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De Indiae utriusque re naturali et medica: libri quatuordecim, quorum contenta pagina sequens exhibit. I. De aëribus, aquis, & locis; II. De natura & cura morborum, Occidentali Indiæ, imprimis Brasiliæ, familiarium; III. De animalibus, aquatilibus, volatilibus, & terrestribus, edulibus; IV. De arboribus, fructibus, & herbis medicis, atque alimentariis, nascentibus in Brasilia & regionibus vicinis; V. De noxiis & venenatis, eorumque antidotis. Quibus insertæ sunt animalium quorundam vivæ sectiones; tum & aliquot metamorphoses insectorim; VI. Mantissa aromatica &c., posita post Bontii tractatus — Georgii Marcgravii . I. Tractatus topographicus & meteorologicus Brasiliæ, cum observatione eclipsis solaris; II. Commentarius de Brasiliensium & C

Piso, Willem (1611-1678); Marcgrave, Georg (1610-1644), Bondt, Jacob de (1592-1631) Folio: [24], 3-327 [i.e 329], [5], 39, 226, [2] p. Collation: *6-**6, A-Z6, Aa-Dd6, Ee6 (- leaf Ee6, blank), a-c6, d2, A-T6 A Classic in South American Natural History. The Greatly Expanded Second Edition Second edition of Piso and Marcgrave?s ?Historia Naturalis Brasiliae? edited by Johannes de Laet (Leiden and Amsterdam: 1648), which combined Piso?s ?Medicina Brasiliensi? and Marcgrave?s ?Historiae Rerum Naturalium Brasiliae? The work is illustrated with over 500 woodcuts of the native plants and animals of South America.For this edition, Piso (who disliked Laet?s editorial work on the 1648 edition) decided to completely restructure and re-edit the two texts, and added de Bondt?s ?Historiae Naturalis et Medicinae Indiae Orientalis? and his own ?Mantissa Aromatica?; due to the scientific talents of Piso and Marcgrave and the wealth of information on a wide variety of scientific and medical subjects, this work became one of the best-known works on South America. Marcgrave had traveled to Brazil in 1638 with Count Johan Maurits van Naussau-Siegen (the governor of Dutch Brazil), and, in this work, ?composed the most notable scientific work completed in that country in the seventeenth-century? (Borba de Moraes p. 675). The Dutch pharmacist and botanist Piso, ?one of the pioneers of tropical medicine? (DSB X, p. 622), had journeyed to Brazil in 1638 to become Nassau?s physician and to be head of a scientific mission sent by the Dutch West India Company, returning in 1644."Until the publication of the results of the great 19th-century expeditions Piso? ‘Historia Naturalis’ was the only illustrated work on Brazilian natural history. Sumptuously printed by Elzevir, it is one of the beautiful Dutch works on Braziliana."(Borba de Moraes) Hunt Botanical, 280; Pritzel, 7157; Sabin, 63029; Alden-L. 658/129; Borba de M. 675 ff.; Willems 1236; Nissen, BBI 1533; Garrison-Morton, 2263.1; Bosch 109; Arnold Arboretum, p. 558 Bound in contemporary calf, gilt spine, hinges split and with some light wear to the boards. An excellent, clean copy internally with only the slightest bit of fraying to the fore-margin of the engraved title page (not affecting the image), a small, very light stain to the blank margin of three leaves, and a tiny hole (not affecting the text) in one leaf. A handsome copy complete with the engraved title page.
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Works in Greek] Tragoediae Septem. Una cum omnibus Graecis scholiis, & cum Latinis Ioach. Camerarij. Annotationes Henrici Stephani in Sophoclem & Euripidem, seorsum excusae, simul prodeunt.

Sophocles (496-406 B.C.) Quarto: *4, a-z4, aa-zz4, aaa-kkk4, lll2; A-Z4, Aa-Gg4, Hh2 (includes blanks ggg4 and Hh2). The Estienne SophoclesIn A Fabulous Binding ?The great Estienne Sophocles, important for the scholia, which include those of Triclinius. The Greek text is followed by the commentary of Joachim Camerarius, and his Latin versions of Ajax and Electra. Estienne has again employed his peculiar system of diacritical notations.? (Schreiber) chreiber 171; Renouard 131 n.3; Moeckli 69; Hoffman III, 414; Dibdin vol.2 p.411; Graesse p.440; Brunet vol.4 p311; Schweiger p.290; Adams S-1448 Bound in contemporary German tanned calfskin over beveled wooden boards, signed ?I.M.? and dated ?1577, with brass catch-plates (lacking clasps) and corner guards. The binding is elaborately tooled in compartments with numerous fine and unusual tools. The outermost compartment has two rows of interlocking sheaves of wheat. The double central compartments are decorated with fleurs-de-lis, arabesques, the initials and date, all tooled in silver (now oxidized). There are discreet, minor cracks in the leather along the upper hinge. There is also slight loss at the head and the tail of the spine. The text is in fine condition with excellent margins and occasional very light toning. With Estienne?s ?Noli altum Sapere? printer?s device on the title page. Each tragedy is introduced by a large woodcut histoirated initial and an attractive headpiece. The Greek text is printed in two sizes of Claude Garamond?s "grecs du roi" type. Exquisite. By far the most beautiful example that I have handled.
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Poems, by J.D. With elegies on the authors death. To which is added divers copies under his own hand never before in print.

Donne, John (1573-1631) Octavo: [8], 392, [32] p. A4, B-Z8, Aa8, (aa)8, (bb)4, Bb-Cc8. Lacking blank A1. With an added portrait frontispiece. A fine Copy with the Portrait of Donne ?The poetry of Donne represents a sharp break with that written by his predecessors and most of his contemporaries. Much Elizabethan verse is decorative and flowery in its quality. Its images adorn; its meter is mellifluous. Image harmonizes with image, and line swells almost predictably into line. Donne?s poetry, on the other hand, is written very largely in conceits? concentrated images that involve an element of dramatic contrast, of strain, or of intellectual difficulty. Most of the traditional ?flowers of rhetoric? disappear completely. For instance, in his love poetry one never encounters bleeding hearts, cheeks like roses, lips like cherries, teeth like pearls, or Cupid shooting arrows of love. The tears which flow in A Valediction: of Weeping, are different from, and more complex than, the ordinary saline fluid of unhappy lovers; they are ciphers, naughts, symbols of the world?s emptiness without the beloved; or else, suddenly reflecting her image, they are globes, worlds, they contain the sum of things. The poet who plays with conceits not only displays his own ingenuity; he may see into the nature of the world as deeply as the philosopher. Donne?s conceits in particular leap continually in a restless orbit from the personal to the cosmic and back again.?Donne?s rhythms are colloquial and various. He likes to twist and distort not only ideas, but also metrical patterns and grammar itself. In the satires, which Renaissance writers understood to be ?harsh? and ?crabbed? as a genre, Donne?s distortions often threaten to choke off the stream of expression entirely. But in the lyrics (both those which are worldly and those which are religious in theme), as in the elegies and sonnets, the verse never fails of a complex and memorable melody. Donne had an unusual gift, rather like that of a modern poet, T.S. Eliot, for striking off phrases that ring in the mind like a silver coin. They are two masters of the colloquial style, removed alike from the dignified, weighty manner of Milton and the sugared sweetness of the Elizabethans.?Donne and his followers are known to literary history as the ?metaphysical school? of poets. Strictly speaking, this is a misnomer; there was no organized group of poets who imitated Donne, and if there had been, they would not have called themselves ?metaphysical? poets. That term was invented by Dryden and Dr. Johnson. But the influence of Donne?s poetic style was widely felt, especially by men whose taste was formed before 1660. George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marvell, and Abraham Cowley are only the best known of those on whom Donne?s influence is recognizable. The great change of taste that took place in 1660 threw Donne and the ?conceited? style out of fashion; during the 18th and 19th centuries both he and his followers were rarely read and still more rarely appreciated. Finally, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, three new editions of Donne appeared, of which Sir H.J.C. Grierson?s, published in 1912, was quickly accepted as standard. By clarifying and purifying the often-garbled text, Grierson did a great deal to make Donne?s poetry more available to the modern reader. Almost at once it started to exert an influence on modern poetic practice, the modern poets being hungry for a ?tough? style that would free them form the worn-out rhetoric of the late 19th century romanticism. And Donne?s status among the English poets quickly climbed from that of a curiosity to that of an acknowledged master.?No more than a couple of the poems on which Donne?s modern reputation is built were published during his lifetime, though most of them were widely circulated through court and literary circles in handwritten copies. There were practical reasons for this halfway state of affairs. Many of the poems would have constituted
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An abridgemente of the notable worke of Polidore Virgile. Conteining the deuisers and fyrste fyneders oute aswell of antyquities, artes, ministeries, feactes and ciuill ordinaunces

Vergil, Polydore (1470?-1555); Langley, Thomas (d. 1581), translator Octavo: [8], c.lii, [16] leaves A8, a-k8, L8, m-x8 (lacking final blank x8) The Tudor English Translation of Polydore Vergil Thomas Langley?s celebrated English treatment of Polydore Vergil?s humanist encyclopedia ?On the Inventors and Discoverers of Things? ?In its first edition of 1499 ?De inventoribus rerum? (The Inventors of Things) consisted of three books. Each chapter was devoted to a question of origins?the origin of the gods, the beginning of things, the creation of men, the origin of languages, down to the origins of prostitution, the printing press, and the first warm baths? At Urbino he had at his disposal one of Europe’s most impressive collections of Greek and Latin texts, enabling him to make ?De inventoribus rerum? one of the new humanist encyclopaedias.When Polydore arrived in England in 1502, he was received by Henry VII and was treated as a celebrity in a culture that was eager for things Italian. Certainly he became well known to learned Englishmen?Erasmus listed Thomas More, Cuthbert Tunstall, Thomas Linacre, and William Latimer as among Vergil’s English friends.? (William J. Connell, ODNB)Modern bibliophiles will be delighted to read Polydore?s passage discussing the value of libraries and his account of the invention of printing by Gutenberg, which includes Conrad Sweynheym?s introduction of printing into Italy, and Nicolas Jenson?s improvements on the process:?Truly the commodity of libraries is right profitable & necessary, but in comparison of the craft of Printing, it is nothing, both because one man may Print more in one day, then many men in many years could write: And also it preserves both Greek & Latin authors from the danger of corruption. It was found in Germany at Magunce by one J. Cuthenbergus a knight? which was the year of our Lord 1458. One Conradus an Almaine brought it into Rome: and Nicolaus Johnson a Frencheman did greatly polish & garnish it. And now it is dispersed through the whole world almost.? (Ff. ixiv- xlvi) STC (2nd ed.), 24658; Luborsky & Ingram. English Illustrated Books, 1536-1603, 24658; Pforzheimer, 1022; Tail-piece: Plomer #38 Bound in 17th c. paneled calf, rebacked and with wear to the corners resulting in loss to the leather and rounding of the corners. Title soiled, margins trimmed, last leaf rehinged with some loss along the inner margin. Verso of final leaf with amusing early doodles. Contemporary ownership inscription of Hugh Cowper. With a four-part woodcut title page border and a woodcut of the Sacrifice of Isaac.
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Moriae Encomium nunc postremum ab ipso autore religiose recognitu[m] una cum alijs aliquot libellis, no[n] minus eruditis quam amoenis, quorum omniu[m] titulos proxima pagella loquetur.

Erasmus, Desiderius (ca. 1466-1536) Octavo: 408, [16] pp. Collation: a-z8, A-B8, C4, D8 A Fine Copy of Erasmus? ?Praise of Folly? Printed by FrobenWith Early English Provenance ?The Praise of Folly has long been famous as the best-known work of the greatest of the Renaissance humanists, Erasmus of Rotterdam. It is a fantasy that starts off as a learned frivolity but turns into a full-scale ironic encomium after the manner of the Greek satirist Lucian, the first and in its way the finest example of a new form of Renaissance satire. It ends with a straightforward and touching statement of the Christian ideals that Erasmus shared notably with his English friends John Colet and Thomas More.?The book was written in 1509 to amuse Thomas More, on whose name its Greek title Moriae Encomium is a pun, as a private allusion to their cooperation in translating Lucian some years earlier. It was a retreat into the intimacy of their friendship at a moment when Erasmus, just back from Italy, was ill, disillusioned at the state of the Church under Julius II and perhaps uncertain whether he had been right to turn down the curial post of apostolic penitentiary and promise of further preferment offered him if he stayed in Rome. ?He tells us that he wrote the Praise of Folly in a week, while staying with More and waiting for his books to turn up. It was certainly revised before publication in 1511, and the internal evidence leads one to suppose that it was considerably augmented and rewritten. Almost one sixth of the final text was added after the first edition, almost all before 1522. The text as we have it now moves from light-hearted banter to a serious indictment of theologians and churchmen, before finally expounding the virtues of the Christian way of life, which St Paul says looks folly to the world and calls the folly of the Cross (I Corinthians i, 18 ff.). It is situated at the nodal point where Renaissance Christianity, having broken with medieval religion, already manifests those characteristics that will later make inevitable the split between the majority of the evangelical humanists who inaugurated the early sixteenth-century return to scripture and the leaders of the Reformation.?The bantering tone, the attack on the theologians and the satire on widely practiced religious observances provoked a reaction of shocked hostility during Erasmus’s lifetime. Erasmus regarded the Praise of Folly as a minor work and said that he almost regretted having published it. But Pope Leo X was amused by it, and both More and Erasmus defended the work in long formal letters to the representative of the Louvain theologians, Maarten van Dorp (Erasmus? letter to Dorp is included in this edition.) Erasmus himself was surprised at the satire’s success and at the strength of the reaction it provoked. As he pointed out, it contained, cast in an ironic mold, much the same views as he had already published in the Enchiridion Militis Christiani. But the Praise of Folly with its bantering and incongruous irony was a much more potent vehicle for conveying the same message.?(A.H.T. Levi)Additional texts:The Froben editions of the ?Moria’? include two ancient examples of the mock-encomium, Seneca’s ?Apocolocyntosis? or "Ludus de Morte Claudii Caesaris" (?The Apotheosis of the Pumpkin-Head, Claudius Caesar?) and Synesius of Cyrene’s "De Laudibus Calvitii" ("In Praise of Baldness"), translated from the Greek by the Englishman John Phreas (d. 1465). In his introductory letter to Thomas More, Erasmus cites both the "Ludus" and the "Praise of Baldness" in a pre-emptive defense against those who will object to his literary frivolity ("levitas et ludicrum argumenti".) The text of the "Moria" is accompanied by the commentary of Gerard Listrius, with assistance from Erasmus. Van der Haeghen, Bibliotheca Erasmiana, ser. 1, p. 123; Bezzel, Erasmus, 1313; Adams E396 An exceptional, broad-margined copy, bound in seventeenth-century English calfskin, ruled in blind with small blind-tooled ornaments at the corners
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L’Ambassade de la Campagne Orientale des Provinces unies vers L’Empereur de la Chine, ou Grand Cam de Tartarie, faite par les Srs. Pierre de Goyer et Jacob de Keyser, illustré d1une tres-exacte description des villes, bourgs, villages, ports de mers, & autres lieux plus considerables de la Chine: enrichie d1un grand nombre de tailles douce. Le tout recuieilli par le Mr. Jean Nieuhoff, Mre. d’hostel de l’ambassade, à present gouverneur en Ceylon: mis en François, orné, & afforti de mille belles particularitez tant morales que politiques, par Jean le Carpentier, histiographe.

Nieuhof, Johannes (1618-1672) Folio: [*]1, *4, **2, (:) 2, A-Z4, Aa-Nn4, Oo2, A-R4. The Dutch & the Jesuits in 17th c. ChinaLavishly IllustratedFrom the Library of the French Kings at Neuilly This work is generously illustrated with 110 text engravings each of which take up one third of the page, 34 double-paged engravings and one large folding engraved map of China. The text of the second part "Description générale de l’Empire de la Chine" is primarily the work of the translator, Jean Le Carpentier, and includes chapters on language, architecture, sciences, arts, ethnography, religion, topography, minerals, flora and fauna. The magnificent engravings include numerous cities, palaces, harbor views, vistas, people, plants, and animals. "Nieuhof, a German traveler, born in Westphalia, visited China and Batavia, andpublished in 1665 an account of his journey. Having gone ashore at Madagascar in 1672, he was lost killed, or disappeared mysteriously." (Thomas)"The Dutch East India Company, being well aware of what the Jesuits were publishing about China, sent embassies to the Ch’ing court in an effort to establish direct trade relations with China? "For European readers the Dutch embassy produced in 1665 a major description of China which in a sense combined the two main sources of information about China: the travel relations and the Jesuit missionaries’ accounts. Written by the Embassy’s secretary, Johann Nieuhof (1618-1672) it combined the author’s firsthand observations with information taken from the works of Trigault, Semedo, and Martini. The first part of the book is a narrative of the travels and experiences of the Embassy, introduced by a brief, general description of China drawn from Trigault’s work and Martini’s "Atlas". The introduction includes an abridgment of Martini’s description of those provinces through which the embassy did not travel. Descriptions of the provinces actually visited by Nieuhof were inserted into the narrative at the appropriate places, but these too were taken from Martini’s "Atlas" the narrative itself contains much descriptive material, most of which was based upon Nieuhof’s personal observations."Part two of Nieuhof’s account is a general description of China based primarily on the works of Trigault, Semedo, and Martini. But Nieuhof’s general description is longer and more detailed than any of those from which he borrowed. In addition to providing descriptions of Chinese government, religion, learning, customs, etc. Nieuhof also devotes two chapters to Chinese history. Chapter xviii summarizes Chinese history from the mythical emperor Fu Hsi to the Ming dynasty. His discussion of the sage emperors is rather detailed, but beginning with the Hsia dynasty Nieuhof does little more than list dynasties and their dates. With the Mongol dynasty of the thirteenth-century, however, the history becomes more detailed. The chapter ends in about 1640. Martini is the source for all the historical information in the chapter; most of it comes from his "Sinicae historiae" and the rest from his ‘De Bello Tartarico". Nieuhof also devotes many chapters to topics such as temples, flora, minerals and mines, animals, rivers, and mountains. These phenomena are discussed province by province. "Nieuhof’s account presented the European reader with the most substantial and detailed description of the Middle Kingdom yet published. It contains information from the most important Jesuit sources and adds to them the observations of one of the first Dutchmen to travel to China’s interior and to visit the capital. The book is lavishly illustrated. Most of the 150 plates appear to have been based on Nieuhof’s own sketches, and while embellishments characteristic of later chinoiserie were added by the engravers or even by the author himself, they nevertheless provided European readers with more realistic visual images of China’s landscape than ever before." (Lach) Cordier 2345; Lust 534; Lach "Asia in The Making of Europe", Vol III, Bk I, pp. 482 ff. Bound in
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The Natural History of Oxford-shire, Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England. By Robert Plot, LL.D.

Plot, Robert (1640-1696) Folio Collation: [a]2, b4, A-Z4, Aa-Yy4, Zz2, Aaa-Bbb2 (Bbb2 blank and present.) With 16 added engraved plates and an engraved folding map of Oxfordshire. With Numerous Plates of FossilsIncluding The First Printed Illustration of a Dinosaur Fossil "Of all of the British naturalists of the late seventeenth-century, few represent the omnivorous curiosity of the Baconian tradition and its passion for collecting specimens and observations for their own sake so well as Robert Plot. In 1674 he drew up an itinerary patterned on those of earlier English antiquaries; but whereas they had been concerned with books and buildings to the exclusion of natural history and technology, Plot intended to tour England and Wales in search of ?all curiosities both of art and nature such. as transcend the ordinary performances of the one and are out of the ordinary road of the other.? He began with the county in which he was then living, starting work on his ?Natural History of Oxfordshire? in June 1674; by November 1675 he had a fine collection of minerals to exhibit to the Royal Society, and the book appeared in 1677. On the strength of the ?Natural history?, Plot was appointed fellow of the Royal Society in 1677. He was secretary in 1682-1684 and thus joint editor of the Philosophical Transactions, most of which were printed at Oxford during his term of office; he was elected secretary in 1692. His success as a collector of rarities must also have helped when, in March 1683, the University of Oxford appointed him first keeper of the newly acquired Ashmolean Museum."Plot?s stress on the unusual and the anomalous, and his expectation that more can be learned from exceptions than from the general rule, apparently stemmed from his interpretation of the Baconian inheritance; this approach gives his natural histories a rather bizarre and curious flavor- his zoology tends to be teratology. He started with the heavens -curious meteorological phenomena observed in the country- then its airs (acoustic researches into sites famous for their echoes), waters?especially mineral and medicinal?and earths. The phenomena of erosion, which he called ?deterration?, are discussed. He had some notion of stratigraphy, observing that ?the Earth is here [Shotover Hill], as at most other places, I think I may say of a bulbous nature, several folds of diverse colour and consistencies still including one another.?"Plot also made an extensive study of ?formed stones? or fossils, without appreciating that they could be used to identify strata. The controversy on the origins of fossils was then at its height. Plot argued, from the differences between fossil shells and any known specimens of the living shellfish they were thought to represent, that fossil shells were crystallizations of mineral salts; their zoomorphic appearance was as coincidental as the regular shapes of stalactites or snowflakes. Large quadruped fossils he considered the remains of giants, except for one identified as that of an elephant through comparison with an Elephant skull in the Ashmolean museum."One of [Plot?s] main objectives was to describe local crafts and farming techniques, in the hope of diffusing successful practices or new inventions throughout the country. Thus technological information is scattered through both his works on natural history, providing useful evidence on contemporary agriculture, mines, and such industries as the Staffordshire potteries." (DSB)"Some seventy species of fossils are described. Here we have excellent descriptions and beautifully engraved drawings of these objects from the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Among them are many well-known forms? He recognized the essential differences between those unrelated groups of bivalved shells, the brachiopods and the lamellibranchs". (Challinor p. 62).This work also contains the first depiction of a dinosaur fossil. The fossil femur, identified by Plot as belonging to an elephant, is now thought to belong to Megalosaurus. The illustr
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Works, in Greek. Tragoediae Octodecim. Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, Medea, Hippolytus, Alcestis, Andromache, Supplices, Iphigenia in Aulide, Iphigenia in Tauris, Rhesus, Troades, Bacchae, Cyclops, Heraclidae, Helena, Ion, Hercules Furens.

Euripides (484-406 B.C.) Octavo: *8, a-z8, aa-zz8, Aa-Ll8 2179D Euripides (484-406 B.C.) The First Complete Edition of All of Euripides? Extant TragediesIn Contemporary Pigskin The text is printed entirely in Greek, introduced by a Latin letter by Johannes Oporinus (who oversaw the production of this edition), five Greek Epigrams, lives of Euripides by Manuel Moschopoulos and Thomas Magister, and a brief monograph on the "eidolon" by Moschopoulos (this essay precedes the "Hecuba" in which the "ghost" of Polydoros sings the prologue.)The Aldine ?editio princeps? of 1503 and Herwagen?s previous two editions of Euripides (1537 and 1544) comprised eighteen tragedies in Greek. This edition, Herwagen?s edition of 1551, was the first edition to include the Elektra, making this the first complete edition of the tragedies in Greek. The Greek text of the Elektra, edited by Pietro Vettori, was first printed in Rome in 1545, one year after the second Herwagen edition of the eighteen tragedies. Although the Elektra is included in the present edition, it is not listed on the title page -and the title still reads ?eighteen tragedies? instead of nineteen. The Elektra is printed last in the volume and is introduced by Vettori?s introductory epistle from his edition of 1545.Vettori, an important Italian humanist, played an important role in the development of renaissance methods of critical philological study and the comparative study of manuscripts in particular. While collating manuscripts of the Greek tragedians under Vettori?s direction, his disciples, Girolamo Mei and Bartolomeo Barbadori, discovered the manuscript of Euripides? Elektra and an important manuscript of Aeschylus that supplied the missing parts of Agamemnon, which Vettori used to prove that Agamemnon and the Choephoroe were two separate plays. Vettori published the Elektra in 1545 and the first complete text of the Oresteia in 1557. Adams E1033; Dibdin (2nd ed.) p138; Hoffmann II, 68 650 Bound in a contemporary, signed and dated, German binding of alum-tawed pigskin over wooden boards. The binding is ruled in blind and stamped with the date ?1558?and the initials ?IKM? The boards are decorated with repeating rolls of the three graces (Fides, Spes, Charitas). The binding is in excellent condition. The clasps and catches have been renewed. Aside from a paper repair to the blank lower corner of the title page and a few neat marginal annotations, the text is clean and devoid of defects. A fine, wide-margined copy of this important edition. THE FIRST COMPLETE EDITION OF EURIPIDES? EXTANT TRAGEDIES. This is the third Herwagen edition and the fourth overall edition of Euripides’ tragedies in Greek, preceded only by the Aldine of 1503 and the first 2 Herwagen editions of 1537 and 1544.
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Remaines Concerning Britaine: Their Languages. Names. Surnames. Allusions. Anagrammes. Armories. Monies. Empreses. Apparell. Artillarie. Wise Speeches. Proverbs. Poesies. Epitaphes. Written by William Camden Esquire, Glarenceux, King of Armes, Surnamed the Learned. The fift Impression, with many rare Antiquities never before imprinted. By the industry and care of Iohn Philipot, Somerset Herald.

Camden, William (1551-1623) Quarto: A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Hhh4 (complete with the final blank Hhh4) ?An ill cook cannot lick his own fingers?Proverbs, Sir Thomas More?s most memorable witticisms, & The Lord?s Prayer in Anglo Saxon "The rude rubble and outcast rubbish of a more serious work." Thus Camden, in his introduction, describes the present work. Despite these remarks, the "Remaines" is full of curious riches. This collection of genealogical, historical, and linguistic material proved immensely popular, going through seven editions in the seventeenth century. Camden originally collected this information for inclusion in an edition of his "Britannia" that never materialized. This fascinating work covers all manner of topic: descriptions of the climates, topography, and inhabitants of the British Isles; names (of both men and women) and their derivations; the development of the surname; various aspects of language and specific points of dialect; poetry; anagrams; acrostics; and proverbs (of which there are nearly 400 and these are quite delightful). In the chapter on languages, Camden demonstrates the development of English from the Anglo-Saxon tongue by reproducing five renderings of the Lord?s Prayer, the first written "about the yeare of Christ 700 found in ancient Saxon glossed Evangelists, written by Eadfride, eighth bishop of Lindisfarne." And the last version "as it is in the translation of Wickeliffe".In the chapter "Wise Speeches", we find quotations from such notable figures as William the Conqueror, Richard III, the epigrammist John Heywood, and Sir Thomas More, including the latter?s famous remarks on the scaffold. In the section "Poems", Camden mentions William Shakespeare (along with Sidney and Jonson) as one of the "most pregnant wits of these our times, whom succeeding ages may justly admire." (p.319) The "Remaines" is also of interest for Camden?s description of 136 unillustrated emblems under the heading "imprese", a word that he defines as "a device in a picture with his Motto, or Word, borne by noble and learned personages to notify some particular conceit of their own."The poems on the death of Queen Anne of Denmark, wife of James I, is bound before the page that records an epitaph of the Queen?s beloved son, Prince Henry, who died in 1612 at the age of 18. Henry?s death devastated the queen, who withdrew from court and died seven years later, after a series of illnesses. The poems were composed by William Swadon, (1560-1623), the Queen?s chaplain and Archdeacon of Worcester. STC 4526; The English Emblem Tradition, Vol. 4, Edited by Peter M. Daly and Mary V. Silcox (1999) FIFTH EDITION variant. Bound in contemporary English blind-ruled calf with a red morocco label, gilt, on the spine. Front joint a little tender but sound. The edges of the text block are sprinkled red. Internally, this copy is in very good condition with a few underscores and marginal annotations. The added, engraved portrait of the author is bound facing the title page. 17th or 18th c. bookplate of Samuel Stillingleet.
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Englands Parnassus, or, The choysest flowers of our moderne poets, with their poeticall comparisons. Descriptions of bewties, personages, castles, pallaces, mountaines, groues, seas, springs, riuers, &c. Whereunto are annexed other various discourses both pleasaunt and profitable.

Shakespeare, William (1564-1616); Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593); Chapman, George (1559-1634); Spenser, Edmund (c.1552-1599), Jonson, Benjamin (circa 1572-1637); et al.; Allott, Robert (fl. 1600), compiler Octavo: [12], 494 [i.e. 510] pp. Collation: A-Z8, Aa-Kk8 (lacking blank leaves A1, A2, and Kk8) One of the Most Celebrated and Most Important Contemporary Anthologies of Elizabethan Poetry. With 91 Extracts from Shakespeare including passages from Romeo & Juliet ?This volume is a compilation of quotations of various lengths, generally with sources noted but not always accurately, taken from the poetical works of some fifty Elizabethan writers. There are included 91 genuine extracts from Shakespeare?s works, mostly (63) derived from ?Venus and Adonis? and ?Lucrece? but all from plays or poems that had been printed before 1600.?(Pforzheimer)?Of the five Shakespeare plays from which extracts are incorporated in the volume (Love?s Labour?s lost, Henry IV, Part I, Richard II, Richard III, and Romeo & Juliet), Romeo & Juliet is the most heavily represented, signaling the play?s popularity, or perhaps utility, in the period.?(Roberts, Companion to Shakespeare?s Works, The Tragedies)The extracts are arranged alphabetically under subject-headings, and the author’s name is appended in each case. Spenser is quoted 225 times, Shakespeare 91, Daniell 115, Drayton 163, Warner 117, Chapman 83, Ben Jonson 13, and Marlowe 33.John Payne Collier notes that, in addition to ?Venus and Adonis? and ?Lucrece?, Shakespeare?s ?Loves Labours Lost? is quoted twice, ?Henry IV part One? twice, ?Richard II? five times, ?Richard III? five times, and Romeo and Juliet 11 times.?[Allott?s ?Parnassus?] is a large poetical dictionary with 2350 items, a work Moss claims is ?an attempt to replace the ancient canon of authors and rewrite commonplaces in the language of a new canon of modern poets? (Moss, 210)? Allott, then, was an important agent in the process of redirecting texts that normally circulated in manuscript and found their resting places in private collections of individual compilers into the more public world of print. The poetical and prose collections for which he was directly responsible and those with which he was otherwise connected represent an important moment of late Elizabethan literary anthologizing that signaled print’s growing importance as the medium of literary transmission.?(Marotti, ODNB) Bibliotheca Anglo-Poetica 1; Grolier, Langland to Wither 3; Hayward 38; Pforzheimer 358; Case, Poetical Miscellanies, 23(a); Bartlett, Shakespeare: Original and Early Editions of the Quartos and Folios, His Source Books, and those Containing Contemporary Notices (Elizabethan Club, Yale), No. 299 Bound in 17th c. blind-ruled sheepskin. A very nice, complete copy with just a little soiling to a few leaves. With an intricate woodcut device on the title page. FIRST EDITION, the issue with the dedication leaf to Thomas Mounson signed R.A.
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De Astronomica Specula Domestica et Organico Apparatu Astronomico.

Marinoni, Giovanni Giacomo de (1676-1755) Folio: [12] ff., 210 pp., [1] f. Collation: [a]2, b-d2, )(2, )()(2, A-Z2, Aa-Zz2, Aaa-Iii2. Including an engraved frontispiece signed Sedlmayr after Bertoli and a title printed in red and black. The text is illustrated with 17 half- to full-page engravings and 43 added engraved folding plates. Complete. An Extraordinary Copy of "One of the Most Exquisitely Illustrated Astronomical Works Ever Printed? -Kenney First edition of this lavishly illustrated description of Marinoni’s astronomical observatory in Vienna and its instruments, including the astronomer’s numerous telescopes, the (fixed) mural quadrant, the quadrant "ampliatus" and the position micrometer, with its screws, indices and two-lens telescope. One of Marinoni’s micrometers, a gift to Eustachio Manfredi, the first Director of the Bologna Observatory, was used by the Bolognese astronomers to observe the transit of Venus in 1761. The various instruments are described in detail along with their actual positions in the building, so that the reader has an exact idea of how an XVIIIth-century observatory was arranged. These same instruments were later used by the Jesuit astronomer Maximillian Hell at the astronomical observatory of the University of Vienna. Thus, this work provides us with a detailed knowledge of the equipment of the first two Viennese observatories."Marinoni was born in Udine, Italy (the Austrian border area) and studied in Vienna. He was appointed Imperial Court Mathematician and in 1726 became director of the Academy of Geometry and Military Science. He visited Bologna and later Paris to see astronomical instruments in use there before designing and building his observatory in Vienna." (Kenney)The observatory, which Marinoni had discussed with Leibnitz as early as 1714, was completed in 1733. Marinoni?s was the first astronomical observatory established in Vienna. Like his great predecessors Tycho Brahe and Jan Hevelius, Marinoni designed his home observatory himself, and constructed many of the instruments used therein. However, Marinoni also imported instruments from Pavia, Venice, Milan (from Pietro Patroni), and London (from the optician and telescope maker Edward Scarlet).The ?De Astronomica Specula Domestica et Organico Apparatu Astronomico? was to the 18th century what Tycho Brahe?s ?Mechanica? was to the 16th and Hevelius? ?Machina Coelestis? to the 17th. All three works provided their contemporary audiences with painstakingly detailed descriptions and depictions of state-of-the art astronomical instruments and the observatories constructed for their use. As a record of the state of astronomical technology in the mid-18th century, Marinoni?s work is a work without equal.After his death in 1755, Marinoni?s instruments became the property of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresia (reg. 1740-1780), who used them to equip the newly established astronomical observatory at the University of Vienna. Marinoni?s own house was deemed to far from the university, so it was decided to construct a four-storey tower and to move the instruments there.The Jesuit astronomer and mathematician Maximilian Hell was appointed as the first director of the observatory and was charged with overseeing its construction and the installation of the instruments. It was from the new observatory, using Marinoni?s instruments, that Hell made his observations for his annual ephemerides and observed the transit of Venus in 1761, using Marinoni?s micrometer and the Newtonian telescope that Marinoni had bought from Edward Scarlet.Hell?s astronomical work brought him to the attention of King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, who invited him to mount an expedition to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Vardö. Upon returning to Vienna, Hell sought to derive the sun?s parallax from his observations of the two Venus transits.Even after the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, Hell continued in his post as director of the university observatory, ably assisted by his colleagues Anton P
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Paradise Lost. A Poem In Twelve Books. The Authour John Milton. The Fourth Edition, Adorn?d with Sculptures.

Milton, John (1608-1674) Folio: I. [A]-B2, C-Z4, Aa-Xx4, Yy-Zz2, A2 II. A-R2; A-H4. With an added engraved portrait of Milton and 12 plates illustrating the first work. A Large Paper Copy of the First Illustrated Edition. With Paradise Regain?d & Samson Agonistes ?The only major English literary work with important engraved illustrations in the 17th century is the first illustrated edition of ?Paradise Lost.?? (Edward Hodnett)"?Paradise Lost? is at once a deeply traditional and a boldly original poem. Milton takes pains to fulfill the traditional prescriptions of the epic form; he gives us love, war, supernatural characters, a descent into Hell, a catalogue of warriors, all the conventional items of epic machinery. Yet no poem in which the climax of the central action is a woman eating a piece of fruit can be a conventional epic. [.] The way of life which Adam and Eve take up as the poem ends is that of the Christian pilgrimage through this world. Paradise was no place or condition in which to exercise Christian heroism as Milton conceives it. Expelled from Eden, our first ?grand parents? pick up the burdens of humanity as we know them, sustained by a faith that we also know, and go forth to seek a blessing that we do not know yet. They are to become wayfaring, warfaring Christians, like John Milton; and in this condition, with its weaknesses and strivings and inevitable defeats, there is a glory that no devil can ever understand. Thus Milton strikes, humanly as well as artistically, a grand resolving chord. It is the careful, triumphant balancing and tempering of this conclusion which makes Milton?s poem the noble architecture it is; and which makes of the end a richer, if not a more exciting, experience than the beginning." (Norton Anthology of English Literature) "Milton writes not only as a literary connoisseur but also as a scholar, appealing in his readers to a love of ordered learning like his own. Even the echoes of ancient phrase should often be considered, not as mere borrowings, conscious, or unconscious, but as allusions intended to carry with them, when recognized, the connotation of their original setting.The extraordinary thing is the way in which this object is accomplished without loss of poetic quality. The secret seems to be the degree to which the materials of learning have become associated with sensuous imagery and with moving poetical ideas. Milton is erudite, but all erudition is not for him of equal value. Winnowed, humanized, and touched with the fire of imagination, his studies have passed into vital experience and afford him as natural a body of poetical data as birds and flowers."(Hanford, A Milton Handbook, "Milton?s Style and Versification – with Special Reference to ?Paradise Lost?") I. Wing M2147; Shawcross 347; Coleridge 93; Pforzheimer 720; Wither to Prior #607; Hofer, Baroque Book Illustration, 16. II. Wing M2154; Shawcross 348; Coleridge 170; Pforzheimer 721 This copy is bound together with the author?s ?Paradise Regain?d? and ?Samson Agonistes? FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION and the first in folio of Paradise Lost (The first edition of the poem was printed in 1667.).
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The Thirteene Bookes of Aeneidos. The first twelve beeing the worke of the diuine poet, Virgil Maro, and the thirteenth, the supplement of Maphæus Vegius. Translated into English verse, to the first third part of the tenth booke, by Thomas Phaer Esquier: and the residue finished, and now newly set forth for the delight of such as are studious in poetrie: By Thomas Twyne, Doctor in Physicke.

Vergilius Maro, Publius (70-19 B.C.); Phaer, Thomas (1510?-1560), translator Quarto: a4, A-V8, X4 (lacking blank leaf X4) The Elizabethan VergilAn Exquisite Copy of a Great Rarity Thomas Phaer, "the first Englishman to attempt a translation of the whole work" (DNB) was also the first to translate the Aeneid into English verse (after Caxton?s prose and Douglas? Scots translations.) Phaer died without completing the work. Thomas Twyne added a translation of the remaining three books of the epic (1573); the 1584 edition was the first to contain the "thirteenth book" or continuation of Maphaeus Vegius. "Root has shown that [Shakespeare] consulted the Aeneid both in the original and in Phaer?s translation" (Whitaker, Shakespeare?s Use of Learning, 26). "Vergil?s Nachleben is Western Literature. Anecdotal evidence suggests that already during his lifetime he was regarded not only by professional colleagues but also by many lay readers as Rome?s greatest living poet. For the Romans, with a speed and completeness that has few parallels in world literature, Vergil had already become a classic. His works are quoted so often in antiquity that even if they had been lost, they could still be reconstructed in large measure. During his own lifetime, fellow poets such as Horace and Propertius admired him, from a distance, and parodies of his works flourished, but apparently no poet earlier than Ovid dared to try to rival him."Vergil continued to be read in Latin for centuries. Shakespeare probably knew at least the earlier books of the Aeneid in Latin, while Milton?s Paradise Lost attempts to provide an English equivalent not only for Vergil?s epic themes but even for his syntax, diction, and as far as possible, meter.? (Conte, Latin Literature, A History) STC 24805; Harris, First Printed Translations into English (1573) p.159; cf. Pforzheimer Cataogue 1028; cf. Langland to Wither, 238 Bound in an exquisite binding of eighteenth-century mottled calf, highly polished and beautifully tooled in gold along the edges of the boards. The spine is separated into six compartments by the raised sewing supports, each of which, aside from that bearing the citron morocco label, is decorated with attractive floral tools. The large gilt armorial crest consisting of a Pegasus head and wings "LTHD" on upper cover, earl’s coronet and "EDDE" on lower cover. The edges of the text block are stained a solid red. The binding is in exceptional condition, with only the slightest bit of wear. The text itself is in excellent condition. The text of the poem is set in Black Letter and is adorned with attractive woodcut initials and head- and tail-pieces throughout. Creede?s woodcut printer?s device appears on the title page. Excellent. Provenance: Tollemache, Earls of Dysart, Helmingham (supralibros, engraved armorial bookplate on title verso, note on front pastedown in hand of Lionel Tollemache, fourth Earl). SEVENTH EDITION overall (first ed. 1554), the fourth complete printing (first 1584), and the last of the Elizabethan editions. "Though not the first, Phaer?s was the most popular of all the Tudor translations, having been published in whole or in part at least eight times. Phaer published the first seven books in 1558, and the first nine in 1562" (Pforzheimer, 1028).
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Petri Gassendi Institutio Astronomica: Juxta Hypotheseis tam Veterum quàm Recentiorum. Cui accesserunt Galilei Galilei Nuncius Sidereus; et Johannis Kepleri Dioptrice. Tertia editio prioribus Correctior.

Gassendi, Pierre (1592-1655); Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642); Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) Octavo: 3 parts in one volume: [16], 199, [1]; 173, [1] p., 4 leaves of plates. Collation: A-N8, O4; A-L8 (including the final blank leaf) Including Two of the Most Important Books in Early Observational Astronomy: Galileo’s "Starry Messenger" and Kepler’s "Dioptrice" Gassendi’s "Institutio Astronomica," has been called the first modern astronomy textbook. It is divided into three sections: the first details the so-called theory of the spheres, the second describes astronomical theory, and the third discusses the conflicting ideas of Brahe and Copernicus. The present edition is important for the inclusion of two seminal works of telescopic astronomy: Galileo’s "Sidereus Nuncius" (first ed. Venice, 1610), in which announces his discovery of Jupiter’s moons, and Kepler’s "Dioptrice" (first ed. Augsburg, 1611), Kepler’s brilliant explanation of how the telescope works.Galileo’s Discoveries with the Telescope:"Galileo’s ‘Starry Messenger’ contains some of the most important discoveries in scientific literature. Learning in the summer of 1609 that a device for making distant objects seem close and magnified had been brought to Venice from Holland, Galileo soon constructed a spy-glass of his own which he demonstrated to the notables of the Venetian Republic, thus earning a large increase in his salary as professor of mathematics at Padua. Within a few months he had a good telescope, magnifying to 30 diameters, and was in full flood of astronomical observation."Through his telescope Galileo saw the moon as a spherical, solid, mountainous body very like the earth- quite different from the crystalline sphere of conventional philosophy. He saw numberless stars hidden from the naked eye in the constellations and the Milky Way. Above all, he discovered four new ‘planets’, the satellites of Jupiter that he called (in honor of his patrons at Florence) the Medicean stars. Thus Galileo initiated modern observational astronomy and announced himself as a Copernican. (Printing and the Mind of Man)Kepler’s Explanation of the Telescope:"In order that the enormous possibilities harbored in the telescope could develop, it was necessary to clear up the theoretical laws by which it worked. And this achievement was reserved solely for Kepler. With the energy peculiar to him, inside of a few weeks, in the months of August and September of the same year, 1610, he composed a book tracing basically once and for all the laws governing the passage of light through lenses and systems of lenses. It is called ‘Dioptrice’, a word that Kepler himself coined and introduced into optics. [?]"In problem 86 in which he shows ‘how with the help of two convex lenses visible objects can be made larger and distinct but inverted’ he develops the principle on which the astronomical telescope is based, the discovery of which is thus tied up with his name for all time. Further on follows the research into the double concave lens and the Galilean telescope in which a converging lens is used as objective and a diverging lens as eyepiece. By this suitable combination Kepler discovers the principle of today’s telescopic lens. Even this scanty account sows the epoch-making significance of the work. It is not an overstatement to call Kepler the father of modern optics because of it. (Max Caspar, "Kepler", pp. 198-199) Kepler’s work is also the first to announce Galileo’s discovery that Venus has phases like the moon. Wing G293; Cinti 155; Sotheran, I p. 75 (1476); cf. PMM 113 and Dibner, Heralds of Science, #7 (the 1610 edition). An excellent copy, fresh and beautifully preserved in blind-ruled English calfskin (lower joint starting.) Contemporary signature, "Tho: de Grey". The first title page is printed in red and black. Galileo’s "Sidereus Nuncius" and Kepler’s "Dioptrice" are introduced by separate title pages. The text is illustrated with astronomical woodcuts including images of the moon, showing its uneven, mountainous surface as discerned by Galileo through the telescope an
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Le vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori et architetti di Giorgio Vasari, pittore & architetto aretino; parte prima e seconda [-terza] ; in questa nuoua edizione diligentemente riviste, ricorrette, accresciute d’alcuni ritratti, & arricchite di postille nel margine.

Vasari, Giorgio (1511-1574) Quarto: 3 volumes: I. ?1 (half-title), [?]4, ??4, a-h4, i6, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Hhh4. II. A6, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Yyy4. III. ?4, a-c4, d6, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Vvv4, Xxx6 Vasari?s Lives of the Artists ?Giorgio Vasari invented Renaissance art. In 1550, he published a collection of one hundred and forty-two biographies, his ?Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors from Cimabue to our Times?, and defined a period of artistic activity spanning nearly three hundred years in terms of rebirth (rinascità) and progress. He gave the history of the visual arts in Italy a determined course as they advanced towards the perfection of his own day through the contributions of individual artists. He turned a fragmentary discussion and appreciation into a coherent and forceful representation of achievement that has endured since his time. Scattered notices, dim memories, direct encounters, rumor, gossip, anecdote, and experience were structured and transformed by association with exemplary notions of behavior and shaped by a vision of stylistic development and historical continuity.?Vasari organized the lives in his book into three parts, or ages, roughly corresponding to the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, each defined by their distinctive character. He dated the initial stages of the rebirth or recovery of the lost attainments of antiquity to around 1240, when Giovanni Cimabue was born to kindle ?the first lights of painting? He regarded the arts to be in their infancy in this era, and traced the artists? faltering steps towards the perfection of later years. For Vasari the means of arriving at perfection lay in the mastery of the principles and models offered by ancient art: a correct understanding of the architectural orders and the imitation of the poses, proportions, and dramatic possibilities of ancient sculpture. To these were added the naturalistic rendering of light with harmoniously blended colors and chiaroscuro modeling in painting, and above all, in all the arts, in ?disegno? ?the command of idealized form that resulted from manual dexterity (drawing) and an intellectual perception of beauty (design). In the first era painters and sculptors are described as valiantly, if crudely, overthrowing the stiff, coarse, and clumsy figures of the style Vasari labeled as Greek, achieving more lifelike poses and expression in their figures. Architects are valued for building with more order, beginning to improve from what Vasari called the German manner, which had prevailed since the invasion of the Roman Empire and the destruction of its monuments. In the second era, Vasari shows how the prime goal of art ?the imitation of nature- is nearly attained as a result of the successive technical discoveries made by the artists of that time through their diligence and study. These included the rediscovery of the measures, proportions, and ornaments of ancient architecture, and the mastery of anatomy and perspective. This era of technical advance is followed by Vasari?s modern age, when, in various ways, artists bring those techniques to their highest realization. They do so on the basis of their immediate past and the recovery and full comprehension of a distinguished repertory of classical models. With this comes the ability to surpass previous accomplishments, going beyond the rules with new and graceful inventions. The conquest of nature is complete. The palm of victory is granted to Michelangelo ?the culminating figure of the ?Lives?.???[Vasari?s] sources in both writing and painting were absorbed and transformed into new expressive forms, whether on palace walls or in artists? lives. Both were meant to charm and please, to be varied and lifelike. They were true to nature but not idealized. Both were modern. The book was more original. Nothing like it had existed before. Literary friends could offer suggestions, but no plan or scheme or program. The ?Lives? are Vasari?s own, and probably greatest inventio
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Ploutarchou Parallela en Biois Hellenon te kai Romaion [Graece]. Plutarchi quae vocantur Parallela: hoc est, vitae illustrium virorum Graeci nominis ac Latini, prout quaeque alteri convenire videbatur, digestae.

Plutarch (c. 50?c. 120 AD) Folio: [4], 345, [1] leaves. Collation: *4, (lacking blank *4), a[alpha]-z[zeta]8, aa[2alpha]-tt[2tau]8, uu[2upsilon]10 The First Aldine Edition of Plutarch?s ?Parallel Lives?With extensive marginal annotation in Greek and Latin Renouard, p. 87, no. 9; New UCLA 182; Hoffmann III, 175; Schweiger p. 259, col. 2 Plutarch?s ?Parallel Lives?, a series of paired biographies in which the lives of famous Greeks and Romans are compared, is one of the signal achievements of classical literature. While the genre of biography was -in antiquity as it is now- distinct from that of history, Plutarch?s biographies, along with those of his Roman contemporary, Suetonius, provided complex portraits of the great figures of history – Theseus and Romulus; Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, Demosthenes and Cicero- with which successive generations could populate their vision of the historical past. ?The lives display impressive learning and research. Many sources are quoted and although Plutarch had probably not consulted all these at first hand, his investigations were clearly extensive, and compilation must have occupied many years. The form of the lives represents a new achievement, not closely linked with either previous biography or Hellenistic history. The general scheme was to give the birth, youth and character, achievements, and circumstances of death, interspersed with frequent ethical reflections. Plutarch never claimed to be writing history, which he distinguished from biography. His aim was to delight and edify the reader, and he did not conceal his own sympathies, which were especially evident in his warm admiration for the words and deeds of Spartan kings and generals??Plutarch?s later influence has been profound. He was loved and respected in his own time and in later antiquity. Gradually, Plutarch?s reputation faded from the Latin West, but he continued to influence philosophers and scholars in the Greek East, were his works came to constitute a school book. Proclus, Porphyry, and emperor Julian all quote him, and the Greek Church fathers Clement of Alexandria and Clement the Great imitate him without acknowledgment. His works were familiar to all cultivated Byzantines. It was mainly the ?Moralia? which appealed to them, but in the ninth century the Byzantine scholar and patriarch Photius read the ?Parallel Lives? with his friends.?Plutarch?s works were introduced to Byzantine scholars along with the revival of classical learning in the fifteenth century, and Italian humanists had already translated them into Latin and Italian before 1509, when the ?Moralia?, the first of his works to be printed in the original Greek, was printed by the Aldine press. The first Greek text of the lives was printed at Florence in 1517.? (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition) FIRST ALDINE EDITION. Bound in eighteenth-century mottled sheepskin with a citron morocco label, gilt. A fine copy of the Aldine Plutarch with minor faults. The text is printed throughout in Greek, with capital spaces and printed guide letters at the beginning of each life. With the Aldine anchor and dolphin device on the title page and the verso of the final leaf. The title is a little soiled and there are discreetly backed tears in the margins of the first three leaves. A short worm trail has been expertly repaired in the final three signatures, very slightly affecting the text. There are also discreet repairs to the blank, upper corners of the final leaves. The margins of many of the lives have been heavily annotated in Greek and Latin by an unidentified 16th c. reader.This is the second edition in Greek, following the editio princeps printed by Giunta in 1517. The text was edited by Francesco Asulano, Andrea Torresani? son and Aldus? brother-in-law. Renouard, citing Johann Jacob Reiske, reports that there are apparently two editions of this date that differ in a number of textual points ?the first Aldine edition appears to have been formed on the preceding of Giunta; the s
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Breve Relatione d?Alcune Missioni de? PP. della Compagnia di Giesù nella Nuova Francia.

AMERICAS. CANADA] Bressani, Francesco Giuseppe (1612-1672) Quarto: [4], 8 pp., 9-10 ll., 11-127, [1] pp. Collation: ?2 A4 B4 (±B1.2) C-Q4 Canadian Native Americans as victims & perpetrators of violence?Very Rare? -Sabin FIRST EDITION of one of the most important eyewitness accounts of 17th-century Canada devoted primarily to the Huron Indians, but also with accounts of other groups, including the Jesuit author?s captivity and mutilation under the Iroquois. He also devotes 25 pages to a 1643 letter written by his Jesuit colleague Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), who was killed by the Mohawks.Bressani (1612-1672), an Italian Jesuit, travelled to Canada as a missionary in 1642. After two years in Quebec and with the Algonquins on the St. Lawrence River, he set off for the most distant outposts, the missions on Lake Huron?s Georgian Bay, deep in the interior. He was captured by the Iroquois who cut off his fingers and eventually sold him to the Dutch, who helped him reach France. He returned to Canada in 1645, participated in peace talks with the Iroquois and finally reached the Huron missions, where he remained until the Iroquois destroyed them in 1649, killing most of the Hurons and missionaries. On his return to Europe in 1650, he wrote the present Italian account.A riveting eyewitness account of Canadian Indians and Jesuits in the 1640s. Alden & Landis 653/15; De Backer & Sommervogel II, col. 133; Walter, Jesuit relations, 43; Church 524; James Ford Bell Lib. B-407; JCB II, p. 428; Lande, Canadiana 57; McCoy, Jesuit relations 82; Sabin 7734; not in Eberstadt; Streeter. Bound in 17th c. limp sheepskin parchment. With a large woodcut Jesuit device on the title page, woodcut initial, and a factotum built up from fleurons. There is a neatly written contemporary inscription of a Roman Jesuit library on the title page; some leaves foxed or lightly browned; there is a minor ink stain on two leaves. In all, a nice, genuine copy with generous margins.
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Works in Greek] Platonis Omnia Opera, ex vetustissimorum exemplarium collatione multo nunc quam antea emendatiora.

Plato (427-347 B.C.). Folio: 6 lvs, 690 pp., 23 lvs. [alpha]6, [alpha]-[omega]6, [2Alpha]-[2Omega]6, [3Alpha]-[3Eta]6, [3Theta]-[3Iota]8, [3Kappa]-[3Mu]6, [3Nu]4 Plato in Greek bound in a contemporary, signed & dated, blind-stamped pigskin binding ?Plato?s central conception of a universe of ideas, Perfect Types, of which material objects are imperfect forms, and his ethical code based on action according to human nature, developed by education, which represents the authority of the State, fit in as well with the religious and constitutional ideas of fifteenth-century Italy as it did with those of the Byzantine Greeks, by whom Plato was reintroduced to the Western world.? (PMM) Adams P 1438; Hieronymus, Greek 143; VD 16, P 3276; cf. PMM 27 Bound in contemporary, alum-tawed pigskin, signed and dated "IC.K.H. 1572." The binding is richly tooled in blind, with scrolling vines, sheaves of wheat, figured rolls of Faith, Hope and Temperance. In the central compartments are two large stamps of unidentified German princes and their arms within architectural frames. The lower board is dampstained but the binding is in otherwise excellent condition, the impressions of the tools very sharp.Internally, this copy is in excellent condition. The leaves are clean with broad margins (with a few deckled edges). There are occasional manuscript annotations, particularly in the margins of leaves [Nu]5-6 and [Xi]1-3. There is some very light staining in the margins of the final six signatures.With the exception of the preliminary matter, the text is set entirely in Greek and adorned with woodcut capitals. Petri’s woodcut printer’s device appears on the title page. A beautiful copy. The third edition of the Greek text of Plato (first ed. Venice, 1513; 2nd ed. Basel, 1534), edited by Marcus Hopper (d. 1564).
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De rerum varietate libri XVII.

Cardano, Girolamo (1501-1576) Thick octavo: [32] (the last two blank), 1194 (i.e. 1204), [64] pp. Collation: a-b8 (b8 blank), A-Z8, a-z8, aA-zZ8, AA-KK8. With an added foldout woodcut illustration of an astrolabe (p. 769), a separate sheet with volvelles loosely inserted, and a folding table (p. 791.) Cardano?s Second Great Encyclopedia of Science & Nature The ?De rerum varietate? is Cardano?s second important encyclopedia of science, mechanics, and metaphysics; it covers all aspects of the natural world, ?from cosmology to the construction of machines; from the usefulness of natural sciences to the evil influence of demons; from the laws of mechanics to cryptology. It is a mine of facts, both real and imaginary; of notes on the state of the sciences; of superstition, technology, alchemy, and various branches of the occult. The similarities between the scientific opinions expressed by Cardano in these two works and those of Leonardo da Vinci, at that time unpublished, have led some historians. to suppose that Cardano has used Leonardo’s manuscript notes; others insist that the similarity is entirely coincidental. Be that as it may, Cardano must always be credited with having introduced new ideas that inspired new investigations.’ (DSB III, 66)?The work forms a sequel to De Subtilitate, and, together with it, contains the author’s notions on physics and metaphysics. Of special chemical interest is Book X (p. 375-410), comprising one chapter on fire. a chapter on distillation with woodcuts of apparatus, and a chapter on chemistry. It finishes by a chapter on glass.?(Duveen).The book also includes chapters on glass, metals, mineralogy, botany, zoology, experiments of various kinds, astronomy, astrology, etc. VD 16, C 920; IA 132.071; Duveen 117; Thorndike V, 563 ff.; Cf. Ferguson I, 141; Sinkankas 1145 Bound in contemporary alum-tawed pigskin over wooden board, lacking clasps, blind-ruled in compartments and tooled with stamps of the Evangelists and acanthus rolls alternating with medallion portraits of Luther, Jan Hus, Erasmus, and others. The text itself is in excellent condition; bright and crisp. With a portrait of Cardano on the verso of the title, numerous small woodcuts in the text, and the folding table and astrolabe mentioned above. The sheet with the volvelles for the astrolabe is intact. Provenance: Georg Agricola, Bishop of Seckau from 1572 to 1584, inscription on f.f.e.p. A second 16th c. inscription with the name Balthasaar Braun appears on the title, along with a monastic inscription from the library of the monastery at Windberg.
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Greek text. Homeri Ilias & Odyssea, Et in easdem scholia, sive interpretatio Didymi. Cum Latina versione accuratissima, Indiceque Graeco locupletissimo Rerum ac variantium lection. Accurante Corn. Schrevelio.

Homer Quarto. Two volumes bound as one: *4, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Vvvv4, Xxxx2; a-z4, aa-zz4, aaa-xxx4, aaaa-eeee4, ffff2 The Elzevir HomerA Beautiful Large-Paper Copy This edition contains the Greek texts of the Homeric epics, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey"; as well as the Homeric Hymns and the mock epic "Batrachomyomachia". With the Latin translation of the classical scholar Cornelius Schrevelius (1608-1661) and the Greek commentary of Pseudo Didymus."Whatever our views may be on the authorship of the Homeric poems, there is no doubt of their astonishing quality. They combine legends of a very distant past with a lively sense of the living scene, and though their characters are heroes and heroines, they are remarkably real. The story is told with a great simplicity, but this makes its episodes more dramatic, and in their greatest moments they contain some of the greatest poetry in the world. The plot moves with an unusual speed and the climaxes in both poems make an overwhelming impact. The rich, traditional language is ready for every occasion and, despite its richness, helps to maintain the essential simplicity. The poems are variously exciting, humorous, pathetic, and dramatic, and despite their fantastic elements, never far from common humanity. The similes present a whole world of contemporary people and things that lie outside the actual heroic tale, and the description of the shield of Achilles is surely the poet?s vision of his own world, as he knew it in war and peace. The poet or poets fully deserve their place at the beginning of European literature, since they have marked out for succeeding generations what the poetry of action and suffering ought to be." (OCD) Willems 1202; Dibdin II, 53; Brunet III, 272; Graesse III, 328; Schweiger I, 158; Bibliotheca Philologica Classica et Archaeologica (1913), 2087 (‘Cette belle édition est recherchée à cause des commentaires’) An extremely large copy with very broad margins. A school prize, bound in contemporary stiff vellum ornately tooled in gold. The text is in excellent condition throughout. With an added engraved title page featuring a medallion portrait of Homer and flanking figures of Achilles and Odysseus. A divisional title page precedes the Odyssey.
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Imperatorum et Caesarum Vitae, cum Imaginibus ad vivam effigiem expressis. Libellus auctus cum elencho & Iconiis Consulum ab Authore. M.D. XXXIIII.

Huttich, Johann (ca. 1490-1544); Weiditz, Hans (ca. 1495- ca. 1536), artist Quarto: Aa-Bb4; A-X4, Y6; aa-dd4. Complete. Profusely IllustratedA Lovely Copy In Contemporary Calf with ClaspsThe Most Complete Edition Fourth and most complete edition of Huttich?s "Imperatorum et Caesarum Vitae", his most important work, first published in 1525. The first section covers the imperial families from Julius Caesar to Gallienus, the son of Valerian. This section is followed by "thirty tyrants", a group of third-century would-be usurpers and self-proclaimed Augusti and Caesares, and the emperors and Augusti from Aurelian to Theodosius II and Valentinian III. This section is followed by the emperors of the Eastern Empire based at Constantinople, beginning with Martian and concluding with Michael Cyropalates. The revival of the western imperial line begins with Charlemagne and concludes with the reigns of Charles V, Emperor of Germany and his brother Ferdinand I. This edition includes a supplemental section: "Elenchus Consulum Romanorum" a chronological list of the consuls printed between decorative woodcut borders. This section concludes with a series of woodcut medallions. The ornate divisional title border shows scenes from the Iliad including Achilles dragging Hector around the walls of Troy. "Besides the borders, there are 84 medallions, obverse and reverse, in the same style as the preceding, apparently by Weiditz." (Fairfax Murray)"A friend and correspondent of Erasmus (who dedicated his translation of Lucian’s ‘Convivium’ to Huttich) and Ulrich von Hutten, Huttich studied at the University of Mainz when the city was a stronghold of the new antiquarian learning. While accompanying Frederick II on a diplomatic mission to Spain, Huttich collected pamphlets describing Spanish and Portuguese voyages to the Americas, later published as ‘Novus Orbis’ (1532)."Huttich work falls into the category of Bildnisvitenbücher, collections of portraits of famous men and women, accompanied by biographical sketches? The second edition of Vasari’s ‘Lives of the Artists’ (1568), in which each biography is accompanied by a woodcut portrait elaborately framed, was clearly influenced by this type of popular literature. The Renaissance cult of the hero, of ‘virtus’ and ‘fama’, helps explain the widespread appeal of these works, in which the humanists, as Rave points out, sought to combine the two devices employed by the ancients to immortalize their great men, the ‘vita’ and the ‘effigies’. The growing sense of national identity during this period also played a part in the production of volumes devoted to kings, legendary heroes, and literary lights of France and Germany, a motivation that explains much of the content in the numismatic books of Huttich and Rouille."(Cunnally, "Images of the Illustrious") Adams H-1248; BM German p.427 (602.b.I); Chrisman H5.1.4b; Fairfax Murray #219; Campbell Dodgson II, 148; Brunet III, p.392; Cunnally, pp. 197-198 This volume is profusely illustrated with several hundred woodcut images, most of which are by Hans Weiditz. "The medallions of the emperors [and their families] are 268 in number, commencing with Julius Caesar and ending with Frederick III, Maximilian I and his son Philip the Fair, Charles V and Ferdinand I. Most are enclosed in ornamental borders with fauns, cupids, Adam and Eve, Godfrey of Bouillon, Hercules etc." (Fairfax Murray) FOURTH AND MOST COMPLETE EDITION. This is "the first with the ?Elenchus? and the first with this title." (Fairfax Murray).
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Lucans Pharsalia: or The ciuill warres of Rome, betweene Pompey the great, and Iulius Caesar. The whole tenne bookes, Englished by Thomas May, Esquire.[Bound with:]A continuation of Lucan’s historicall poem till the death of Iulius Caesar by T M

May, Thomas (c.1595-1650); Lucan, Marcus Annaeus (38- 65 A.D.) Octavo: I. a8, A-S8 T2. II. A-K8. With blank leaves A1, A2, and K8 in the second book present. . There are engraved title pages to both works; the first is tipped in. The second is integral to the collation. Complete. ?And Rome not able her own weight to beare? The English poet, playwright, and historian Thomas May had a remarkable life and career. He experienced royal favor during the early reign of Charles II, who referred to him on a notable occasion as ?My poet? In 1627 May published his greatest poetical work, a translation of Lucan?s Roman epic poem the ?Pharsalia? Written during the reign of Nero, the ?Pharsalia?, which took as its subject the civil war between the would-be dictator Julius Caesar and the senatorial faction led by Pompey the Great, offered a subtle critique of imperial power and a warm nostalgia for republican institutions. Lucan eventually joined the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor and was compelled to commit suicide at the age of 26. Despite the critique of imperial power explicit in his rendering of Lucan?s ?Pharsalia?(1627), May retained the King?s favor. When May published his continuation of Lucan (1630), he dedicated it to his sovereign. Yet in the political crisis of 1640-1642, May sided with parliament. His allegiance divided, May justified his new allegiance without ?venting personal bitterness against the king?, offering instead ?a dark view of the general tendency of monarchical institutions to threaten liberty whatever the character of the individual ruler. May’s firm yet temperate style won him favour as a propagandist for parliament in pamphlets and news books?(ODNB) and in 1646 he became parliamentary secretary. In 1647 he published an official ?History of the Parliament of England which Began November the Third, 1640? May died a year after the execution of Charles I and was buried in Westminster. During the Restoration, his body was exhumed and re-buried at St Margaret’s, Westminster.May?s ?Pharsalia?The turn to a politically sensitive moment of Roman history may have been influenced by the rising political temperature in the last years of James I and the opening of his son’s reign. When May published the full ten books of the ?Pharsalia? in 1627, he dedicated individual books to figures like the earls of Warwick and Essex who were associated with patriotic independence, at a time of great anxiety about the king’s apparent subservience to the unpredictable Buckingham. May’s stance was politically sensitive: the dedications were excised from most copies. His tragedy of ?Julia Agrippina?, acted in 1628, drew on Lucan in a stark portrayal of imperial corruption. His Latin tragedy of ?Julius Caesar?, now lost, is likely to have shared these political concerns. His Antigone (published in 1631) is unusual among the dramas of the period in turning directly to Greek themes and tragic models, but this play too draws on Lucan as it pits universal justice against tyrannical willfulness??John Aubrey traced May’s later republicanism to his early enthusiasm for Lucan (Brief Lives, 2.56). He was certainly not regarded as a republican during the ?king’s peace?, however; on the contrary, Sir John Suckling’s ?A Sessions of the Poets? implies that he became a credible candidate for succeeding Jonson as de facto poet laureate. In the aftermath of the Lucan translation the anti-imperial tone of his writings became somewhat muted? In 1630 he published a Continuation of Lucan that offered a more sympathetic view of imperial power. This he dedicated to the king, and it was at the king’s command, noted on the title-pages, that he now turned to English history in verse narratives of the reigns of Henry II (1633) and Edward III (1635)? Clarendon looked back to the May of the 1630s with some affection, praising his continuation of Lucan as ?for the learning, the wit, and the language ? one of the best dramatic poems in the English language?.?(ODNB)?May?s translation of Lucan’s ?Pharsalia,’ published in 1627,
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Ovid?s Metamorphosis Englished, Mythologiz?d, and Represented in Figures. An Essay to the Translation of Vergil?s Aeneis. By G.S.

Ovidius Naso, Publius (43 BC-17 AD); Sandys, George (1561-1629), translator Folio: ?6 (-blank ?1), 4, A-D4, E4 (-blank E4), F-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Ttt4, Vvv2. (Leaves Q2 and 3 reversed.) With an added engraved title, engraved portrait frontispiece, and fifteen full-paged engravings. The First Illustrated Edition Sandys? important translation of Ovid, including his translation of Book One of Vergil?s ?Aeneid? Sandys never accomplished the task of translating the entire poem. The work that he found ?too heavy a burthen? was later taken up by his admirer, John Dryden. On the front end-paper of this volume is a manuscript quote, attributed to Dryden, which reads, ?English poetry owes much of its present beauty to Sandys? translations.??In 1621 Sandys arrived in Virginia, and during his residence there as secretary of the Colony he occupied his leisure time in completing his translation of Ovid on his estate in present day Sury, across the James River from Williamsburg, publishing it upon his return to England in 1626. His stay in this country was short, but his translation of Ovid is considered ?the first utterance of the conscious literary spirit articulated in America? (Quoted from Wither to Prior). "With the ?Aeneid? Vergil had realized the grandiose project of a Homeric-style poem, a national epic for Roman culture. Ovid in realizing his ambitions for a work of great scope takes another direction. The outer form was to be epic (the hexameter is its distinctive mark), as was the ample scale, but the model, which is based on Hesiod, is that of a "collective poem", one that gathers a series of independent stories linked by a single theme? Ovid?s ambition is grand: to realize a universal work, one that goes beyond the limits of the various poetic creeds. The very chronology of the poem confirms this. It is boundless, going from the beginning of the world down to Ovid?s day, and thus realizes a project long-desired and hitherto only sketched out in Latin culture?"The fundamental characteristic of the world described by the ?Metamorphoses? is its ambiguous and deceptive nature, the uncertainty of the boundaries between reality and appearance, between the concreteness of things and the inconstancy of their appearances. The characters of the poem behave as if lost in this insidious universe, which is governed by change and error; disguises, shadows, reflections, echoes, and fugitive semblances are the snares in the midst of which the humans move about, victims of the play of fate or the whim of the gods. Their uncertain action and the natural human disposition to err are the object of the poet?s regard, now touched, now amused; they are the spectacle that the poem represents." (Conte, Latin Literature, A History) Bandini Annales p. 180 In addition to the engraved title, there is a full-paged engraving (with a medallion portrait) of Ovid, and fifteen full-page engravings by Salomon Savery (1594-1665) after drawings by Francisco Clein. 17th c. English calf, worn. Some dampstaining, a few plates cut close to the margin. FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION (second edition overall) of Sandys? translation.
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Aeschyli traoediae septem: cum scholiis Græcis omnibus; deperditorum dramatum fragmentis, versione & commentario Thomæ Stanleii.

Aeschylus (525/4-456 B.C.); Stanley, Thomas (1625-1678), editor. Folio: [32], 886 p. Collation: (a)2, (b)-(g)2, A-Z2, 2A-9Z2, 10A-10P2 Stanley?s Aeschylus?The first substantial contribution made by English scholarship to the study of Greek poetry.? In his ?Early Printed Editions of Aeschylus (1518-1664)?, J.A. Gruys gives a detailed account of Stanley?s working method, beginning with an examination of the extant manuscript materials, and vindicates Stanley from Fraenkel?s charges that Stanley?s edition relied too heavily on the work of the scholar John Pearson and that Stanley himself was a scholar of much meaner abilities. Gruys demonstrates that Stanley?s work on Aeschylus began in the mid-1650s and that, while he shared materials (manuscript collations, variants in printed editions, etc.) with Pearson, the two men worked separately on the edition until about 1659, when Stanley acquired Pearson?s notes. Stanley did in fact use almost all of Pearson?s material in his edition. Yet, Gruys argues, the result is the fruit of a collaboration between equals, a result that Frankel himself called ?The first substantial contribution made by English scholarship to the study of Greek poetry.??Stanley?s edition rounds off more than 150 years of work on Aeschylus; moreover, for more than a hundred years, it was the last independent edition, and almost the only work to be published that dealt with the text and explanation? That it was the standard edition from the late seventeenth-century to the early nineteenth is evident from De Pauw?s and Butler?s reprints of 1745 and 1809-1816.? (Gruys)?The merits of this celebrated edition are sufficiently known. Morhof, Fabricius, and Harles have all stated its excellences: the labours of every preceding commentator, the fragments of the lost dramas, with the Greek scholia, are embodied in it. It is also one of the scarcest of the famous folio English classics. De Bure, No. 2538, observes that when Pauw gave out a proposal for printing an edition of Aeschylus, the work of Stanley sunk in value: but when Pauw?s edition actually appeared, the learned were disappointed, and Stanley?s edition rose in price and estimation. There are two dates, 1663 and 1664, but Harles says it is the same edition.?(Dibdin, 2nd ed.) Wing A684 FIRST EDITION. This copy is bound in its original speckled calf binding. The boards are paneled in compartments and feature decorative tools at the corners. The spine and board edges are tooled in gold, with ornamental tools, gilt, in each compartment. The boards are in very good condition, with wear to the edges and some minor scuffing. The leather of the hinges is desiccated, resulting in a very weak upper hinge and the loosening of the front board (this will probably need to be rebacked.) The text of this copy is in excellent condition with only a few minor rust spots and blemishes. The leaves are creamy white; the margins are broad and devoid of marginalia. The edges of the text block are stained red. The title page is printed in red and black. The Greek text of the tragedies and the Latin translation are printed on facing pages. FIRST EDITION of Thomas Stanley?s celebrated edition of Aeschylus & THE FIRST EDITION OF AESCHYLUS PRINTED IN ENGLAND. Stanley?s edition, important for the editor?s work on Aeschylean metrics, was the true successor to Henri Estienne?s edition of 1557. His commentary was, according to Schreiber, the first to be worthy of mention after Estienne?s. ?It was far superior to all its predecessors? It has served in its turn as the great source of illustrations for all the subsequent editions of Aeschylus. It was described by Bentley as a ?noble edition?; it was republished in 1743 and afterwards revised by Porson.? (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship).
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Saint Augustines confessions translated: and with some marginall notes illustrated. Wherein, diuers antiquities are explayned; and the marginall notes of a former Popish translation, answered. By William Watts, rector of St. Albanes, Woodstreete.

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo (354-430 AD); Watts, William (1590?-1649), translator Duodecimo: [12], 1012, [8] p., [1] With an added engraved title page. Collation: A B-2V 2X First Edition of William Watts? translation of The First Great Autobiography First edition of William Watts? translation, written in part as a response to the ?popish? translation of Sir Tobie Matthew (1577-1655) printed at the English College press of St. Omer in 1620. Watts began his translation as a Lenten devotion, but, he tells us, ?I quickly found it to exercise more than my devotion: it exercised my skill (all I had): it exercised my patience, it exercised my friends too, for ?tis incomparably the hardest taske that ever I undertooke.? The book is dedicated to Lord Keeper Thomas Coventry’s daughter Elizabeth, Lady Hare of Stow, Norfolk."The ‘Confessions’ were something quite new to literary composition. Their frank description of both emotional and intellectual problems, their acute psychological observations and analysis of complex sentiments, and at the same time their obvious sincerity and humility, account for their immediate and lasting influence."The ?Confessions? is the first great autobiography in which personal confession and revelations are linked with the spirit of Christian piety and devotion. It was written soon after Augustine became Bishop of Hippo in 397, and none of his other writings, apart from ?The City of God?, has been more universally read or admired. Its strength of though and confession of weakness have been a constant support to Christians ever since." (Printing and the Mind of Man)"Augustine is remarkable for what he did and extraordinary for what he wrote. If none of his written works had survived, he would still have been a figure to be reckoned with. However, more than five million words of his writings survive, virtually all displaying the strength and sharpness of his mind and some possessing the rare power to attract and hold the attention of readers in both his day and ours. His distinctive theological style shaped Latin Christianity in a way surpassed only by scripture itself.?(Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition)"Augustine?s complicated personal journey has enriched his thought with a large number of themes and starting points, which may not have found a definitive systematic placement but precisely for this reason exercise all the greater a fascination upon those periods that, like the present, shun naively integral constructions. A schoolteacher, he was brought up on texts of the classical period, and from these he got to know the best products of Greek and Latin culture. A Manichean, he came into contact with the thought of a sect that was one of the liveliest and most stimulating of the period, a sect whose importance in ancient thought is an object of careful analysis and revaluation today. A Neoplatonist, he learned deeply the lesson of the one who is for him the greatest philosopher of antiquity, Plato, and at the same time he took part in the philosophical developments of the latest current of pagan thought. In the "De Civitate Dei" he reappraises the role of Rome and her empire, yet he does not hesitate to request, in letters of impressive harshness, the aid of the state in repressing the Donatist schism. Profoundly tied to classical culture, he does not hesitate to question it in the "De Doctrina Christiana". A sophisticated intellectual, he chose to wrestle with the most complex problems, which for some time had agitated the toughest thinkers, and he also focused on new questions, ones no less anxious and difficult than the earlier ones. A man of the Church, he considered it his duty to reach the weakest and least educated of his flock, and he strove to write for all, not only for an elite of scholars. The greatest intelligences of all times have struggled with Augustine, but it is not easy to find one who has been able to interpret and to comprehend his vital difficulty without somehow diminishing it." (Gian Biagio Conte). STC 912 A fine copy bound in contemporary vellum, soiled, a
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Imperatorum et Caesarum Vitae, cum Imaginibus ad vivam effigiem expressis. Libellus auctus cum elencho & Iconiis Consulum ab Authore. M.D. XXXIIII

Huttich, Johann (ca. 1490-1544); Weiditz, Hans (ca. 1495- ca. 1536), artist Quarto: Aa-Bb4; A-X4, Y6; aa-dd4. Complete. Profusely IllustratedThe Most Complete Edition Fourth and most complete edition of Huttich?s "Imperatorum et Caesarum Vitae", his most important work, first published in 1525. The first section covers the imperial families from Julius Caesar to Gallienus, the son of Valerian. This section is followed by "thirty tyrants", a group of third-century would-be usurpers and self-proclaimed Augusti and Caesares, and the emperors and Augusti from Aurelian to Theodosius II and Valentinian III. This section is followed by the emperors of the Eastern Empire based at Constantinople, beginning with Martian and concluding with Michael Cyropalates. The revival of the western imperial line begins with Charlemagne and concludes with the reigns of Charles V, Emperor of Germany and his brother Ferdinand I. This edition includes a supplemental section: "Elenchus Consulum Romanorum" a chronological list of the consuls printed between decorative woodcut borders. This section concludes with a series of woodcut medallions. The ornate divisional title border shows scenes from the Iliad including Achilles dragging Hector around the walls of Troy. "Besides the borders, there are 84 medallions, obverse and reverse, in the same style as the preceding, apparently by Weiditz." (Fairfax Murray)"A friend and correspondent of Erasmus (who dedicated his translation of Lucian’s ‘Convivium’ to Huttich) and Ulrich von Hutten, Huttich studied at the University of Mainz when the city was a stronghold of the new antiquarian learning. While accompanying Frederick II on a diplomatic mission to Spain, Huttich collected pamphlets describing Spanish and Portuguese voyages to the Americas, later published as ‘Novus Orbis’ (1532)."Huttich work falls into the category of Bildnisvitenbücher, collections of portraits of famous men and women, accompanied by biographical sketches? The second edition of Vasari’s ‘Lives of the Artists’ (1568), in which each biography is accompanied by a woodcut portrait elaborately framed, was clearly influenced by this type of popular literature. The Renaissance cult of the hero, of ‘virtus’ and ‘fama’, helps explain the widespread appeal of these works, in which the humanists, as Rave points out, sought to combine the two devices employed by the ancients to immortalize their great men, the ‘vita’ and the ‘effigies’. The growing sense of national identity during this period also played a part in the production of volumes devoted to kings, legendary heroes, and literary lights of France and Germany, a motivation that explains much of the content in the numismatic books of Huttich and Rouille."(Cunnally, "Images of the Illustrious") Adams H-1248; BM German p.427 (602.b.I); Chrisman H5.1.4b; Fairfax Murray #219; Campbell Dodgson II, 148; Brunet III, p.392; Cunnally, pp. 197-198 A nice copy with only the occasional minor stain or dust-soiling. Wide margins. Contemporary stiff vellum, a bit soiled, head and tail of spine nicely repaired.This volume is profusely illustrated with several hundred woodcut images, most of which are by Hans Weiditz. "The medallions of the emperors [and their families] are 268 in number, commencing with Julius Caesar and ending with Frederick III, Maximilian I and his son Philip the Fair, Charles V and Ferdinand I. Most are enclosed in ornamental borders with fauns, cupids, Adam and Eve, Godfrey of Bouillon, Hercules etc." (Fairfax Murray) FOURTH AND MOST COMPLETE EDITION. This is "the first with the ?Elenchus? and the first with this title." (Fairfax Murray).
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Dissertazione del ch. signore d. Benedetto Rocco napoletano sul giuoco degli scacchi.

Rocco, Benedetto (fl. 1783-1816); Cancellieri, Francesco (1751-1826) Very large duodecimo: 58, [2] pp. A-B12, C6 With a Rare Bibliography of Chess A rare and important chess book comprising the Neapolitan chess player Benedetto Rocco?s ?Dissertazione sul Giuoco degli Scacchi agli oziosi?(p. 7-26) and the Abbé Francesco Cancellieri?s important bio-bibliographical catalogue of chess players and their books, "Biblioteca ragionata degli scrittori del givoco degli scacchi" (p. 27-58). Rocco’s "Dissertazione" was first published in the ?Giornale enciclopedico? (1783). And Cancellieri?s "Biblioteca? was first published as an appendix to his "Biblioteca degli scrittori sopra la memoria artificiale," [n.p., n.d.], and later included in his "Dissertazione intorno agli uomini dotati di gran memoria ." Roma, F. Bourlié, 1815. All of these publications are rare.Rocco?s ?Dissertazione? preserves valuable information on the members of a chess academy, ?Gli Oziosi Napoletani? that flourished in Naples in the 18th century. The leading player of the academy was D. Scipione del Grotto (d. 1723), a priest from Salerno, who turned to chess after losing a great deal of money at dice and cards. Rocco tells us that in 1718 del Grotto famously defeated the English Admiral Byng, who had come to Naples after the English defeated the Spanish fleet off Capo Passaro. We also hear of de Grotto?s disciple Carmine Pagano, Ludovico Lupinacci, and other famous players. Cancellieri?s bibliography is our sole source for information on a number of early unpublished manuscript treatises, including a description of a codex from 1409, commissioned at Prague, of a ?Historia Saturica? which has at the end a tract on chess in seven chapters. The bibliography includes the very earliest of printed chess books, including Caxton?s ?The Game and Play of Chesse? (with an incorrect date of 1480), and a medieval Hebrew poem on chess attributed to Ibn Ezra by Thomas Hyde. There are also fascinating accounts of non-literary chess innovations and episodes, such as the remarkable story of John of Austria?s human chess board, with living men or children as the pieces. Fumagalli 1846; Walker ?Bibliographical Catalogue of Printed Books and Writers on Chess? p. 282 Bound in 20th c. red morocco, gilt-tooled author and title on the spine. A large, fresh copy on thick paper, bottom margin entirely uncut throughout. Very nice.
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The Defense of the Aunsvvere to the Admonition, against the Replie of T.C. By Iohn VVhitgift Doctor of Diuinitie. In the beginning are added these. 4. tables. 1 Of dangerous doctrines in the replie. 2 Of falsifications and vntruthes. 3 Of matters handled at large. 4 A table generall.

Whitgift, John, Archbishop of Canterbury (1530?-1604) Folio: [24], 812, [12] p. a4, b8, A-Z6, Aa-Zz6, Aaa-Xxx6, Yyy4, Aaaa6 The second edition, printed in the year of the first, of the future Archbishop of Canterbury’s reply to Thomas Cartwright’s defence against Whitgift’s ?An Answere to a Certen Libel?, 1572.?The ?Admonition to the Parliament?(1572), an appeal to the public in the guise ofa letter to parliament, was the most outspoken protestant criticism of the Elizabethan settlement to appear by that date, and divided the puritans themselves. Its pithy, scurrilous style gave it notoriety and made an immediate impact, drawing a reply from Paul’s Cross by Thomas Cooper, bishop of Lincoln, as early as 27 June, and it reached its third edition by August. At about this time Whitgift was entrusted with the task of replying to the Admonition, which he took on with some urgency. In a letter of September informing Archbishop Parker of Cartwright’s removal from his fellowship, Whitgift declared that he had completed his refutation and had most of it in fair copy, sending the full text to the archbishop in the following month. By that date the authors of the Admonition had been identified and imprisoned. Yet before Whitgift’s work could be published A Second Admonition to the Parliament appeared, penned by his Cambridge adversary Cartwright, in which a fuller account of the presbyterian discipline was set out. Whitgift’s Answer to the Admonition was published, probably in November 1572, and an augmented edition, containing a section addressing Cartwright’s Second Admonition, appeared in February 1573.?The frenetic rate of publication was continued by Cartwright, whose Replye to an Answere of Dr Whitgifte appeared in April 1573. This full exposition of the Reformed position reinvigorated radical support but brought strong reaction from the government. A proclamation ordering the surrender of the Admonition and other books was issued. Bishops were required by the privy council to act more firmly against nonconformist clergy and, in December, a warrant was issued for Cartwright’s arrest, forcing him into exile once again. Encouraged by Parker, Whitgift devoted much of this year to an extensive response to Cartwright, answering him point by point in his Defense of the Aunswere to the Admonition Against the Replie of T.C. which appeared in 1574. On 26 March 1574 he preached the new year sermon before the queen at Greenwich, setting out his defence of episcopal government; it was published later that year. Other supporters of Cartwright entered the debate with Whitgift at this time, but the major response came from the exiled Cartwright himself, in 1575 and again in 1577, to neither of which Whitgift replied.?These years between 1570 and 1575 were crucial to the developing character of the Elizabethan church, and Whitgift’s views were to prevail with the queen and with authority; the points at issue between him and his opponents at this time therefore need some consideration. Behind the polemical tone of the controversy it is worth locating points of agreement: both Whitgift and his opponents shared a Calvinist theology and, in matters of ecclesiology, they each recognized the importance of theological scholarship and the central role of scripture in defining the nature of the church. In the climate of the early 1570s they each sought to locate their position between what they saw as the corruptions of the Roman church on the one hand and the excesses of Anabaptism on the other, both of which evils they identified among the views of their opponents. Behind these common protestant assumptions what was at stake was the true nature of the English church and, in the course of the debate, two conflicting views emerged of the Christian community and of its relations with social and political power. For Whitgift the importance of maintaining the distinction between the visible and the invisible church was crucial and it was wrong to try to conflate the two: the invisible spiritual government of the
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An Authentic Detail of Particulars relative to the Late Duchess of Kingston.

Chudleigh, Elizabeth (c. 1720-1788)] Octavo: pp. [ii], ii, 178, [18]. Collation: [A]2, B-Z4, A1. With an added engraved frontispiece of the Duchess, with breasts exposed "as she appeared at the Venetian Ambassador’s Ball in Somerset House" (by Chesham after Gainsborough). The Scandalous Life of Elizabeth ChudleighA Very Fine copy of the True First Edition First edition of this posthumous biography of the courtier and bigamist Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston, granddaughter of the poet Mary Chudleigh (1656-1710), from whom ?she seemed to have inherited no notable literary tastes or talents?(Rizzo) Elizabeth was notorious for her sexual escapades, daring, and profligacy. She studiously cultivated this image, referring to herself (in the third person) thus: ?She was both wasteful and penurious; the most enormous sums were expended to gratify her love of display, at the same time that she refused to incur some trifling necessary expense in her household? The lady was exacting, vain, and violent almost to fury? raised to the highest rank a subject could attain, [she] became only the more arrogant and capricious.?(Memoirs)As Betty Rizzo has demonstrated, Chudleigh modeled her behavior on some of the most scandalous women in the novels of the eighteenth-century.?Elizabeth Chudleigh?s devastatingly triumphant and destructive career is probably best understood as inspired by the careers of the imperious court vixens in the pages of Delariviere Manley so it is not surprising that her initial courtship and subsequent abuse of her companions follow the pattern of the Duchess of Cleveland?s in ?The Adventure of Rivella.? The duchess was demonstrably Chudleigh?s model. For Chudleigh, as for her close contemporaries Elizabeth Montagu and Frances Greville, there were both older Restoration models and newer models of sensibility to choose from and to combine, and Chudleigh?s choice was absolute. She was neither a brilliant intelligence nor a reader but she had clearly very early got the ?New Atlantis? (1709) by heart. The models in the works of Manley of powerful, profligate, passionate, and willful women impelled the girl, already beautiful, irresistibly charming, passionate, and willful into both profligacy and power. For Chudleigh the Restoration court ideology about women still worked when at twenty (in about 1740) she arrived at the court of the Prince of Wales. When in 1776 at fifty-six she was tried for bigamy, her assumptions had become outré, her self-conducted defense failed, and she escaped burning in the hand only because her despised husband had succeeded to an earldom. She had to flee England forever.?To attempt to exculpate Chudleigh would be fruitless, for she often deliberately behaved like a monster. Her generosity, frequently noted by herself and her beneficiaries, was directed not toward worthy, needy objects but toward those who best flattered and served her. Her passage through the world did not render it a better place.?(Betty Rizzo, Companions Without Vows, ch. 4, Elizabeth Chudleigh and her maids of honor, p. 61 ff.)The scandal that led to her flight from England in 1777 was many years in the making. In 1744 Chudleigh secretly married Augustus John Hervey. This secrecy allowed her to remain at court. In 1749, after the birth and death of their infant son, and in the face of Elizabeth?s unfaithfulness, Hervey ?severed all relations with her? When Hervey seemed to be on the cusp of gaining his ailing brother?s earldom, Elizabeth confessed her marriage to the dowager of Wales and had her marriage officially recorded. In 1768, Hervey sought a divorce in order to marry another. This resulted in a court case in which the marriage was ruled not to have taken place.In 1769 she married the Duke of Kingston. When he died in 1773, his will stipulated that Elizabeth must remain a widow in order to receive the duke?s income and estates. Evelyn Meadows, the duke?s heir, disputed the will and had Elizabeth tried for bigamy. Elizabeth?s trial took place three yea
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Lumen Animae. Incipit: Liber moralitatum elegantissimus magnarum reru[m] naturalium lumen anime dict[us]: cu[m] septe[m] apparitorib[us] necno[n] sanctoru[m] doctoru[m] orthodoxe fidei p[ro]fessorum Poetaru[m] etia[m] ac oratoru[m] auctoritatib[us] p[er] modum pharatre s[e]c[un]d[u]m ordine[m] alphabeti collectis feliciter incipit.

Berenger of Landorra, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (circa 1262-1330), and Gregory of Vorau (ed. Matthias Farinator) Folio: 274 unsigned leaves. [A-C]8, [D]10; [a-m]8, [n]6,[o-z]8, [aa-ff]8, [gg]10. Complete with the initial and final blanks. The Natural World & The Human Soul The arrival of printed books is so often regarded as one of the inaugural moments of the renaissance that it is sometimes forgotten that the first years of print also represented the last great flowering of the Middle Ages. The ?Lumen Anime? (Light of the Soul), is testament to that. Formerly attributed to the Carmelite friar Mathias Farinator of Vienna (who compiled the index), the ?Lumen Anime? is now known to be Berenger of Landorra, General of the Dominican order and archbishop of Campostella from 1317 to 1325.The ?Lumen Anime? is a sprawling manual of natural and moral philosophy, that gathers together quotations on relevant themes from authors as diverse as Aristotle, Theophrastus, the elder Pliny, Ptolemy, Solinus, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Isidore, Hugh of St Victor, and Avicenna. It is broadly organized in three parts beginning with the birth of Christ and other theological material before going on to such worldly matters as abstinence, abjection, adulation, wealth, guilt, love, humility, health, silence, and pride. It then proceeds to the two longer parts: the first, concerned with the natural world of plants, animals and trees; and the second, in more depth with problems of a moral and philosophical kind. It was immensely popular in the fifteenth century as a reference work, and despite its Dominican origins, found its natural home and use in the Benedictine orders of Central Europe.?The natural historical content [of the ?Lumen Anime?] centers as much on astronomy and meteorology as on flora and fauna; it includes a huge number of largely inauthentic citations of frequently exotic-sounding authors and the vast majority of its exempla have a a tripartite structure ? a scientific (or pseudo-scientific ?proprietas? is followed by a moralizing interpretation, whose lesson is then reinforced by a quotation from a theological authority.? In the version of the text edited by Matthias Farinator, which is the basis of the printed editions, ?chapters tend to be much longer [and] the initial natural historical ?proprietas? is often longer and supported by a series of quotations, its components are then analyzed allegorically, and a moralization follows.?(Nigel Harris, ?the Light of the Soul?, 2007)The textual history and authorship of the ?Lumen Anime? are matters of considerable complexity. There are some 195 surviving manuscripts and fragments, as well as four fifteenth and one sixteenth-century printed editions. Of the 195 manuscripts, 35 date from the fourteenth century and the remainder from the fifteenth century, including two that derive from the printed editions.Mary and Richard Rouse have established three principal lines of transmission. ?Lumen A? is the original version as composed by Berenger of Landorra, Archbishop of Compostella between 1317 and his death in 1330. It would appear that the collection took shape with the encouragement and support of Pope John XXII. It is the book?s Spanish origin that explains the presence of both Arabic and Greek material in the collections.By 1332, a copy of the manuscript had reached Austria, where it was revised, modified and expanded by an otherwise unknown monk, Gregory of Vorau. ?Lumen B? is the source of the text that was edited by Matthias Farinator, and printed by Anton Sorg at Augsburg in 1477, and then reprinted again at Augsburg by Gunther Zainer in 1477, at Reutlingen in 1479, and in 1482 at Strasbourg. The Rouses have proposed that Farinator?s manuscript was a direct copy of the complete text of either Vorau 130 or Klosterneuberg 384 (p.51), the earliest surviving witnesses to the B tradition.A third manuscript recension, ?Lumen C?, derives from a compilation of material primarily from the A, but also from the B text. This line of descent dates before 1357. As well as these principal traditions, other manu
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Sphaera mundi [with] Johannes Regiomontanus: Disputationes contra Cremonensia deliramenta [and] Georg von Peurbach: Theoricae novae planetarum.

Sacrobosco, Johannes de (ca. 1195 ? ca. 1256 A.D.); Regiomontanus, Johannes (1436-1476); Peurbach, Georg von (1423-1461) Quarto: 60 lvs. Collation: a-g8, h4. 30-31 lines, Gothic type Renaissance Science and its Medieval Antecedents A fine copy of Erhard Ratdolt?s beautiful printing of Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere?, the core astronomical textbook from the Middle Ages to the early 16th century. This edition is the first to include key texts by two of the most influential 15th c. astronomers: Johannes Regiomontanus and Georg Peurbach. Working in the vein of the Renaissance humanists, Peurbach and his student Regiomontanus sought out the extant scientific writings of antiquity, the classical foundations of medieval European and Arabic science. Both men gleaned what they could from ancient authorities but more importantly, moved the science forward, adjusting, correcting, and often discrediting their ancient and medieval predecessors, while performing new scientific investigations of astronomical phenomena. These investigations led to important innovations, placing Renaissance astronomy on a new path.The first of the two supplemental texts in this volume, Peurbach?s ?Theoricae Novae Planetarum? (New Theories of the Planets), eventually came to replace Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere? and another 13th c. text, the ?Theorica planetarum communis? (Universal Theory of the Planets), attributed to Gerard of Cremona. Composed about 1454, Peurbach based his ?Theoricae? on the familiar teachings of Ptolemy, Al-Battani, Al-Farghani and caliph Al-Mammun?s astronomer, whose name is unknown. The word ?novae? in the title is not meant to refer to a completely new theory but only to emphasize that this work is a compilation of the latest contemporary scientific knowledge. ?Following Arab astronomers, Peurbach added trepidation to Ptolemy’s six motions of the celestial spheres and substituted solid crystal spheres for the hypothetical circles employed in Ptolemy’s ?Almagest?.? (Stillwell, Awakenings).In the final text in this volume, ?Disputationes contra Cremonensia deliramenta? (Arguments against the Errors of [Gerard of] Cremona), Peurbach?s student Regiomontanus offers a critique of Gerard?s aforementioned ?Theorica?, and demonstrates the superiority of Peurbach?s ?Theoricae novae.? Adopting the form of a dialogue between ?Viennensis? (the ?man from Vienna?, representing Regiomontanus) and ?Cracoviensis? (?The one from Krakow?, representing Martin Bylica of Ilkusch), Regiomontanus used geometrical proofs, often supplemented by diagrams, to refute specific claims in the earlier ?Theorica.? In the course of his critique, Regiomontanus -renowned for the accuracy of his own predictive tables and calendars- also makes corrections to Gerard?s planetary tables.Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere?:?Sacrobosco?s fame rests firmly on his ?De Sphaera?, a work based on Ptolemy and his Arabic commentators, published about 1220 and antedating the ?Sphaera? of Grosseteste. It was quite generally adopted as the fundamental astronomy text, for often it was so clear that it needed little or no explanation. It was first used at the University of Paris. There are four chapters to the work. Chapter one defines a sphere, explains its divisions, including the four elements, and also comments on the heavens and their movements. The revolutions of the heavens are from east to west and their shape is spherical. The earth is a sphere, acting as the middle (or center) of the firmament; it is a mere point in relation to the total firmament and is immobile. Its measurements are also included. Chapter two treats the various circles and their names- the celestial circle, the equinoctial, the movement of the ?primum mobile? with its two parts, the north and south poles, the zodiac, the ecliptic, the colures, the meridian and the horizon, and the Arctic and Antarctic circles. It closes with an explanation of the five zones. Chapter three explains the cosmic, chronic, and heliacal risings and settings of the signs and also their right and oblique ascensions. Explanations are furnished for the variations in the length of days in d
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Colin Clouts come home againe. By Ed. Spencer.

Spenser, Edmund (ca.1552-1599) Quarto: [80] p. Signatures: A-K4 Spenser?s Great Pastoral Eclogue. The First Edition, the Sole Separate Edition & The Only Edition to Appear in The 16th Century With a dedicatory epistle to ?The Right worthy and noble Knight Sir Walter Raleigh? dated ?from my house of Kilcolman, the 27. Of December. 1591.? In addition to ?Colin Clout?, this volume also includes Spenser?s ?Astrophel: A pastorall Elegie upon the death of the most Noble and valorous Knight, Sir Phillip Sidney? (dedicated to Sidney?s widow, who had by then become the Countess of Essex); An untitled poem beginning ?Ay me, to whom shall I complaine?? often referred to as ?The dolefull lay of Corinda?; ?The mourning Muse of Thestylis? (by Ludowick Bryskett); ?A pastorall Aeglogue upon the death of Sir Phillip Sidney Knight? signed L.B. (Ludowick Bryskett); ?An Elegie, or friends passion for his Astrophill? (by Matthew Roydon); ?An Epitaph upon the right honourable sir Phillip Sidney Knight: Lord governor of Flushing? (by Walter Raleigh); ?Another of the Same? (almost certainly by Sir Edward Dyer).Spenser?s ?Colin Clout?s Come Home Again?, a pastoral poem in the tradition of Petrarch, was inspired by the poet?s visit to England from 1590 to 1591, a journey undertaken at the urging of Walter Raleigh. Spenser wrote the poem, dedicated to Raleigh, upon his return to Kilcolman castle in Ireland ?the ?Home? referred to in the poem?s title. Spenser’s adoption of an Anglo-Irish identity was publicly expressed in the title poem, where the ‘home’ that Colin refers to rather bitterly in the poem is Ireland, not England. At the same time, the elegies on Sidney as the English nation’s poet imply Spenser’s claim to be his successor. The poem has been called Spenser?s most biographical, and indeed it includes not only the visit from Raleigh to Spenser?s home in Ireland in 1589 but also an account of Spenser?s sea voyage and his time in England, during which he presented the first three books of his ?Faerie Queen? to Queen Elizabeth.The poem fits neatly into a tradition of advice literature that exempts the monarch from the general failings of his or her courtiers, and includes strong criticisms of the court, as well as attacks on the vanity, ignorance, and greed of courtiers in general. It is possible that Colin Clout was intended as a criticism of Elizabeth’s regime in the 1590s, especially if we bear in mind Spenser’s own lack of preferment in England and his posthumous criticisms of the queen in ‘Two cantos of Mutabilitie’ (A. Hadfield, Edmund Spenser’s Irish Experience, 1997, chap. 6) Ashley V, 194; Pforzheimer 967; STC 23077 A wonderful copy bound in fine early 20th c. burgundy morocco by Riviere & Sons. Very nice internally, the last leaf carefully washed. With a woodcut printer?s device (McKerrow 299) and decorative border to the title page, and numerous head- and tailpieces throughout. A lovely copy of the first edition. This copy has the second state of sheet C, with the reading "worthily" on C1r, line 24. FIRST EDITION. The colophon reads: ?London Printed by T.C. for William Ponsonbie. 1595.?.
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Eight bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre written by Thucydides the sonne of Olorus. Interpreted with faith and diligence immediately out of the Greeke by Thomas Hobbes secretary to ye late Earle of Deuonshire

Thucydides (ca. 455-ca. 400 B.C.); Hobbes, Thomas, translator (1588-1679) Folio: [34], 536 [i.e. 535], [13] pp. Collation: A4, a-c4, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Yyy4, Zzz6 (the final leaf is blank and present). With an added engraved title page and five engraved plates, three of which are folding. Hobbes? Thucydides. The First Edition in a Contemporary Binding Hobbes published his translation in 1629, when he was in his early forties. Yet he tells us in the introduction that the translation, once completed ?lay long by? him, indicating that it had been completed much earlier.?Hobbes was interested in Thucydides less for his style than his subject matter. Nor did he take up the study and translation of the Greek historian simply with a scholar?s antiquarian interest, but with the humanist desire to learn and pass on the lessons of history to his contemporaries. He is not shy of speaking of the utility of history. He talks of Thucydides? writings ?as having in them profitable instruction for Noblemen, and such as may come to have the managing of great and weighty actions.? It is in the history of Thucydides that the purposes of history are most finely embodied: ?For the principall and proper worke of History, being to instruct, and enable men, by the knowledge of Actions past, to beare themselves prudently in the present, and providently towards the Future, there is not extant any other (merely humane) that doth more fully, and naturally performe it, then this of my Author.???Hobbes had very definite ideas about the conclusions to be drawn from Thucydides. In the long introductory essay, ?Of the Life and History of Thucydides?, he derives from the history an account of the political opinions of its author:?For his opinion touching the government of the State, it is manifest that he least of all liked the Democracy. And upon divers occasions, hee noteth the emulation and contention of the Demagogues, for reputation, and glory of wit; with their crossing of each others counsels to the damage of the Publique; the inconstancy of Resolutions, caused by the diversity of ends, and power of Rhetorique in the Orators; and the desperated actions undertaken upon the flattering advice of such as desired to attaine, or to hold what they had attained of authority and sway amongst the common people. Nor doth it appeare, that he magnifieth anywhere the authority of the Few; amongst whom he saith every one desireth to be chiefe; and they that are undervalued, beare it with lesse patience than in a Democracy; whereupon sedition followeth, and dissultion of the government. Hee prayseth the government of Athens, when it was mixed of the Few and the Many; but more he commendeth it, both when Pisistratus raigned (saving that it was an usurped power) and when in the beginning of this Warre, it was Democraticall in name, but in effect Monarchicall under Pericles.??Thucydides here is represented as a closet royalist. The passage to which Hobbes is directly referring, which must have been written after the final defeat of Athens in 404, is Thucydides summary account of the causes of her downfall in Book II. This is a long but crucial passage in Hobbes? translation, a shortcut to the lessons to be learnt from the larger narrative. While there are many factors that contributed to the political philosophy later developed by Hobbes (not least his experience of civil disorder in Britain), it might be argued that the political analysis here of the weakness of the Athenian democracy was influential in defining a problem to which the doctrine of Leviathan was the solution.?(Robin Sowerby, ?Thomas Hobbes? Translation of Thucydides?)"The historical methods of Thucydides, who lived in the fifth century B.C., have never been bettered. His severe standard of historical truth, coupled with his passionate belief in the general significance of particular events, have given his history of the tragic war between Athens and Sparta a universal value to statesmen and historians alike." (Printing and the Mind of Man, 219) STC 24058; Macdonald & Hargreaves, T
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Wits Theater of The Little World

Allott, Robert (active 1600); Bodenham, John (active 1600) Octavo: [iv], 269, [7] lvs. Collation: A4, B-2M8, 2N4 ?A collection of the flowers of antiquities and histories? for the Elizabethan Reader ?Wits Theater? was produced as part of a publishing project conceived by John Bodenham. The ?series? began with Nicholas Ling?s ?Politeuphuia: Wits Commonwealth? in 1597, and also included the poetic miscellany ?Englands Parnassus? of 1600. Like the later ?Englands Parnassus?, ?Wits Theater? was compiled by Robert Allott and may be regarded as the prose equivalent of the poetical ?Parnassus? In his introduction Allott explains the structure of his work. He defines for his readers ?Two Worlds, the greater and the lesser.? The first is of things eternal, the second the world of man. In ?Wits Theater?, he will focus on the latter: ?I have therefore called these lucubrations, or rather collections, "The Theater of the Little World," for that in it thou maist beholde the inward and outward parts of man, lively figured in hys actions and behavior.? The book comprises ?a collection of the flowers of antiquities and histories?, an epitomized view of the world of human endeavor, belief, achievement, and behavior, rich in excerpts, exempla, and commonplaces mined from numerous ancient and Renaissance authorities, as well as from Ling?s contemporaries. These literary luminaries include philosophers, poets, theologians, tragedians, historians, essayists, humanists, neo-platonists, astrologers, and chroniclers. Among these we may name a few to show their variety: Albumazar, Erasmus, Luther, Ovid, Vergil, Lispius, Augustine, Froissart, Petrarch, and the writer of the Polychronicon.The quotations are arranged under a multitude of subject headings, including: art, astronomy, books, cursing, comedians, dicing, fashions and apparel, magic, martyrs, poets, pastoral poems, visions, schoolmasters, women, and of course, wit. The purpose? Allott tells us up front: ?The profit that ariseth by reading these epitomized histories is to aemulate that which thou likest in others, and to make right vse of theyr examples.?This book was printed for Nicholas Ling, who was also the publisher of ?Politeuphuia?, which Ling also wrote, and ?Englands Parnassus?(1600), with its many excerpts from Shakespeare?s poetry. Significantly, Ling held the publishing rights to ?Hamlet? from its very first printing (the ?bad? quarto of 1603) through the second printing (1605) of the ?good? quartos. The printer of ?Politeuphuia? and ?Wits Theater?, James Roberts, also printed both of the ?good? Hamlet quartos (1603 and 1604) for Ling.The book is very scarce and uncommon: ESTC lists just 7 copies in the UK, and 10 in the US in 8 institutions. STC 382; ESTC S100300; Grolier, Langland to Wither 15; Pforzheimer 1094; Hoe catalog I: 59 A fine copy in 17th c. mottled calf, rebacked. The text is in very good condition; fore-edge of the title chipped. In ?The Table? at the end a few extra headings have been added in an early hand, and there are corresponding underlinings in the text. It is worthy of note that this is a complete copy. In this copy the Dedication is not signed. The 4 line correction slip on Bb1r is present. The title is occupied by a fine woodcut device.
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THE WORKS OF VIRGIL: Containing His PASTORALS , GEORGICS, AND ÆNEIS. Translated into English Verse; By Mr. Dryden. Adorn?d with a Hundred Sculptures.

Vergil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70-19 B.C.); Dryden, John (1631-1700) Folio: [ ]2, A2, *4, **4, ***2, ****2, *****2, ?2, ??2 x1, B-G4, [ ]4, [ ]2, H-T4, U2; (a)-(f)4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Ffff4, Gggg2, Hhhh-Iiii4, Kkkk2. A Fine Large-Paper Copy of the First Edition ?Dryden?s ?translation of Vergil?? says Pope, (whose own translation of Homer was inspired by Dryden?s work) ?is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language.? (Thomas) ?The book was published by subscription, a system of joint-stock patronage now coming into vogue. [.] Dryden?s correspondence with [his publisher] Tonson showed a good many bickerings during the publication. One cause of quarrel was Tonson?s desire that the book should be dedicated to William III. Dryden honourably refused; but Tonson had the engravings adapted for the purpose by giving to Aeneas the hooked nose of William (Dryden, Letter to his son, 3 Sept. 1697).? (DNB)?Shakespeare probably knew at least the earlier books of the ?Aeneid? in Latin, while Milton?s ?Paradise Lost? attempts to provide an English equivalent not only for Vergil?s epic themes but even for his syntax, diction, and as far as possible, meter. But in Britain he was also particularly well-served by translations. In the seventeenth-century the epic was translated by Dryden.? (Gian Biagio Conte?s ?Latin Literature, A History?) Wing V-616; Macdonald 33A; Wither to Prior #325; Malone I.1.313; See John Barnard ?The Large- and Small-Paper Copies of Dryden?s The Works of Virgil (1697)? in ?Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America? {Columbia, SC} 92, no. 3 (1998 Sept): p. 259-71. An exceptional, and exceptionally large, ?large paper? copy. This copy is complete with the engraved frontispiece, the extra plate depicting Vergil reading the Aeneid to Augustus, and all 101 of the magnificent engraved plates by W. Hollar called for in this edition: ten in the Bucolics, twenty in the Georgics, and seventy-one in the Aeneid. Bound in 17th-century paneled calf, very nicely rebacked in the 18th-century. The spine is separated into eight compartments, ruled and tooled in gold, by raised bands. There are two spine labels, one in red and one in green morocco, tooled in gold. The boards are framed by a single gold fillet.Internally, this copy is in superb condition with very little of the browning associated with this edition. The great majority of leaves are crisp, lily-white and wide margined. In fact, this is the largest, and cleanest copy that we have had the pleasure to handle. There are a few incidental marginal tears, only one of which ?now mended- enters an engraving (opposite p. 261.) The final leaf is ink-stained.
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Poems, by J.D. VVith elegies on the authors death

Donne, John (1573-1631) Octavo: [8], 300, [4], 301-388, [32] pp. A-Z8, Aa-Dd8. With the engraved frontispiece portrait. A Lovely Copy ?The poetry of Donne represents a sharp break with that written by his predecessors and most of his contemporaries. Much Elizabethan verse is decorative and flowery in its quality. Its images adorn; its meter is mellifluous. Image harmonizes with image, and line swells almost predictably into line. Donne?s poetry, on the other hand, is written very largely in conceits? concentrated images that involve an element of dramatic contrast, of strain, or of intellectual difficulty. Most of the traditional ?flowers of rhetoric? disappear completely. For instance, in his love poetry one never encounters bleeding hearts, cheeks like roses, lips like cherries, teeth like pearls, or Cupid shooting arrows of love. The tears which flow in A Valediction: of Weeping, are different from, and more complex than, the ordinary saline fluid of unhappy lovers; they are ciphers, naughts, symbols of the world?s emptiness without the beloved; or else, suddenly reflecting her image, they are globes, worlds, they contain the sum of things. The poet who plays with conceits not only displays his own ingenuity; he may see into the nature of the world as deeply as the philosopher. Donne?s conceits in particular leap continually in a restless orbit from the personal to the cosmic and back again.?Donne?s rhythms are colloquial and various. He likes to twist and distort not only ideas, but also metrical patterns and grammar itself. In the satires, which Renaissance writers understood to be ?harsh? and ?crabbed? as a genre, Donne?s distortions often threaten to choke off the stream of expression entirely. But in the lyrics (both those which are worldly and those which are religious in theme), as in the elegies and sonnets, the verse never fails of a complex and memorable melody. Donne had an unusual gift, rather like that of a modern poet, T.S. Eliot, for striking off phrases that ring in the mind like a silver coin. They are two masters of the colloquial style, removed alike from the dignified, weighty manner of Milton and the sugared sweetness of the Elizabethans.?Donne and his followers are known to literary history as the ?metaphysical school? of poets. Strictly speaking, this is a misnomer; there was no organized group of poets who imitated Donne, and if there had been, they would not have called themselves ?metaphysical? poets. That term was invented by Dryden and Dr. Johnson. But the influence of Donne?s poetic style was widely felt, especially by men whose taste was formed before 1660. George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marvell, and Abraham Cowley are only the best known of those on whom Donne?s influence is recognizable. The great change of taste that took place in 1660 threw Donne and the ?conceited? style out of fashion; during the 18th and 19th centuries both he and his followers were rarely read and still more rarely appreciated. Finally, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, three new editions of Donne appeared, of which Sir H.J.C. Grierson?s, published in 1912, was quickly accepted as standard. By clarifying and purifying the often-garbled text, Grierson did a great deal to make Donne?s poetry more available to the modern reader. Almost at once it started to exert an influence on modern poetic practice, the modern poets being hungry for a ?tough? style that would free them form the worn-out rhetoric of the late 19th century romanticism. And Donne?s status among the English poets quickly climbed from that of a curiosity to that of an acknowledged master.?No more than a couple of the poems on which Donne?s modern reputation is built were published during his lifetime, though most of them were widely circulated through court and literary circles in handwritten copies. There were practical reasons for this halfway state of affairs. Many of the poems would have constituted black marks on Donne?s reputation as an earnest
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Examen de ingenios. The examination of mens vvits. In whicch [sic], by discouering the varietie of natures, is shewed for what profession each one is apt, and how far he shall profit therein. By John Huarte. Translated out of the Spanish tongue by M. Camillo Camilli. Englished out of his Italian, by R.C. Esquire

Huarte y Navarro, Juan, (1529-1588); Carew, Richard (1555-1620), translator Quarto: [16], 333, [3] pp. A-Y8 ”The first attempt to show the connection between psychology and physiology” (Garrison-Morton)The First English Edition ?To Distinguish and discern these natural difference?s of man?s wit, and to apply to each by art that science wherein he may profit, is the intention of this my work.??This sentence concisely summarizes the ultimate purpose of one of the most successful and influential Spanish scientific books published in the early modern period, one with long-lasting influence upon the European intellectual world: the ?Examen de Los Ingenios para Las Ciencias? (1575), by the Spanish physician and philosopher Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529-1588)? Huarte is now hailed as the precursor of several branches of pedagogy and psychology, including differential pedagogy and differential psychology, and their practical applications, professional orientation, and selection. Recently, too, Noam Chomsky recognized in Huarte a forerunner of the rationalist innatism and the linguistic theory of 17th-century French scholars, notably Descartes. In the eyes of Chomsky, the ?Examen? is the first scientific treatise to define human wit as a generative power that reveals the creative capacities of the human mind??For Huarte, wit denotes the totality of the psychological abilities of an individual; more precisely, an individual ability or predisposition dependent on temperament, linked to the qualities of the four basic elements (earth, air, water, and fire), organically connected to the brain, and under the influence of other organs. The starting point for Huarte?s theory of wits is that the temperature of the four qualities (hot, cold, moist, and dry) of the elements has an impact upon the function of the rational (as well as the ?sensitive?) soul, and that intemperate and ever-changing environmental conditions lead to a diversity of the wits. Wit is subject to age, region of birth, sex, currents of air, weather, diet, physical exercise, and lifestyle in general [since these factors] have an impact upon the predominance in every individual of one of three powers of the intellective soul: memory, imagination, or understanding? Huarte?s goal is to clearly delineate what makes a man capable of one science and incapable of another, to discover the number of differences of wits, the arts and sciences that correspond to each, and most importantly, to illustrate how all this can be known. The Brain & Faculties of Mind?Contrary to the view of Aristotle and following Plato, Hippocrates, and Galen instead, Huarte argues that ?the brain is the principal seat of the reasonable soul.? In his view, in order for the reasonable soul to discourse and philosophize, the brain ?should be tempered with measurable heat and without excess of the other qualities?, and divided into four ventricles, ?distinct and severed, each duly bestowed in his seat and place.? Huarte describes the ventricles of the brain as four little hollows of ?one self composition and figure without anything coming in between which may breed a difference.? The three ventricles in the forepart of the head are used to ?discourse and philosophize?, while the fourth ventricle deals with the least noble operations, as it ?hath the office of digesting and altering the vital spirits and to convert them into animal.? The conviction that the three mental powers (understanding, imagination, and memory) necessarily work in collaboration with each other ?to the extent that without one the rest would malfunction- makes Huarte conclude that ?in every ventricle are all the three powers.??Building a Better Society, by Compulsion.?Huarte took his theories very seriously and believed that they could have practical repercussions upon the society of his time. His dedicatory to King Philip II of Spain suggests in fact a law by which subjects exclusively performed the profession, art, or science that corresponded to them by nature. Huarte envisioned appointing ?men of great wisdom an
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Wits Theater of The Little World

Allott, Robert (active 1600); Bodenham, John (active 1600) Octavo: [iv], 269, [7] lvs. Collation: A4, B-2M8, 2N4 ?A collection of the flowers of antiquities and histories? for the Elizabethan Reader ?Wits Theater? was produced as part of a publishing project conceived by John Bodenham. The ?series? began with Nicholas Ling?s ?Politeuphuia: Wits Commonwealth? in 1597, and also included the poetic miscellany ?Englands Parnassus? of 1600. ?Wits Theater? Like the later ?Englands Parnassus?, ?Wits Theater? was compiled by Robert Allott and may be regarded as the prose equivalent of the poetical ?Parnassus? In his introduction Allott explains the structure of his work. He defines for his readers ?Two Worlds, the greater and the lesser.? The first is of things eternal, the second the world of man. In ?Wits Theater?, he will focus on the latter: ?I have therefore called these lucubrations, or rather collections, "The Theater of the Little World," for that in it thou maist beholde the inward and outward parts of man, lively figured in hys actions and behavior.? The book comprises ?a collection of the flowers of antiquities and histories?, an epitomized view of the world of human endeavor, belief, achievement, and behavior, rich in excerpts, exempla, and commonplaces mined from numerous ancient and Renaissance authorities, as well as from Ling?s contemporaries. These literary luminaries include philosophers, poets, theologians, tragedians, historians, essayists, humanists, neo-platonists, astrologers, and chroniclers. Among these we may name a few to show their variety: Albumazar, Erasmus, Luther, Ovid, Vergil, Lispius, Augustine, Froissart, Petrarch, and the writer of the Polychronicon.The quotations are arranged under a multitude of subject headings, including: art, astronomy, books, cursing, comedians, dicing, fashions and apparel, magic, martyrs, poets, pastoral poems, visions, schoolmasters, women, and of course, wit. The purpose? Allott tells us up front: ?The profit that ariseth by reading these epitomized histories is to aemulate that which thou likest in others, and to make right vse of theyr examples.?This book was printed for Nicholas Ling, who was also the publisher of ?Politeuphuia?, which Ling also wrote, and ?Englands Parnassus?(1600), with its many excerpts from Shakespeare?s poetry. Significantly, Ling held the publishing rights to ?Hamlet? from its very first printing (the ?bad? quarto of 1603) through the second printing (1605) of the ?good? quartos. The printer of ?Politeuphuia? and ?Wits Theater?, James Roberts, also printed both of the ?good? Hamlet quartos (1603 and 1604) for Ling.The book is very scarce and uncommon: ESTC lists just 7 copies in the UK, and 10 in the US in 8 institutions. STC 382; ESTC S100300; Grolier, Langland to Wither 15; Pforzheimer 1094; Hoe catalog I: 59. Bound in 19th-century dark burgundy morocco, the boards framed by a blind-tooled row of foliage and two gilt fillets, spine gilded. With the signature of John Couchman dated 1699 on Hh1r. The text is in fine condition aside from some minor cosmetic faults to the first two leaves and trimming of the occasional catchword. The title, second leaf and the bank verso of the final leaf are soiled and there is a tiny hole in the blank area of the title, not affecting the text. The date has just been touched by the binder?s plough, without loss. In ?The Table? at the end a few extra headings have been added in an early hand, and there are corresponding underlinings in the text. It is worthy of note that this is a complete copy. In this copy the Dedication is not signed and the text at the head of Bb1r is not corrected (a faint brown shadow over the uncorrected 4 lines may suggest that the correction slip was once pasted over). The title is occupied by a fine woodcut device.
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Letters to Severall Persons of Honour: Written by John Donne, Sometime Deane of St Pauls London. Published by John Donne Dr. of the Civill Law.

Donne, John (1573-1631) Quarto: [5] (title page plus dedicatory epistle), 318 pp. Collation: A4 (-blank leaf A1) B-Z4, Aa-Ss4 (with blank leaf Ss4 present). With the added engraved portrait. "Sir, more than kisses, letters mingle souls. For, thus friends absent speak." -Donne Provenance: This copy was once the property of the author and essayist Sir Thomas Pope Blount (1649-1697) and bears his familiar ms. note ?Tittenhanger library? on the free endpaper. Blount inherited the Tittenhanger estate in Hertfordshire in 1678. In his ?Essays on Several Subjects? (1692), Blount wrote: ?If learning happens to be in the possession of a Fool, ?tis then but a Bawble, and like Dr. Donne?s Sun Dial in the Grave, a trifle, and of no use.? Blount also devoted several pages to Donne in ?De Re Poetica? (1694). This copy also bears the bookplate of the bohemian Evan Morgan, the last Viscount Tredegar (d. 1949).Published posthumously by the poet?s son, John Donne (1604-1662), this collection contains 129 letters, written between December 1600 (a year before Donne’s marriage to Anne More) and March 1631 (two months before his death.)"’In no other kind of conveyance,’ Donne once told Goodere, ‘can we find so perfect a Character of a man as in his Letters’. These letters provide valuable information about Donne’s situation and frame of mind at the time of the poems that many readers consider his greatest achievements -the ‘Anniversaries’, the ‘Holy Sonnets’, many of the verse letters and ‘A Litanie’. Moreover, the letters provide an even fuller account of the periods of intense mental and physical duress during the composition of Donne’s equally important prose works -‘Biathanatos’, ‘Pseudo-Martyr’, his polemical support of the Oath of Allegiance, ‘Devotions’ and many of his sermons."An even more impressive (and constant) feature conveyed by the letters is the picture of Donne the family man. Here we see the loving husband who bemoans that he has transplanted his wife Anne ‘into a wretched fortune’ and who reflects at the time of one of her illnesses that he ‘should hardly have abstained from recompensing for her company in this world, with accompanying out of it.’? Here also are those brief personal touches that one would expect from ‘conveyors of friendship’ -glimpses of his nervousness at being commanded to preach before King Charles I for the first time, that he has neither the ‘ambition, nor design upon the style’ to pursue the law as his ‘best entertainment’, of his preference for life in the city and, as always, his delight in self-criticism: ‘I may die yet, if talking idly be an ill sign.’"(M. Thomas Hester)"Like his poems, Donne?s letters paint the brilliant and insolent young man; the erudite and witty -but troubled and melancholy- suitor for court favor and office; the ascetic and fervent saint and preacher. And this is their chief interest. For some time, Donne held the position, almost, of the English épistolier, collections of the ?choicest conceits? being made in commonplace books from his letters as well as his poems. But they were not well fitted to teach, like Balzac?s, the beauty of a balanced and orderly prose, though they far surpass the latter in wit, wisdom and erudition. Their chief interest is the man whom they reveal, the characteristically renascence ?melancholy temperament,? now deep in despondence and meditating on the problem of suicide, now, in his own words, kindling squibs about himself and flying into sportfulness; elaborating erudite compliments, or talking to Henry Goodere with the utmost simplicity and good feeling; worldly and time-serving, noble and devout?all these things, and all with equal sincerity." (Cambridge History of English and American Literature, Vol. IV, Ch. 11.) Pforzheimer, 295; Wing D1864; Keynes 55 With the fine engraved portrait of Donne by Pieter Lombart bound opposite the title page. This copy is bound in contemporary English calf, rebacked so discreetly that it is impossible to see where the leather has been join
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Hyperaspistae liber secundus, adversus librum Martini Lutheri, cui titulum fecit, Servum arbitrium.

Erasmus, Desiderius (ca. 1466-1536) Octavo: 575 pp. Collation: A-Z8, a-n8 The longest and most detailed of Erasmus? anti-Lutheran writings. The Rare First Edition This is the extremely rare first edition of Erasmus? second response to Luther?s ?De Servo Arbitrio? (On the Enslaved Will):In December 1525 Erasmus had published ?De Libero Arbitrio? (On Free Will), setting of a debate with Martin Luther, who responded to Erasmus with his own ?De Servo Arbitrio? (On the Enslaved Will). Erasmus responded in turn with his ?Hyperaspistes I? and, a year later, the present work, ?Hyperaspistes II.?"In September 1527 Erasmus? Hyperaspistes II appeared, continuing the exegetical controversy with Luther. Erasmus particularly attacked Luther’s allegedly exaggerated position–derived from Paul–that the law brings only the knowledge of sin and thus is not really intended to be fulfilled. While Luther had decided in favor of the Pauline position, Erasmus had smoothed out the controversial points in the biblical tradition with his combination of grace and free will??It is clear from a letter of May 1529 that Luther was unwilling to participate in any further discussion with Erasmus unless Erasmus were to take up some ?significant? themes, although he had no definite plans to do so. There were deep personal reasons for this. For him, Erasmus was a totally frivolous man who utterly sneered at religion, and that was how he had depicted him in De Servo Arbitrio. This was a verdict that was not objectively justified, as long as one understood religion as something other than man’s total dependence on God.?(Brecht, ?Luther, Shaping and Defining the Reformation?, pp. 236-8) VD 16, E 3033; Bezzel 1122; Vander Haeghen I, 110 Bound in 16th century alum-tawed pigskin, attractively ruled and tooled in blind. A fine, crisp copy with wide margins and some deckled edges. There is a small wormhole, about 4 mm. wide, that continues straight through the text, impairing a letter or two on the page. Aside from that, a lovely copy, with two versions of Froben?s printer?s device on the first and final leaves.
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Marcus Tullius Ciceroes thre bookes of duties, to Marcus his sonne, turned out of latine into english, by Nicolas Grimalde. Wherunto the latine is adioyned. Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. (106-43 B.C.); Grimald, Nicholas, (1519-1562), translator Octavo: [par.]-2[par.]8, A-X8 The Tudor Cicero I. Cicero in Early Modern England:English schoolboys of the 16th century were required to write ?themes?, a type of essay, usually on a moral topic. For this exercise, ?it was acknowledged that there was no substitute for studying the writings of ancient authors, above all Cicero, who, as always (in humanist eyes), provided benchmarks for technique and moral teaching in one package. The [Ciceronian] text most often recommended and studied in school was ?De Officiis?, often referred to in England as ?the Offices? of ?the Duties? At one level, this comprised three books of moral advice written specifically for his son, Marcus, then a student at Athens, on the behavior appropriate to his position and on the duties of a Roman gentleman. But at another, Cicero was writing a work of practical ethics in which he betrayed his concern with the social and political ambiguities of his age, and the difficulty of taking moral decisions when honorable conduct clashed with beneficial or expedient action. While schoolmasters focused on the first level, theorists and thoughtful adults looked more at the second. As a result, this became one of the most frequently reprinted classical works in early modern England.?The bibliographical history of the ?De Officiis? is unusual in that at first there were more bilingual editions in Latin and English than in Latin alone. There was the version by Robert Wittington, publisher of many grammars in the 1510s, including ?the thre books of Tullyes offyces? in 1534 and 1540. This translation was criticized by Nicholas Grimald in his ?Marcus Tullius Ciceroes thre bokes of duties?, which first appeared in English in 1556 but ran through seven English/Latin editions from 1558 [the edition offered here] to ca. 1600 ?Grimald was highly regarded as a humanist scholar in his own day, not only for his Latin poems and plays, but also for his translations, paraphrases, and commentaries on a number of classical and humanist texts. Though closely associated with reformers under Edward VI, Grimald dedicated his ?Duties? to the Marian diplomat Bishop Thomas Thirleby, explaining that he himself had read Cicero?s text five times, noting new points each time, and had become so convinced that nothing indicated ?the pathway to all virtue? better, ?only Scripture excepted?, that he wanted it to be available to more than just the best-educated reader.?(Ian Green, Humanism and Protestantism in Early Modern England, pp. 201-203 and ff.)II. Cicero and the ?De Officiis?:"To have his program of moral philosophy accepted, Cicero needed to overcome much resistance. Roman culture was traditionally averse to philosophical, speculative thought, in which it saw an undue avoidance of duties towards the state and the community. The task Cicero took on was precisely that of demonstrating how, in profoundly altered times, the performance of those duties was not possible unless the philosophical thought of the Greeks had first been absorbed and reflected upon. In Panaetius, who had been able to furnish the Roman aristocrats with a model of life firmly rooted in their national usages, he was able to find a stable point of reference for a discourse that could move easily between theoretical thought and the enunciation of precepts valid for everyday life. "The three books into which the ?De Officiis? is divided deal, respectively, with the honorable, the useful, and the conflict between them. For the first two books the source is the treatise ?On Duty? (Peri tou Kathekontos) by Panaetius of Rhodes; the third is a rather eclectic compilation from various sources. Panaetuis, who had been part of the circle of Scipio Aemilianus, had given Stoic doctrine a markedly aristocratic stamp. It is likely that the intended audience for his treatise was the Roman governing classes. He tried to free the doctrine from its rough, plebeian features and especially to soften its moral rigidity, so as to render it practic
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Chiliades Adagiorvm: Opvs Integrum Et Perfectum D. Erasmi Roterodami, locupletatum & recognitum, quem admodum in extremis conatibus autori uisum est ; Acceßit indicibus antiquis in hac impreßione nouus & tertius .

Erasmus, Desiderius (ca. 1466-1536) Folio: [88], 3-874, [1] pp. A-d6, e8, f-g6, A-Z6, Aa-Zz6, Aaa-Zzz6, Aaaa-Dddd6 (last leaf is blank.) ?Friends hold all things in common?A Truly Handsome Copy of Erasmus? ?Thousands of Adages? A very rare Cologne edition of Erasmus? beloved and extraordinarily influential ?Adages?, first conceived as a collection of proverbial sayings drawn from the Latin authors of antiquity elucidated for the use of those who aspired to write an elegant Latin style. In its first incarnation, the ?Adagia? consisted of about eight hundred proverbs. The present version, Erasmus’ "Adagia Chiliades" (?Thousands of Adages?) is more than just a vastly expanded edition of that first enterprise:"A glance at its composition reveals that the ?Adagia Chiliades? was in fact -as well as in name- a new book, and that Greek scholarship was largely responsible for the difference. Instead of 818 adages there were 3,260. Of those, about four-fifths were either new or substantially altered in form. And 2,734 contained Greek passages of two to six lines or more in length.?(Renaissance Humanism, vol. 2, pages 232-233). ?In the dedication Erasmus pointed out the profit an author may derive, both in ornamenting his style and in strengthening his argumentation, from having at his disposal a good supply of sentences hallowed by their antiquity. He proposes to offer such a help to his readers. What he actually gave was much more. He familiarized a much wider circle than the earlier humanists had reached with the spirit of antiquity.?Prior to the ?Adages?, the humanists had, to some extent, monopolized the treasures of classic culture, in order to parade their knowledge of which the multitude remained destitute, and so to become strange prodigies of learning and elegance. With his irresistible need of teaching and his sincere love for humanity and its general culture, Erasmus introduced the classic spirit, in so far as it could be reflected in the soul of a sixteenth-century Christian, among the people. Erasmus made current the classic spirit. Humanism ceased to be the exclusive privilege of a few. According to Beatus Rhenanus he had been reproached by some humanists, when about to publish the ‘Adagia’, for divulging the mysteries of their craft. But he desired that the book of antiquity should be open to all." (Huizinga, p. 39-40) Van der Haeghen I, 4; Bezzel, 83; VD16 E 1944 A very fine copy bound in contemporary pigskin over beveled wooden boards, tooled in blind. The clasps lacking, some scuffing and soiling to lower board, otherwise a very nice binding. Internally a beautiful copy with the lightest of occasional soiling. Gyminus? fine hippocamp device appears on the title.
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Poems, (&c.) on Several Occasions: with Valentinian: a Tragedy. Written by the Right Honourable John late Earl of Rochester.

Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, John. (1648-80) Octavo: A8, a8, B-R8. [12], xv, [1], 154, [14], 369-449, 449-462, [1] pp. A4, chi2, *8, B-C8, D8 (±D3,D7) E-L8, 2A4, 2B-2G8. The Libertine This is the first authentic edition of Rochester?s poems. The volume was edited by Thomas Rymer who has provided a critical preface, additions, and amendments to correct the pirated editions that had appeared in 1680 and 1685. This is the first edition to include Rochester?s tragedy ?Valentinian.??During Rochester?s lifetime only a few of his writings were printed as broadsides or in miscellanies, but many of his works were known widely from manuscript copies, a considerable number of which seem to have existed? In February of 1690/91, Jacob Tonson, the most reputable publisher of the day, produced a volume entitled ?Poems On Several Occasions.? The appearance of the author?s name and title on the title page is significant. It may indicate that this edition was produced with the approval of the Earl?s family and friends, and it is possible that they may have intervened to prevent the publication of Saunders?s projected edition [license obtained from the Stationer?s Company by Saunders in November of 1690, no edition was ever produced]. Tonson?s edition is introduced by a laudatory preface written by Thomas Rymer, which states that the book contains ?such Pieces only, as may be receiv?d in a vertuous Court? and is therefore to be regarded only as a selection of Rochester?s writings. Nevertheless it contains, in addition to twenty-three genuine poems that had appeared in the [pirated] Antwerp editions of 1680, sixteen others, including some of Rochester?s best lyrics. No spurious material seems to have been admitted to this collection, but there is a possibility that salacious passages may have been toned down to suit the taste of a ?virtuous Court.???[Wilmot] is one of these English poets who deserve to be called ?great? as daring and original explorers of reality; his place is with such memorable spiritual adventurers as Marlowe, Blake, Byron, Wilfred Owen and D. H. Lawrence. Like Byron and Lawrence, he was denounced as licentious, because he was a devastating critic of conventional morality. Alone among the English poets of his day, he perceived the full significance of the intellectual and spiritual crisis of that age. His poetry expresses individual experience in a way that no other poetry does till the time of Blake. It makes us feel what it was like to live in a world which had been suddenly transformed by the scientists into a vast machine governed by mathematical laws, where God has become a remote first cause and man an insignificant ?reas?ning Engine.? [See ?A Satyr Against Mankind] In his time there was beginning the great Augustan attempt to found a new orthodoxy on the Cartesian-Newtonian world-picture, a civilized city of good taste, common sense and reason. Rochester?s achievement was to reject this new orthodoxy at the very outset. He made three attempts to solve the problem of man?s position in the new mathematical universe. The first was the adoption of the ideal of the purely aesthetic hero, the ?Strephon? of his lyrics and the brilliant and fascinating Dorimant of Etherege?s comedy. It was a purely selfish ideal of the ethical hero, the disillusioned and penetrating observer of the satires. This ideal was related to truth, but its relationship was purely negative. The third was the ideal of the religious hero, who bore a positive relation to truth. This was the hero who rejected the ?Fools-Coat? of the world and lived by an absolute passion for reality. In his short life Rochester may be said to have anticipated the Augustan Age and the Romantic Movement and passed beyond both. In the history of English thought his poetry is an event of the highest significance. Much of it remains alive in its own right in the twentieth century, because it is what D.H. Lawrence called ?poetry of this immediate present, instant poetry ? the soul and the mind and body surging at once, nothi
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Aula. Dialogus.

Hutten, Ulrich von (1488-1523) Quarto: [23] ff. A-E4, F4 (lacking final blank leaf F4) Against the Unchristian Vices of Court Life Hutten?s famous satire on courtly life. It is dedicated to Heinrich Stromer von Auerbach, court physician of the Mainz Elector. At the end is a verse ?Prognosticon ad annum. M.D.XVI. ad Leonem .X. Pont. Max.? (Hutten?s warning that if Leo X engaged in war with the Emperor Maximilian, Italy would be destroyed) and a publisher?s advertisement of Hutten?s ?Ebrietatis laus? (in praise of drunkenness.) ?Ulrich Von Hutten (1488-1523) was an important German humanist, neo-Latin poet, and political publicist in the service of the Reformation. Born into a family of imperial knights in Steckelberg castle in Franconia, Hutten entered the school of the Benedictine abbey in nearby Fulda in 1499. Against the will of his parents he left that school in 1505 and spent the following six years at the universities of Mainz, Cologne, Erfurt, Frankfurt an der Oder, Leipzig, Greifswald, and Rostock, where he became part of the broad humanist circle??On his way to Italy to study law he visited Joachim Vadian in Vienna and other humanists in the circle of the Emperor Maximilian. He then turned from personal literary interests to political matters. After studying at the universities of Pavia and Bologna and serving briefly in the army of Maximilian, Hutten returned to Germany in 1514. There he met Erasmus, who expected much of the young poet and who dedicated his epistolary biography of Thomas More to the young aristocrat? During his second stay in Italy (1515-17) he wrote a series of epigrams denouncing not only the enemies of the Emperor Maximilian-the French and the Venetians-but also Pope Julius II. ?On his return from Italy Hutten was crowned poet laureate by Maximilian and entered the service of Albert of Brandenburg, archbishop of Mainz, as councilor; in four dialogues Hutten nonetheless castigated not only the luxury and moral excess of the papal court and the concept of celibacy but also Rome?s fiscal exploitation of the German nation.?Despite his antipapal stance, Hutten initially viewed the controversy following Luther?s postings of the Ninety-five Theses in Wittenberg as a monk?s squabble and a welcome rift among his opponents. It was only after two years of virtually ignoring Luther, after the Leipzig Disputation of June-July 1519, that Hutten began to consider himself as an ally. Although Luther?s opposition to Rome was rooted primarily in religious-theological concerns and Hutten?s was prompted by political-national aspirations, the two men exercised considerable influence on each other.?In 1520 Hutten embarked on a feverish campaign in which he challenged the Emperor, the German nobility, the princes, the cities and the general reader to take up the fight against Rome, if necessary, with arms. During the Diet of Worms he, next to Luther became the most prominent representative of the antipapal party in Germany. Realizing in the wake of the Diet that a general uprising would not occur, Hutten launched the so-called ?Priests? War? in the hope that it would provide the spark that would ignite the German powder keg. In 1522, having lost the protection of Sickingen, Hutten fled to Basel and then, in 1523, to Zurich, where he died, alone, on 29 August of Syphilis? (Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation)Hutten?s ?Aula?:?The moral dilemma posed by court life was acute for university graduates who found themselves faced with the advancement potential offered by the court and the threat of damnation implicit in its many vices. The challenge to lead a life in the imitatio Christi tradition lay not only in the display of wealth in court life but also in the mainly secular ends served by court activities. ?The critique of Hutten, emphasizing his literary intentions in using fictions and satire, seems to ignore the fact that his criticisms are drawn from personal experiences. Recognizing the potential for misinterpretation, however, Hutten sought to d
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Satyricon, Cum Fragmento nuper Tragurii reperto. Accedunt diversorum Poetarum Lusus in Priapum, Pervigilium Veneris, Ausonii cento nuptialis, Cupido crucifixus, Epistolae de Cleopatra, & alia nonnulla. Omnia Commentariis, & Notis Doctorum Virorum illustrata. Concinnante Michaele Hadrianide. [With] Integrum Titi Petronii Arbitri Fragmentum, Ex antiquo codice Traguriensi Romae exscriptum; cum Apologia Marini Statilii I.V.D.

Petronius Arbiter, Titus (d. 66 A.D.) Octavo: I. *8 (-*1, blank), **8, ***2, A-Z8, Aa-Oo8, Pp4, Aaa-Lll8; II. *4, A-F8, G4 (lacking blank leaf G4) With an added, engraved title page by Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708). The first integral printing of all the extant fragments of Petronius, including the?Dinner of Trimalchio? Michael Hadrianides? 1669 edition of Petronius is the first to incorporate the ?Fragmentum? discovered in Trau, Dalmatia, which contained the hitherto unknown text of the ?Cena Trimalchionis? and is also "the first edition to contain all the fragments of the novel that we currently possess? This copy is bound together with the ?often lacking- 1670 edition of the ?Fragmentum?, which prints the text as it appeared in the manuscript, here edited by Johannes Lucius, with the Apologia of Marino Statileo, who discovered the manuscript in Dalmatia."The story of Petronius? partial rescue during the Renaissance is full of twists and ironies; Petronius himself would have enjoyed it. He was saved from oblivion by Poggio Bracciolini?s discovery, in 1420 in Cologne, of a manuscript containing Carolingian excerpts written continuously. This version, which favored verse and dialogue over description and narration and attempted to repress the novel?s exuberant homosexuality, formed the basis of the editio princeps, published in Milan in 1482. It was not until the sixteenth century that scholars doubled the amount of text available. The first expanded edition, the editio Tornaesiana, was published in Lyon in 1575 but did not contain the still unknown ?Dinner of Trimalchio? The ?Cena? had been copied for Poggio in 1423 in Florence, but then vanished; the text was not rediscovered until almost a century later, by Marino Statileo in Trogir in Dalmatia, and was not published until 1664.? (Conte)It is Poggio?s copy, which disappeared while on loan to Niccolo Niccoli, and not the original Cologne manuscript, that reappeared in Dalmatia around 1650. It?s publication ?in a very incorrect state? in 1664 ?immediately gave rise to a fierce controversy, in which the most learned men of that day took a share, one party receiving it without suspicion as a genuine relic of antiquity, while their opponents, with great vehemence, contended that it was spurious. The strife was not quelled until the year 1669, when the MS. was dispatched from the Library of the proprietor, Nicolaus Cippius, at Traun, to Rome, where, having been narrowly scrutinized by the most competent judges, it was finally pronounced to be at least three hundred years old, and, since no forgery of such anature could have been executed at that epoch, the skeptics were compelled reluctantly to admit that their doubts were ill founded.?(Allison) Schmeling & Stuckley, Bibilography of Petronius, 71 & 78; Gaselee (Bibliography of Petronius), 49 & 51; Schweiger II p.723; Brunet IV 574; Graesse Vol 5 p. 239; Dibdin (4th ed.) Vol II, p. 276. Literature: See M.S. Smith?s 1975 Oxford edition of the ?Cena Trimalchionis?, pp. xxii-xxiii and xxxvi; See also Alfred R. Allinson?s introduction to his translation of the ?Satyricon.? Bound in contemporary stiff vellum. A nice copy with generous margins. Both title pages bear Blaeu?s device.
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An Authentic Detail of Particulars relative to the Late Duchess of Kingston. A New Edition.

Chudleigh, Elizabeth (c. 1720-1788)] Octavo: . pp. [ii], ii, 174, [18]. Collation: [A]2, B-Z4, A2, [?]4, [??]4. With an added engraved frontispiece of the Duchess, with breasts exposed "as she appeared at the Venetian Ambassador’s Ball in Somerset House" (by Chesham after Gainsborough). The Scandalous Life of Elizabeth ChudleighA Very Fine copy of the First Edition A fascinating, contemporaray biography of the courtier and bigamist Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston, granddaughter of the poet Mary Chudleigh (1656-1710), from whom ?she seemed to have inherited no notable literary tastes or talents?(Rizzo) Elizabeth was notorious for her sexual escapades, daring, and profligacy. She studiously cultivated this image, referring to herself (in the third person) thus: ?She was both wasteful and penurious; the most enormous sums were expended to gratify her love of display, at the same time that she refused to incur some trifling necessary expense in her household? The lady was exacting, vain, and violent almost to fury? raised to the highest rank a subject could attain, [she] became only the more arrogant and capricious.?(Memoirs)As Betty Rizzo has demonstrated, Chudleigh modeled her behavior on some of the most scandalous women in the novels of the eighteenth-century.?Elizabeth Chudleigh?s devastatingly triumphant and destructive career is probably best understood as inspired by the careers of the imperious court vixens in the pages of Delariviere Manley so it is not surprising that her initial courtship and subsequent abuse of her companions follow the pattern of the Duchess of Cleveland?s in ?The Adventure of Rivella.? The duchess was demonstrably Chudleigh?s model. For Chudleigh, as for her close contemporaries Elizabeth Montagu and Frances Greville, there were both older Restoration models and newer models of sensibility to choose from and to combine, and Chudleigh?s choice was absolute. She was neither a brilliant intelligence nor a reader but she had clearly very early got the ?New Atlantis? (1709) by heart. The models in the works of Manley of powerful, profligate, passionate, and willful women impelled the girl, already beautiful, irresistibly charming, passionate, and willful into both profligacy and power. For Chudleigh the Restoration court ideology about women still worked when at twenty (in about 1740) she arrived at the court of the Prince of Wales. When in 1776 at fifty-six she was tried for bigamy, her assumptions had become outré, her self-conducted defense failed, and she escaped burning in the hand only because her despised husband had succeeded to an earldom. She had to flee England forever.?To attempt to exculpate Chudleigh would be fruitless, for she often deliberately behaved like a monster. Her generosity, frequently noted by herself and her beneficiaries, was directed not toward worthy, needy objects but toward those who best flattered and served her. Her passage through the world did not render it a better place.?(Betty Rizzo, Companions Without Vows, ch. 4, Elizabeth Chudleigh and her maids of honor, p. 61 ff.)The scandal that led to her flight from England in 1777 was many years in the making. In 1744 Chudleigh secretly married Augustus John Hervey. This secrecy allowed her to remain at court. In 1749, after the birth and death of their infant son, and in the face of Elizabeth?s unfaithfulness, Hervey ?severed all relations with her? When Hervey seemed to be on the cusp of gaining his ailing brother?s earldom, Elizabeth confessed her marriage to the dowager of Wales and had her marriage officially recorded. In 1768, Hervey sought a divorce in order to marry another. This resulted in a court case in which the marriage was ruled not to have taken place.In 1769 she married the Duke of Kingston. When he died in 1773, his will stipulated that Elizabeth must remain a widow in order to receive the duke?s income and estates. Evelyn Meadows, the duke?s heir, disputed the will and had Elizabeth tried for bigamy. Elizabeth?s trial took place thr
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P. Virgilii Maronis Opera interpretatione et notis illustravit Carolus Ruaeus Soc. Iesu? ad usum Serenissimi Delphini. Editio Secunda

Vergilius Maro, Publius (70-19 B.C.) Quarto: [xxvi], 864, [clxxxviii] pp. Signatures: a4, e4, i4, õ1, A-5Q4, a-z4, [2d]a4 (lacking blank 2G4). With an added engraved frontispiece. A pleasing copy of the Delphin Virgil, edited by the great Jesuit orator and classicist Charles de la Rue (Carolus Ruaeus) (1643-1725). The ?Delphin Classics? were dedicated to Louis de France, ?le Grand Dauphin? (1661-1711). The series was the work of thirty-nine scholars and was edited by Pierre-Daniel Huet, who was working with Jacques Bousset, tutor to the Dauphin. Schweiger 1170-1171. A very fine copy, bound in contemporary mottled calfskin, the spine elaborately and richly tooled in gold. The spine is separated into compartments by raised sewing supports. The second compartment bears a large red morocco label beautifully tooled in Roman capitals: ?RUAEI VIRGILIUS? The boards are framed by two decorative rules. The binding is in excellent condition with only light wear, the corners lightly bumped. Internally, the text is in very good condition, with occasional light foxing and toning. There is a small dampstain in the gutter in the first two signatures of the Aeneid. The engraved frontispiece, with a central scene showing Arion and the dolphin (an allusion to the Dauphin) and a medallion portrait of Vergil, is just a trifle foxed. Engraved vignettes introduce the Bucolics, Georgics & Aeneid. SECOND EDITION of the Delphin Vergil; this issue was printed ?Ex Typographia David Roger 1689.?.
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Ephemerides motuum caelestium ex anno 1775 in annum 1786 ad meridianum Bononiae es Halleii tabulis supputatae.

Zanotti, Eustachio (1709-1782) Quarto: VII, 384. With an engraved frontispiece, engraved title vignette, and 3 folding engraved plates. In 1750 Zanotti produced a volume covering 1751-1762. In 1762 he published another volume for the years 1763-1774. This volume, for 1775-1786 was the last published in Zanotti?s lifetime. In 1786, his successor at the observatory, Petronio Mateucci, published a final volume for 1787-1798.Like the astronomer Eustachio Manfredi, his godfather, Zanotti belonged to a prominent family distinguished in the arts, letters, and sciences. The son of Gian Pietro Zanotti and Costanza Gambari, he was educated by the Jesuits and entered the University of Bologna, becoming Manfredi?s assistant at the Institute of Sciences in 1729. He graduated in philosophy in 1730 and obtained his first university post, as reader in mechanics at Bologna, in 1738, after presenting his trial lecture on the Newtonian theory of light. The following year he succeeded Manfredi as director of the Institute observatory, a post to which he dedicated himself almost exclusively for the next forty years, never marrying and declining all offers from other universities. He began teaching hydraulics at the university in 1760, having been requested by the government to supervise works on rivers and waterways. His publications in this field include a work on the characteristics of riverbeds near the sea (1760) that remained in print for almost a century. Zanotti wrote the last part of Manfredi?s Elementi della geometria, ?according to the method of indivisibles?; and his lucid and informative Trattato teorico?pratico di prospettiva (1766) was intended for painters as well as mathematicians.Zanotti established a reputation as an astronomer even before Manfredi?s death, through the discovery of two comets, to the second of which (1739) he attributed a parabolic orbit. In 1741, under his direction, the new instruments that Manfredi had ordered from Sisson?s were installed at the Bologna observatory: a mural quadrant 1.2 meters in radius and a transit instrument with a focal length of about one meter. In 1780 he added a movable equatorial telescope made by Dollond.With the acquisition of Sisson?s instruments, Zanotti?s observatory became one of the finest in Europe. In 1748 and 1749, with his assistants G. Brunelli and Petronio Matteucci, he carried out repeated observations of the sun and planets, and complied a catalog of 447 stars, all but thirty?three of them within the Zodiac. The work was published with additions in 1750 as an appendix to the new edition of Manfredi?s introductory volume to his ephemerides. Zanotti continued to publish the ephemerides with scrupulous care; three volumes covered the period 1751-1774, and a fourth was published posthumously by Matteucci in 1786.Zanotti?s principal observations and descriptions, including some on occultations of stars by the moon, concern six comets (1737, 1739, 1742, 1743-1744, Halley?s comet of 1758, and 1769), four lunar eclipses (December 1739, January 1740, November 1745, June 1750), three solar eclipses (August 1738, July 1748, January 1750), the aurora borealis (December 1737, March 1739), and transits of Mercury (1743, 1753) and of Venus (1751) on the sun.In 1750 Zanotti was invited by the Paris Academy of Sciences to participate in a major international research project, the main purpose of which was to measure the lunar parallax. His observations provided the program with some of its most accurate results.Zanotti?s accomplishments also included the restoration in 1776 of Gian Domenico Cassini?s sundial in the church of San Petronio. The displaced perforated roofing slab forming the gnomon was raised slightly, restoring the instrument to its original height. The old deformed iron ship representing the meridian was removed and a solid foundation was laid as a base for new level marble slabs with the new brass meridian strip. Accurate geodetic and topographic measurements made in 1904 and 1925 have verified that th