism in the 18th Century, Rare Manuscript Sammelband of Texts Relating to the Jesuits in Mexico in the 17th and 18th Century". Folio (325 x 225 mm), ff. [19]; [114]; [13], [1, blank]; [12]; [30]; [14]; untrimmed edges; contemporary calf with leather ties and glass bead buttons; paper label at head of spine reads Â’Defensas sobre DiezmosÂ’ and another paper label at foot of spine with shelf mark of the PhillippÂ’s collection. EXTREMELY INTERESTING JESUITICA MEXICANA. Most of the documents in this collection relate to the famous dispute in the mid-seventeenth century between the Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza and the Jesuits over the dues that the Jesuits according the bishop were supposedly meant to pay the Mexican Church and the Spanish Crown. Palafox had been appointed visitador (or inspector) of New Spain and Bishop of the Mexican see of Puebla de los Angeles in 1640 but during this time he also served as interim Archbishop of Mexico from 1640 to 1642 and briefly, in 1642, as Viceroy of New Spain. While there, he became embroiled in a heated dispute with the Jesuits in an attempt to gain greater ecclesiastical and crown control over them by demanding that the Jesuits pay the diezmo, a tithe on agricultural production (see C. Alvarez de Toledo, Politics and Reform in Spain and Viceregal Mexico: The life and thought of Juan de Palafox 1600Â-1659, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2004). The arguments Palafox y Mendoza used are here defended by Antonio de Peralta Castañeda, a canon, teacher and Inquisition official at Puebla Cathedral, in the Â’Censura del Memorial à S. Mag. que la Provincia de la Compañía de Jesus de la Nueva España publico con ocasion del pleito de los diezmos con la Sta. Yglesia Cathedral de la Puebla de los Angeles Â.Â’ (Puebla de los Angeles, 11 August 1649). The Jesuits defended their position by arguing that the profits they earned from agricultural production funded their missions and their schools which, to a great extent, monopolised education in New Spain at the time. Both sides turned to Pope Innocent X for support and this collection includes a document by the Jesuit Alonso de Rojas, Procurador General for the Jesuits in New Spain, which was subsequently published in Spain to back their side of the argument and Â’BrevesÂ’ issued by the Pope in attempt to settle the manner. Tensions, however, continued to grow until in 1655 Palafox y Mendoza was transferred to the small provincial see of Osma in the Iberian Peninsula from where he continued to plead his case against the Jesuits. In 1694, Carlos II of Spain begun proceedings for Palafox y MendozaÂ’s canonization. These rumbled on for most of the eighteenth century until, in 1777, Pope Pius VI suspended the process. The process of canonization was revived in 2003 by Pope John Paul II and since 2011 Palafox y Mendoza is officially designated as Â’BlessedÂ’. In the eighteenth century, however, Palafox y MendozaÂ’s case was taken up by the Spanish Bourbon Monarchy in its attempts to curtail the power of the Church in its territories and in the assault on the Jesuits which would lead to their expulsion from Portugal in 1759, Spain in 1767 and, eventually, the outright but temporary suppression of the Order itself by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. Collections of documents such as this were produced and circulated to promote the case against the Jesuits and frequently they remained unpublished, as most of the documents in this collection have, partly because of the difficulties of getting them through the InquisitionÂ’s censors. The collection, which probably dates from the first half of the eighteenth century, is also of interest because it includes a report written by Palafox y Mendoza to García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Conde de Salvatierra (d. 1659) when transferring to him the position of Viceroy of New Spain in 1642. It includes detailed information on the conditions of the Spanish government, finances, military and naval forces in New Spain and New Mexico, the fleets to Spain and the Philippines, relations between the Crown and the Church, the management of native populations, the justice system, taxation, the treasury and the various tribunals in New Spain. This is followed by a similar report written by Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva (1662Â-1717), Viceroy of New Spain from 1711 to 1716, for Baltasar de Zúñiga Guzmán Sotomayor y Mendoza, Marqués de Valero (1658Â-1727) who succeeded him as viceroy in 1716. A work which stands out in this collection since it is related neither to Juan de Palafox y Mendoza nor to the Viceroyalty of New Spain is a rare, unpublished letter by the Dominican Jerónimo Bautista de Lanuza (1553Â-1624), Bishop of Barbastro and Albarracín in the Iberian province of Valencia written to Philip II on 22 August 1597. In it, Lanuza sets out his opinions on the dispute regarding Â’divine graceÂ’ that had erupted between the Dominicans and the Jesuits in the 1590s forcing Pope Clement VIII to establish the Â’Congregatio de AuxiliisÂ’ to debate the issue. The dispute continued into the seventeenth century until on 5 September 1607 the Pope issued a bull allowing both Dominicans and Jesuits to maintain their points of view, though their discrepancies remained a source of tension between the two orders into later centuries. List of Documents: a) Peralta Castañeda, Antonio de. Â’Censura del Memorial à S. Mag. que la Provincia de la Compañía de Jesus de la Nueva España publico con ocasion del pleito de los diezmos con la Sta. Yglesia Cathedral de la Puebla de los Angeles que de orden del Sr. Obispo de Honduras, Provisor, y Vicario pral. [general] del dho. [debido] Obispado &c. dio el Dr. Dn. Antonio de Peralta Castañeda canonigo magistral de la dha. [debida] Sta. Yglesia, Cathedratico de prima y Regente de sus reales, Calificador de Sto. Oficio en las Ynquisiziones de Cuenca y Nueva EspañaÂ’, Puebla de los Angeles, 11 August 1649. ff. [19].b) Rojas, Alonso de. ‘Al Rey Nro. Señor por la Provincia
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva-España

Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva-España

Diaz del Castillo (Bernal) "Diaz del Castillo: The Best and Most Reliable Account of the Conquest of Mexico – the "Real" First Edition". Folio; title within typographical border; contemporary vellum. FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE (there are two issues of this first edition, this one without the engraved title page is usually described by all bibliographies as the first issue) of this work that although it reads like a romance of chivalry, it is a foundational work for any collection of Americana. It is the classic account of the Spanish conquest of Mexico by one of his Conquistadores. The Historia Verdadera lay unpublished for some fifty years until Alonso Remón, Chronicler General of the Mercedarian Order, edited and published it. This is the only chronicle or history of the conquest of Mexico written by an actual conquistador that was published during the colonial era of Mexico’s existence. Diaz del Castillo, a soldier of fortune, participated in several of the key expeditions of the conquistadores, including that of Pedrarias to the Darien in 1514, and, three years later, that of Cordoba to the Yucatan Peninsula. He then joined the small expeditionary force under Hernando Cortes and was an eyewitness to the entire epic conquest of Mexico, from 1519 to 1521. In 1524, he accompanied Cortes on the expedition to Honduras. The Historia verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España was written between 1552 and 1557 in opposition to the previously published narrative of the conquest by Lopez de Gomara, Chaplain of the Cortés expedition, Diaz del Castillo’s account constitutes perhaps the principal authority for the history of the conquest. This first issue, is known to be much rarer than the second, printed the same year; last copy sold at auction (Sothebys, 2015, Auction L15405, lot 145). *Alden/Landis 632/27; Palau 73254; Sabin 19978, "of much rarity"
Memoria de todos los generos

Memoria de todos los generos, y especies de que se deven pagar diezmo, segun derecho, y costumbre assentada, en este obispado de la Puebla de los Angeles.

Escobar y Llamas, D., Bishop of Puebla] "Fine Sample of Puebla de los Angeles Imprint by the FIRST WOMAN PRINTER IN SPAIN * Medina # 60! * Only One Other Copy Known at SMU". Folio broadside (43 x 31.2 cm) on laid paper watermarked SP DP in three circles. Printed partly in triple columns, typographical ornaments at top and between elements of text. Creased where formerly folded, otherwise exceptionally fine. First Mexican edition. THERE ARE 2 ISSUES OF THIS BROADSIDE, THIS BEING THE RAREST AND NICEST, with a different setting of type and smaller in size. JCB Library has the "other" issue. A reminder to inhabitants of Puebla that they must pay church tithes on farm products and produce. Distinctions were made between tithes expected of Spaniards, as well as all others who were not Indians. Two classes of citizens are outlined: "Los Españoles, y todos los demas que no fueron Indios". Diego Escobar y Llamas (?-1673), a Spanish native, was bishop of Puebla 1656-73 and became the twenty-fourth viceroy of New Spain in 1644. He built religious structures in Puebla and contributed personally to New Spain’s defense. This broadside was printed by Ines Vasquez Borja y Gandia, widow of Juan de Borja y Gandia who began printing in 1654 but died in 1656, after which the printing house was taken over by Ines, a native of Barrancos en Castilla la Vieja (now Portugal). In her imprints, thirty-five of which have been identified, Ines always referred to the press as Viuda de Juan de Borja y Gandia. The printing shop remained active until 1682, and she died on December 6, 1686, at about 85 years of age. Sra. Borja y Gandia was the first woman printer in Puebla, and the beauty of her work has been noted. This rare broadside is a lovely example of Ines’ work, with its creative use of type ornaments that lend a certain vivacity to the layout and presentation. See Biblioteca Palafoxiana, La mujer novohispana en la imprenta (Exhibit, March 2011): The vision and role of women printers not only contributed to the persistence of important workshops in New Spain, but their activity was recognized by the civil and religious authorities who granted them certain privileges. * Medina, Puebla de los Angeles 60. Palau 160687. # WorldCat: 1 copy (SMU).
Instrucción sobre el estado en que deja el nuevo reyno de Granada el Excmo Sr. Virey don Francisco de Montalvo en 30 de enero de 1818Â.

Instrucción sobre el estado en que deja el nuevo reyno de Granada el Excmo Sr. Virey don Francisco de Montalvo en 30 de enero de 1818Â.

Montalvo, F. "Signed Manuscript: First Hand Account by the Spanish Viceroy of Events in Nueva Granada During the Revolutionary Period 1813-1818". Large 4to. Manuscript, 137 ll., 6 folding charts with information on military and economic matters. Contemporary green morocco, somewhat rubbed, with label in red. Signed by Montalvo in two places. Francisco Montalvo was appointed Capitan General of Nueva Granada en 181; in July of the same year he was made Capitán General of Venezuela and on 16 April 1816 Viceroy of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, a post he held until January 1818. The period between 1813 and 1818 was critical for the independence movement in Venezuela and the Reino de Nueva Granada. Montalvo arrived in Nueva Granada when, like Venezuela, it was almost entirely under the control of the revolutionaries. The previous Capitán General, Benito Pérez, had been forced to flee to Panama, the only zone which was completely under Spanish control. Montalvo disembarked at the city of Santa Marta on 28 April 1813 when it was about to succumb to the siege of the revolutionaries. His account of the siege has great literary value. MontalvoÂ’s Â"InstrucciónÂ" forms a part of the Spanish viceroyal tradition whereby when each viceroyÂ’s term of office came to an end he would leave a report or Â"InstrucciónÂ" explaining his governorship and giving advice to his successor. MontalvoÂ’s report begins with his arrival in Santa María in 1813 and ends with his departure in 1818. The report is divided into three sections: military matters, government and economic affairs. It is lucidly written with one eye on the king as reader and the other on MontalvoÂ’s successor. MontalvoÂ’s narration is full of perceptive observations and in detailed accounts of events. He deals with the proceedings of his governorship, makes continuous value judgements, proposes reforms in all fields, and provides valuable documentation. He emerges as an intelligent man with an enormous capacity for improvisation who had to face great difficulties both in war and in civil government. Especially interesting is his account of the difficult relationship he had with Pablo Morillo, the General in Chief of the expeditionary forces which had arrived from Spain in 1815. Montalvo saw the root of all the evils affecting the country in the distinction between Europeans and Criollos which had existed since the Conquista and advised his successor to try to extend the idea that all were equal in the eyes of the monarch. The manuscript is written in a secretarial hand and bears the autograph signature of Montalvo in two places. At the end the "Instrucción" is dated 30 January 1818 and it is stated that it is a copy signed by Montalvo in Cartagena on 28 February 1818.