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Lengthy autograph letter from Ann McDonald to her brother and sister in Scotland.

Lengthy autograph letter from Ann McDonald to her brother and sister in Scotland.

SYDNEY HERALD] MCDONALD, Ann ALS, single-sheet 224 x 370 mm, folded to letter-size 4pp (one in cross hatch), wove paper, stamped with rare oval postal handstamp in black only in use for six months. From Ann McDonald, sister of prominent printer and Colonial publisher of the Sydney Herald William McGarvie, to her sister and brother-in-law in Scotland. Ann’s unaffected style makes much of her prosperous life in Sydney. Along with ‘four new muslane frocks’, she has ‘eleven pounds ten in the Savings Bank’ but ‘you need not tell this to every one’. Her affluence may well be due to the return-to-prosperity of her brother, William McGarvie. Following his brother John to Sydney 1828 McGarvie ran the stationery warehouse owned by the famous printer, Robert Howe. Then, in 1831, along with two others, McGarvie purchased a printing press and set up the Sydney Herald. After six issues he sold his shares to his partners and briefly returned to Scotland. By 1832 he was back in Sydney employed by Robert Howe’s widow, Ann. He did so well that by the date of this letter he had virtually retired, devoting most of his time to building his estate, Mount Pleasant, at Port Macquarie. From 1830 the penal settlement of Port Macquarie had opened to free settlers who took advantage of area’s abundant natural resources.Ann’s husband James McDonald is also in Port Macquarie assisting in building a house for ‘Captain Robinson’ and even though the land had ‘become very Deare as a greate manay is turning farmeres.’ Ann refers to the ship the Forth that was bound for Manilla then disappeared: she had dined aboard before the ship left Sydney, and it carried a box sent from Mrs McDonald to her family. The Forth had left Sydney in February, 1835 and had made two previous voyages to Port Jackson from Ireland, carrying convicts and returning each time with cargos of merchandise.In this letter, with its charming misspellings, Ann may have hoped to entice her distant sister to join the family and be ‘happy in this land of exile’ : a lively invitation to an emergent free society. Small loss from the seal being removed (no text-loss), otherwise very good.
Manuscript warrant signed by George IV for transportation of Joseph Hunt [together with] Account of The Murder of the Late William Weare

Manuscript warrant signed by George IV for transportation of Joseph Hunt [together with] Account of The Murder of the Late William Weare, London, 1824

HUNT, Joseph] GEORGE IV [and] George Henry JONES Single sheet measuring 350 x 200mm [and] octavo, 344pp, frontispiece, 2 folding plans, three illustrations; modern cloth. The trial of Joseph Hunt (1795-1861), John Thurtell (1794-1824) and William Probert for the brutal murder of William Weare, a London solicitor, over a gambling debt in 1824 was a public sensation. It was a crime that so excited the public imagination that Ferguson records 17 titles related to it in 1824. It attracted comment by the essayist Babington Macaulay and used variously in the work of Sir Walter Scott, William Hazllitt and Robert Louis Stevenson. Thurtell, an amateur boxer and former Royal Marine was executed, Probert, who had turned King’s evidence was granted his freedom, but Hunt’s sentence was commuted to transportation to New South Wales. He was supposedly killed in the quelling of an insurrection on the convict-ship Marquis of Huntly. However in Reminiscences of thirty years’ residence in New South Wales and Victoria (1863) Sir Robert Therry who was present at the trial recounts:"[Hunt’s] conduct in the colony was correct and even meritorious. So unobtrusive and humble was his demeanour, as if every moment he was abashed and sensible of the crime he had committed, that he was not even once annoyed or taunted with a reference to it. For the last twenty years he held the petty office of Court-Keeper of the Assize Court at Bathurst, and by his respectful demeanour and general good conduct enjoyed the favourable opinion of all who came in contact with him." Earlier, James O’Connell recalls Hunt’s amateur theatrical talent at the Emu Plains theatre "He was an excellent ballad singer, and this accomplishment procured him the temporary alleviation of his sentence" (A residence of eleven years in New Holland, 1836): all in all a remarkable rehabilitation.The warrant is sold with an account of the murder by George Jones: a famous account of the London underworld and the seedy nature of amateur boxing.
Promissory note to Captain Joseph James signed by G. Blaxcell for £250

Promissory note to Captain Joseph James signed by G. Blaxcell for £250, and accompanying government document signed by Ellis Bent, Judge Advocate

BLAXCELL, Garnham Quarto, two-leaf document printed on one side of the first leaf and completed in manuscript, with manuscript promissory note on the second leaf; with another ms. note on a smaller separate sheet. A pair of rare early financial documents, relating to a debt incurred by Garnham Blaxcell to Captain Joseph James. The documents give an indication as to how chaotic the financial workings of the colony were before the establishment of the Bank of New South Wales in 1817. Not only was there no bank from which to apply for proper secured loans, but the coinage in circulation was of such an array – the most commonly used being the Spanish dollar – that it was necessary to stipulate the currency for repayment: "I promise to pay to Captain J. James, or order, the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds sterling in good Government Bills".The fact that the loan remained unpaid by 16 August 1813, some eleven months after it was due, is probably testimony to the financial straits in which Blaxcell often found himself, and which eventually led to his secret departure from Australia in 1817.Blaxcell had arrived in Sydney in 1802, operating as a trader, then a magistrate, and for a time the colony’s only auctioneer, eventually becoming one of Sydney’s richest merchants, owning several properties in the town, as well as trading vessels. Macquarie awarded him the contract to build the General Hospital with d’Arcy Wentworth and Alexander Riley. He took an active part in the Bligh rebellion, and was one of the committee that examined the governor’s papers after his arrest. During the interregnum he was appointed a magistrate. Over-ambitious ventures, however, led to his undoing. As early as 1809 unsuccessful speculation in trading had obliged him to assign his Drainwell estate to Surgeon Thomas Jamison. In 1810 he became further involved in debts to John Macarthur and other leading colonists, and by 1812 he was unable to meet liabilities for import duties.In addition to the original manuscript promissory note, there is a notice of demand for repayment. This appears on a printed form prepared for use by the Judge Advocate, Ellis Bent, and his clerk James Foster. The printed form used here (on paper bearing an 1810 watermark) would have been prepared by George Howe, the colony’s first printer. Any printing from this early period is of notable rarity. Provenance: Private collection (Sydney). Water-stain on right-hand side of sheet but in good original condition.
Apprenticeship indenture between Samuel Marsden

Apprenticeship indenture between Samuel Marsden, John Palmer, John Harris, Thomas Bowden of the Male Orphan Institution and Charles Gregory, an orphan

MARSDEN, Rev. Samuel, and others Folio, one leaf; printed form completed in manuscript on paper. An indenture assigning the orphan Charles Gregory to the care of Thomas Bowden as apprentice. The nature of the apprenticeship was specified as "the art and mystery of a Tailor". Thomas Bowden (1778-1834), named here as Master of the Male Orphan Institution, was invited to go to New South Wales by Samuel Marsden. His salary of £100, made him the highest paid teacher in the colony when he arrived in January 1812. He was noted for his religious and philanthropic zeal, being a founder of the Benevolent Society. The Male Orphan Institution was established in the buildings vacated when the Female Orphan School moved to Parramatta. Bowden drew up the rules and was appointed master. Initially his school was a great success. particularly the apprenticeship system for older boys. However in 1821 all government schools were reorganised on the Anglican system, and Bowden was compelled to comply. When the school was moved to Cabramatta in 1824, Bowden lost all interest and drowned his sorrows in alcohol. He was dismissed in 1825.Charles Gregory (1807-1866) arrived in Sydney with his convict mother, Henrietta,and three siblings in 1814. Their father Edward left Sydney in 1816 and on the death of their mother in 1819, the three boys were sent to the Male Orphan Institution. In October 1823 each Gregory boy received £15 from the sale of their parent’s assets, which they would receive when they turned twenty one and their indenture was completed. In 1828 Charles was married and living in Castlereagh St, Sydney where he employed several tailors. Eventually the family moved to Queensland, where he died in 1866. His younger brother, Edward became a bootmaker and the father of the cricketer Dave Gregory who was captain for the first three recognised Test matches between Australia and England (1877-79).
Land Grant of one acre and twenty one perches fronting Macquarie

Land Grant of one acre and twenty one perches fronting Macquarie, Antill and Davey Streets in Hobart to William Sorell

ARTHUR, Colonel George Folded parchment; 320 x 400 mm, folded lower edge secured with green ribbon in two places. Signed by George Arthur as Lieutenant-Governor and John Burnett as Colonial Secretary; annotated on the reverse "Inscribed and recorded in the Supreme Court of Van Diemen’s Land this twenty-ninth day of November One Thousand Eight hundred and Thirty two." William Sorrell (1800-1860), was appointed in 1824 as the first Registrar of the Supreme Court of Van Diemen’s Land on the recommendation of his father, William Sorrell (1795-1848), the Lieutenant-Governor from 1816. Sorell (senior) had infamously departed Van Diemen’s Land in 1824 after the scandal surrounding his relationship with the wife of an army officer who sued him and won 3000 pounds damages.His recommendation must have gone some way to soothing the ire of his son, for in 1822, William (junior) had written to Commissioner Bigge stating his determination to go to the colony to assert his claims on his father’s attention in person. To save the lieutenant-governor this embarrassment, Bigge appealed on the son’s behalf to the Colonial Office. There his resentment was appeased and, with the blessing of Earl Bathurst and a recommendation to the notice of Colonel (Sir) George Arthur, Sorrell reached Hobart Town in December 1823. Next month he received 1000 acres (405 ha) of land in the Hamilton district and in 1828 a town allotment. In 1824 he became the first registrar of the New Supreme Court of Van Diemen’s Land. Over the next thirty six years he was appointed to additional posts in the public service. (ADB)This allotment would have affirmed both the status and career of the young William.
Petition of James White and Catherine Boyle to His Excellency John Eardley Wilmot to be married.

Petition of James White and Catherine Boyle to His Excellency John Eardley Wilmot to be married.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND] Manuscript; 385 x 240 mm. Manuscript petition to the recently appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen’s Land, John Eardley Eardley-Wilmot, seeking permission for James White (21) of Bagdad in the District of Pontville, a freeman and Catherine Boyle (22), per the ship Waverly to marry. Following her sentence of seven years for larceny Catherine was transported from Dublin on the arriving in Hobart on the Waverly, in December 1842 (recorded on the petition). Every one of the 149 female convicts who had embarked arrived in good health, a tribute to the care of the surgeon.At the time of the petition, Catherine was in the service of John Davis, an innkeeper of the Brighton Hotel in Pontville. The petition records Catherine’s denomination (Roman Catholic) and that she was "very quiet and orderly". A further manuscript note on April 27 1843 in crosshatch intriguingly records "Mrs Wilmott’s [sic] Misconduct to be ass’d in the Interim’. James White, a freeman, the other petitioner, had been granted 60 acres at Bagdad which lay a few miles from Pontville. The petition records a happy outcome: noting Catherine’s marriage on December 23rd, 1843, with the signature of the Anglican John Burrowes, first Government chaplain to Pontville, Rector of Brighton and in 1843, appointed surrogate of the Diocese by the Bishop, Francis Nixon.John Eardley Eardley-Wilmot (1783-1847), Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen’s Land from 1843 to 1846, was sent to the colony to oversee the implementation of a revised system of convict punishment, the probation system. Unfortunately for Wilmot, the Treasury was destitute of funds, and the colony saturated with unemployed convicts. Wilmot’s economic analysis was acute, but his failure to report concisely on the ‘soundness of the principles, and the wisdom of the [new probation system]’, ensured that he attracted blame for its inevitable failure. In 1847 he was recalled by the Colonial Office, but died in Hobart before he could gather support for a committee of enquiry challenging his dismissal.
Ship-letter carried from Sydney to London

Ship-letter carried from Sydney to London

HMS BATHURST] Manuscript leaf, folded to letter-size, 26 x 20 cms; housed in a quarter morocco solander case. A rare shipboard relic from H.M.S. Bathurst, the vessel in which Phillip Parker King completed his fourth and final Australian coastal survey. King’s Australian coastal voyages, together with Oxley’s expeditions inland, represent the great expansionary undertakings of the Macquarie era. King returned to England in the Bathurst (as does this letter) on 25th September 1822. This folded single sheet is stamped in black "Ship-Letter Plymouth" and London date-stamped in red. Its passage is noted in manuscript: 1823 Riley & Walker Sydney N.S.W. 6 Sept 1822, Rec’d 26 April 1823, and beneath the addressee (the bankers Blanckenhagen & Co) sent "pr H.M.S. Bathurst". Phillip Parker King’s fourth (and final) survey in northern Australia in the Bathurst, a 170 ton sloop, carried a complement of thirty-three, and (in place of Bungaree) King took another Aborigine, Bundell. The Bathurst sailed on 26 May 1821 from Sydney by way of Torres Strait to the north-west coast. After a visit to Mauritius for rest and refreshment the Bathurst resumed the survey of the west coast. On these four voyages King made significant contributions to Australian exploration by charting several islands, investigating the inner geography of many gulfs, and giving the first report of Port Darwin and underpinning his reputation as the British navy’s leading hydrographer. A small rejoined tear at the inner fold.
Pardon for James Browne signed by William IV and Viscount Melbourne with convict mark

Pardon for James Browne signed by William IV and Viscount Melbourne with convict mark

CONVICTS] William IV Bifolium 315 x 198 mm; manuscript with paper; royal wafer seal affixed. A pardon for James Browne, convicted and sentenced to death, for murder in Van Diemen’s Land, conditional on his being transported to Norfolk Island for the term of his natural life; signed by William IV (1765-1837), Viscount Melbourne (1779-1848) and bearing Browne’s convict X mark. Viscount Melbourne was Home Secretary in the Whig government of Earl Grey from 1830 until 1834 which in 1832 passed the Great Reform Act in 1832 abolishing slavery throughout the Empire in 1833. Melbourne became Prime Minister in 1834, and when Victoria ascended the throne in 1837 was her close advisor, tutoring her in the art of politics. The Van Diemen’s Land Supreme Court of Judicature had been instituted separately from the court in New South Wales in 1824. The Royal Letters Patent (dated 4 March 1831) and known as the Charter of Justice provided for the Supreme Court of Van Diemen’s Land a court of record, and consisting of two judges. Although it had to go to London and back for royal assent, this pardon was signed within months of the formation of the independent court. Norfolk Island had been re-established as a penal settlement in 1825 for "twice convicted" men. Convicts, who had committed new crimes carrying the death penalty, were spared the gallows to spend their life on the remote island under the harshest of conditions may well have rued such good fortune.
One Share of Bank Capital Stock. One Hundred Pounds. Registered in the name of John Malcom. Folio 105

One Share of Bank Capital Stock. One Hundred Pounds. Registered in the name of John Malcom. Folio 105

COMMERCIAL BANKING COMPANY Share certificate, printed and completed in manuscript 116 x 190 mm. An early share certificate for bank stock in the Commercial Banking Company of-Sydney established on 24 October 1834, opening for business on 1 November 1834 in a temporary office at 1 Colonnade, Bridge Street, Sydney (now 6 Bridge Street).A notice published in the Sydney Herald of 8 September broadly outlined the aims of the proposed bank: to afford the community at large greater facilities in the transaction of money matters, to discount at least three times a week, to put to better use the unemployed capital then present in the control of the London-based banks, and to assist trading and agricultural interest. On 16 July 1835 the bank commenced business in new premises in George Street near King Street, and the first branches were opened at Maitland, and later at Windsor and Goulburn. The Bank grew to service the expanding pastoral and farming industries of the then Colony of New South Wales. "The immediate success of the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney pointed the way to the future in banking; new modes of lending in cash credits, the importance of deposits attracted by interest as a basis for loans, the function of branch banking." (Butlin, p 241). This proved to be a model that worked: in 1982 the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney merged with the National Bank of Australasia to form National Australia Bank.
Manuscript Land Grant to John Liddiard Nicholas in the District of Bathurst

Manuscript Land Grant to John Liddiard Nicholas in the District of Bathurst

MARSDEN] MACQUARIE, Governor Lachlan Folio; manuscript in ink on vellum, 262 x 445 mm.; with suspended paper seal. An original grant of land made in the year that the road to Bathurst was officially opened. Bathurst was the first settlement to be opened west of the Great Dividing Range following Lawson, Blaxland, and Wentworth’s successful crossing in 1813, and the completion of the road from Emu Plains by William Cox in January 1815 – one of the great achievements of the Macquarie era. In April of that year Macquarie travelled from Sydney over Cox’s Road arriving at the Macquarie River in nine days. He then fixed "a site for the erection of a town at some future period", which he named Bathurst in honour of the Secretary of State for the Colonies.This grant to John Liddiard Nicholas, one of the first to be proclaimed in the area, was for seven hundred acres of land "to be called Biggen Grange". Nicholas (1784-1868) had arrived in Sydney in October 1813. The following year he accompanied Samuel Marsden to New Zealand on his missionary visit on the Active, which resulted in the establishment of the first Christian mission to the Maoris and the first transfer of land to white men. His published account of this expedition (London, 1817) was well received and translated into Dutch and German.One month after this grant Nicholas left the colony to return to England. He sold the land to Samuel Marsden for three hundred pounds. Ironically one of the witnesses to this grant was Macquarie’s secretary, John Thomas Campbell, whose later criticism of Marsden for abuse of office was to cost him two hundred pounds in a civil libel suit. Nicholas was a fervent supporter of Marsden during this very public dispute. The other witness to the grant was Henry Antill, Macquarie’s close friend and aide-de-camp. Antill was among the vice-regal party which opened the road to Bathurst.This splendid grant is complete with Macquarie’s great seal of the colony of New South Wales and bears a fine signature of the Governor. A little dusted but in fine original condition.
Various papers relating to his lease of Biggen Grange

Various papers relating to his lease of Biggen Grange, Bathurst

MARSDEN, Rev. Samuel Collection of 8 documents, ms. in ink on vellum, and ink on paper, various sizes. An interesting collection of original documents pertaining to the Rev. Samuel Marsden and his daughter Elizabeth, and their seven-hundred-acre parcel of land known as ‘Biggen Grange’. The original grant of this land was made in 1815 to John Liddiard Nicholas (see 4504527) and was one of the first to be proclaimed in the Bathurst area, in the year that the road to Bathurst was officially opened.Nicholas (1784-1868) had arrived in Sydney in October 1813. The following year he accompanied Samuel Marsden to New Zealand on his missionary visit on the Active, which resulted in the establishment of the first Christian mission to the Maoris and the first transfer of land to white men. His published account of this expedition (London, 1817) was well received and translated into Dutch and German.One month after this grant was made, Nicholas left the colony to return to England. In 1822 he sold the land to Samuel Marsden for three hundred pounds. The initial lease for a peppercorn rent and subsequent sale to Marsden are documented here in two most attractive Indentures, dated 1 and 2 August 1822, each of which bear the signature and red wax seal of Nicholas. Another Indenture dated 7 May 1862 records the sale of Biggin Grange for seven hundred pounds by Elizabeth Bobart (née Marsden) who had inherited the land from her father.The other documents, including a court copy of the Rev. Samuel Marsden’s will, (‘Probate granted to John Campbell, W.H. Macarthur and William Macarthur. 6 August 1838’); an extract, dated 28 September 1837, from the Register of St. John’s, Parramatta, recording the marriage of Elizabeth Marsden there to its Curate, Henry Hodgkinson Bobart, the Rev. Samuel Marsden officiating; a record of the death of her husband Henry Hodgkinson Bobart, and a mortgage over Biggin Grange to Richardson and Wrench, complete the picture of the ownership of Biggin Grange over a forty year period.
Indenture recording the transfer of land from Samuel Wheeler to Patrick Campbell

Indenture recording the transfer of land from Samuel Wheeler to Patrick Campbell

WHEELER, Samuel and Patrick CAMPBELL Folio, manuscript single leaf bifolium, 315 x 200 mm. A fine early Sydney document recording the lease of 30 acres of land in the Field of Mars (Ryde) from Samuel Wheeler, First Fleet convict and brickmaker, to Patrick Campbell, Master of the vessel Surprize, (the same vessel which sailed on the notorious Second Fleet), then ‘riding in Sydney Cove’. Signed by Campbell and with Wheeler’s mark, and witnessed by John Macarthur as regimental paymaster and inspector of public works. As well, the indenture bears the signatures of the surgeon and magistrate John Harris, and the commissary William Broughton, who on the First Fleet was naval surgeon John White’s servant. At Port Jackson Samuel Wheeler had been put in charge of the brickfields as master brickmaker. In June 1790 Watkin Tench recorded that ‘Wheeler (one of the master brick-makers) with two tile stools and one brick stool, was tasked to make and burn ready for use 30,000 tiles and bricks per month [rising to 40,000 later that year]; he had 21 hands to assist him, who performed every thing; cut wood, dug clay &c. He says that the bricks are such as would be called in England moderately good; and he judges they would have fetched about 24s. per thousand, at Kingston-upon-Thames, (where he resided) in the year 1784: their greatest fault is being too brittle.’ [A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson, 1793, p. 4]. In order to speed construction, in September 1790 a brick and tile yard was established in Parramatta. The brickyard was overseen by Wheeler as master brickmaker, but operated by James Becket, a convict who had been an experienced brickmaker. However, Wheeler had a return stint as a convict, and was sent to Norfolk Island, where he was employed as an overseer. he returned to Port Jackson in March 1793 and granted 30 acres–the subject of this indenture just over a year later.Less is known of Patrick Campbell, the Master of the Surprize. The journey out was eventful. Not only had the Surprize embarked four of the five men who became known as the Scottish Martyrs, she was the subject of an attempted mutiny quashed by Campbell in Rio de Janeiro. It is recorded that by 1799 he became the owner of Wheeler’s grant, departing for Bengal on the Surprize five days after this lease was signed. A remarkable document, with a who’s who of colonial signatures.
A hand-picked and extra-illustrated copy of the atlas of engravings for the official account of the second voyage ("A Voyage towards the South Pole

A hand-picked and extra-illustrated copy of the atlas of engravings for the official account of the second voyage ("A Voyage towards the South Pole, and Round the World")

COOK: SECOND VOYAGE] COOK, James Large folio atlas, with the full complement of 64 charts and plates published to accompany the voyage account and two extras (see below), some folding, the smaller plates mounted to size; in a very good modern quarter calf binding. A remarkable reader ("J.T.") of the official account of Cook’s second voyage in the year of publication has put this atlas volume together, an unusual and very interesting assembly of the engraved plates prepared to illustrate the two text volumes of the official account of Cook’s second voyage, here bound as a folio with the smaller plates extended to size by mounting on plain paper where necessary. The owner notes in ink at the start of the volume that "The Prints in this Volume are all picked impressions which were put by on purpose for me by Boydell who had the printing of them". He has added a page reference above each plate, and has extra-illustrated the volume with "the Chart belonging to Forster’s account of the Voyage, and Bartolozzi’s print of Omiah". The two charts present have both been annotated by "J.T." to graphically illustrate the state of discoveries in the southern hemisphere, with navigators’ tracks in different colours, with detailed explanations, similar on both charts: on the Cook chart: "In this Chart the Coasts which are stained Yellow denote such Countries as have been long well known. Those which are stained Purple denote such Countries as have been partially discovered by former Navigators but have not been lately visited. Those which are stained Green denote such Lands and Islands which having been imperfectly discovered and described by former Adventurers have lately been visited, and their situation more accurately ascertained by modern Navigators. The Coasts stained Green do likewise include all the modern discoveries which are intirely new. NB By modern Navigators I mean such as have sailed on Discovery within these last ten or twelve Years. There being such a variety of tracks marked on this Chart as to occasion some confusion, I have traced the route of Captain Cook in the Resolution (which separated from his Consort) with red, and that of Capt. Furneaux (while separated) with blue and the joint track of both Ships while they sailed in company is marked with a double track of red and blue". The explanation of this complex but very useful scheme is signed J.T. and dated 1777, the year of publication.Nathaniel Dance’s wonderful portrait of the Tahitian Omai included here, stipple-engraved by Bartolozzi (lower part of caption trimmed), adds to the exoticism of the series of engravings prepared for the second voyage. Hodges’ presence as official artist on the voyage resulted also in a famous series of oil-paintings as well as these superb engravings. John Boydell, whom "J.T." commissioned to hand-pick best impressions of the engravings for this volume, was the most important print publisher of his day, and published numerous superb prints associated with voyages including John Webber’s magnificent series on Cook’s third voyage, the Views in the South Seas. Cook had been disappointed with the publication of his first voyage and was determined that the second would not be similarly treated: ‘. "The Journal of my late voyage", he wrote to his friend Commodore Wilson at Great Ayton, "will be published in the course of next winter, and I am to have the sole advantage of sale. It will want those flourishes which Dr Hawkesworth gave the other, but it will be illustrated and ornamented with about sixty copper plates, which I am of opinion, will exceed every thing that has been done in a work of this kind" .’ (Beaglehole). The dramatic illustrations after William Hodges, ‘would have given pleasure to any author’, though they were never in fact seen by Cook, who had embarked on his fatal last voyage by the time they appeared. Provenance: An Eighteenth-century owner "J.T.". In generally very good condition; a couple of the larger engravings reattached to new stubs at the time of binding.
Manuscript Land Grant of 1300 acres in Cabramatta to Captain Edward Abbot[t]

Manuscript Land Grant of 1300 acres in Cabramatta to Captain Edward Abbot[t]

KING, Philip Gidley Folio, single leaf manuscript, 300 x 344 mm, on vellum with original suspended paper seal. A fine land grant with a good example of Philip Gidley King’s signature as the colony’s third governor. King arrived in the colony in 1789 as a second lieutenant; Arthur Phillip acknowledged him "as an officer of merit. whose perseverance may be depended upon" when establishing the convict settlement on Norfolk Island. He stayed on Norfolk Island until 1799, and returned to Sydney on his appointment as governor but this demanding post weakened him. A young, energetic man on his arrival, by his departure in 1807 King was sick and prematurely aged.His first unpleasant job was to sack the preceding governor, John Hunter. Considered an able administrator and held in the highest esteem by men of the calibre of Joseph Banks, Arthur Phillip, Matthew Flinders and Nicholas Baudin, he was complained of by others in the colony for violent tempers. His early hopes faded fast as he became increasingly unsuccessful in his attempts to quell the New South Wales Corps, the notorious military monopoly that controlled trade, particularly in liquor.This grant of land was made to Edward Abbott (1766-1832) who had arrived in Sydney in 1790 as a lieutenant in the New South Wales Corps. He was stationed on the Hawkesbury in 1795 after serving three years at Norfolk Island. Later promoted to captain, Abbott was invalided to England in 1796 but returned to Sydney in 1799 and by 1803 commanded a detachment at Parramatta. It was here on 4 March 1804 that he received warning of the uprising of convicts at Castle Hill and alerted his fellow officers in Sydney. Governor King quickly declared martial law on arriving at Parramatta. In the ensuing struggles Major George Johnston with a force of mostly armed civilians, mounted troopers and some military personnel confronted more than twice as many convict rebels and successfully quelled the uprising, the victory largely due to Abbott’s swift alert. Governor King granted this land to Abbott in acknowledgement. The grant is also signed by the Secretary Garnham Blaxcell. Blaxcell, who arrived in Sydney in 1802, was a trader, a magistrate and for a time the colony’s only auctioneer. Prospering in the early colony he became one of Sydney’s richest merchants owning several properties and merchant ships.
An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island

An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, with the Discoveries which have been made in New South Wales and in the Southern Ocean, since the Publication of Phillip’s Voyage, complied from the Official Papers, including the Jpournals of Governors Phillip and King, and of Lieut. Ball.

HUNTER, John Quarto, with 17 engraved plates, folding maps and charts; a very good copy, a decent size with the often cropped date on the title-page intact, in a modern binding of quarter morocco and marbled boards. First edition of John Hunter’s Journal: a foundation book of Australian coastal exploration which, together with Phillip’s account, gives the first charting of Sydney Harbour and includes an excellent account of their exploration activities in the environs of Sydney Cove. Hunter’s account is a primary source for the early settlement of Norfolk Island, whose first settlement had also been named Sydney (or Sidney) Town in honour of the Home Secretary.Hunter sailed as second captain of HMS Sirius under Phillip for the voyage to Botany Bay. He began his exploration work the day after their arrival, sailing with Phillip and two other officers on a two-day voyage in search of a more suitable place for settlement. To the north of Botany Bay they discovered the full extent of Sydney Harbour, which Hunter described as ‘a large opening, or bay, about three leagues and a half to the northward of Cape Banks’. Hunter continued to survey and explore the Harbour (his detailed chart was published in Phillip’s Voyage in 1789), as well as making numerous trips to Broken Bay and Pittwater, and into the interior along the Hawkesbury River towards the Blue Mountains. He gives detailed accounts of his various forays into the country, particularly his many interactions with the indigenous people. These accounts are characteristically sympathetic and respectful and sometimes – as in the case of caring for a young Aboriginal girl recovering from smallpox – quite moving.Hunter only left for England in late 1791 after an enforced stay of eleven months on Norfolk Island following the shipwreck of the Sirius there. In England he published this account, and was later recalled to New South Wales in February of 1795 to replace Captain William Paterson as governor in September of that year.The engraved plates and maps, many of the latter from original cartography by Hunter, Dawes and Bradley, are very fine. Of particular note is the plate View of the settlement on Sydney Cove, after a sketch by Hunter, which is the earliest depiction of the town of Sydney, while the image A family of New South Wales, after a drawing by Philip Gidley King, was engraved by William Blake: Bernard Smith noted that "there is no finer pictorial expression of the idea of the noble savage in visual art than Blake’s engraving" (European Vision and the South Pacific). Blake began his artistic career as a commercial engraver, having been apprenticed as a 14-year-old in 1772 to the engraver James Basire.
Louis de Freycinet's corrected proof engraving of plate 95 of the Freycinet voyage's Atlas Historique (1826): "Port-Jackson: Vue de l'Eglise de Paramatta [and] Vue de la maison du Gouverneur à Parramatta"

Louis de Freycinet’s corrected proof engraving of plate 95 of the Freycinet voyage’s Atlas Historique (1826): "Port-Jackson: Vue de l’Eglise de Paramatta [and] Vue de la maison du Gouverneur à Parramatta"

FREYCINET VOYAGE: AUSTRALIA] MARCHAIS, Pierre-Antoine, after an unidentified French artist; engraved by Friedrich SCHROEDER Early proof plate before letters and before change in numbering from 94 to 95; manuscript draft captions and attributions in red ink, bold ink note regardng state of the print on one side; plate number corrected in ink. Freycinet’s corrected proofs of two Parramatta views deriving from his 1819 visit to Sydney on the French world voyage of the Uranie. The corrections by Freycinet preparing for the 1826 publication of his official account of the voyage illustrate his very close involvement in the process: here he has changed the plate number, supplied captions in careful red ink capitals, and has written in a bold hand that he doesn’t know whether a version of the engraving has yet been made with captions but he certainly hasn’t seen such a proof. When finally published the caption-titles would be yet further expanded, the first one for example reading "Nouvelle-Hollande, Port Jackson, vue de l’eglise de Parramatta en 1819". For some reason the original artist is not identified, neither here nor when published:, the captions merely acknowledging that both images are based on a "dessin communiqué".The two views depict Parramatta’s architectural highlights in December 1819, St John’s Cathedral and Government House. Although building of St John’s had commenced under Hunter’s governorship in 1797, it only reached the comparative grandeur depicted here shortly before the Freycinet visit when the facade, towers and spires were finished, meaning that this is one of the earliest depictions of the completed cathedral. Old Government House, as it is now known, was depicted a few times in the early period: there are some 1791 sketches by Governor Hunter, it was painted by Brambila on the visit of the Malaspina voyage in 1793, while Evans and Lycett painted watercolours. The visit of the Freycinets was significant for both Freycinet and Macquarie. The inclusion in the Government House image of Rose de Freycinet alongside her husband as they are greeted by Macquarie – or his aide-de camp? – is one of very few such depictions: Rose’s clandestine departure on the three-year voyage was never to be officially acknowledged and she is merely glimpsed in official narratives and images of the expedition, though her presence at such moments was to the great diplomatic benefit of the French voyagers.Louis observed that "The Governor’s residence. looks just like a private country house; it displays. the elegance that the English know so well how to create wherever they are. and which can also be observed in the adjoining garden and park, which are pleasantly laid out". Rose de Freycinet describes going for a walk with Elizabeth Macquarie in the garden, where "We met about 30 native children. educated. at Government expense". She described the "very agreeable air of simple elegance" at the Government Domain and recognised the skill that had gone into creating the gardens: "the situation of Government House at Parramatta lends itself naturally to the adornments that have been made: a crescent-shaped valley with a wide stream flowing at the bottom provides shelter and. views". (Shaping the Domain, Parramatta Park Trust, 2010). Provenance: From the family of Louis de Freycinet.
Louis de Freycinet's corrected proof engraving of plate 82 of the Freycinet voyage's Atlas Historique (1826): "Iles Sandwich"

Louis de Freycinet’s corrected proof engraving of plate 82 of the Freycinet voyage’s Atlas Historique (1826): "Iles Sandwich", a triple-portrait of Hawaiian dignitaries

FREYCINET VOYAGE: HAWAII] PELLION, Alphonse, after, engraved by Adrian MIGNERET Early black-and-white proof engraving before addition of colour; manuscript colour notes in ink, bold ink note at top referring to an original drawing. Freycinet’s annotated proof of Alphonse Pellion’s engraved triple-portrait of Hawaiian dignitaries encountered during the visit of the voyage of the Uranie to the Hawaiian islands in August 1819. The portraits depict, from left to right, "one of the principal chiefs of Oahu"; Kiaïmoukou or "George Cox", the Royal governor of Maui; and "one of Kiaïmoukou’s principal officers". More properly known as George Cox Kahekili Ke’eaumoku II, the governor of Maui had taken the English names of George and Cox to honour, respectively, the king of England and a sea captain who had befriended him. Hawaiians knew him as ‘Pu?u Nui ("Great Pile"). The name refers to the rotting piles of excess goods outside his storehouses. In the true Hawaiian double entendre, the name also accurately described his physique: members of his family were known to be enormous’ (Samuel Kamakau, Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii, 1961).Freycinet has boldly annotated the proof engraving with colour notes in his familiar ink notation. The hat at left needs to be depicted as "chapeau de paille"; Ke’eaumoku’s robe should be "draperies rouge or bleu"; and the officer at right is to have his hair ribbon "bleu clair", his "gilet" black, and his neckerchief to be coloured. Generally for the colours he notes "N.B. pour la couleur des figures consultez le dessin ci-joint". The plate as published follows these colour notes; it appears as plate 82 in the 1825 Atlas Historique of Freycinet’s huge Voyage autour du monde.Such care in preparation of the images for the official published account of the Uranie voyage is typical of the work of Louis de Freycinet. The meetings in 1819 between the French and the Hawaiians were of great importance and to have evidence of the desire for exactness in representation is significant. Provenance: From the family of Louis de Freycinet.
Hortus Spaarn-Bergensis. Enumeratio stirpium quas

Hortus Spaarn-Bergensis. Enumeratio stirpium quas, in villa Spaarn-Berg prope Harlemum, alit Adr. van der Hoop

VRIESE, Willem Hendrik de Octavo, two hand-coloured lithographic plates, manuscript presentation inscription to "Lys" (for Cornelius?) van der Hoop in Salzburg; a fine copy in the original printed green glazed-paper boards. Rare: a superb copy in the original boards with a family manuscript presentation. This small work by the botanist Willem Hendrik de Vriese is a detailed survey of the truly enormous number of exotic plants being grown at the Villa Spaarnberg, the country estate of Adriaan van der Hoop (1778-1854), a wealthy Dutch banker with a passionate interest in exotic botany: the range of his interests is summed up by the two plants depicted on the fine lithographic plates (a Lily from Japan and a "Theophrasta" from Hispaniola).Significantly, van der Hoop and his gardeners had been assiduous in their collection of Australian plants, assembling a remarkable group for such an early date, especially in a continental garden: by our count no fewer than 188 are listed, from grevilleas and banksias through to Gymea Lilies, and even including a scattering of eucalypts and other full-grown trees (full list available on request).Despite its relevance to Australian botany, we can see no record of a copy being held in Australia. It is reasonably well-recorded that the Villa’s gardens were full of plants from the older Dutch colonies, notably southern Africa and the East Indies, but van der Hoop had much larger ambitions: the truly enormous number of exotics that are noticed in the catalogue is testament to the way in which such gardens had developed from being the preserve of a group of influential amateur botanists in the Georgian era (Sir Joseph Banks, Josephine, Dumont de Courset, etc.) to become an aristocratic fashion by the second quarter of the century, as the great and the good competed with each other to cultivate and record the remarkably long reach of their nurseries. Such was van der Hoop’s passion that he commissioned a young botanist called Willem Hendrik de Vriese to prepare this catalogue of the Spaarnberg garden, laid out in the traditional fashion, with particular notice paid to earlier scientific notices and known details of the original localities of the plants, and some additional nursery notes.As was always the case with such catalogues, especially those printed with some pretence to grandeur (such as the inclusion of lithographic plates), the size of the edition would have been very small, with many copies reserved for private presentation. Indeed, this volume has an early presentation inscription in manuscript, presenting the book to one "Lys" (presumably for "Cornelius") van der Hoop in Salzburg: given the informal tone, this inscription would have been written by van der Hoop rather than de Vriese. Provenance: From the van der Hoop family with their inscription.
A Voyage to the South Sea

A Voyage to the South Sea, undertaken by Command of His Majesty, undertaken by Command of His Majesty, for the purpose of conveying the Bread-fruit Tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty’s Ship the Bounty. London, George Nicol, 1792 [including] A narrative of the mutiny, on board his Majesty’s ship Bounty; and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew, in the ship’s boat, from Tofoa, one of the Friendly Islands, to Timor, a Dutch settlement in the East Indies. Written by Lieutenant William Bligh. London, George Nicol, 1790

BLIGH, William Quarto, pp. [x], 1-153, [1, blank]; iv, 88, [1, blank]; 246-264, with a portrait of Bligh and seven plates and charts, some folding; occasional light browning and faint offsetting from the plates and charts (as often), but an outstanding copy in contemporary tree calf. The very rare special issue of Bligh’s two works on the mutiny and voyage of the Bounty. His Narrative of the mutiny, on board his Majesty’s ship Bounty was published quickly in 1790 when he reasoned that to safeguard his reputation he would need his version of events publicly available, and in such a form that he could present copies to the Lords of the Admiralty before the court-martial of the mutineers. Two years later, in 1792, he published his full account of the voyage as A Voyage to the South Sea, which placed the mutiny account within the narrative, reprinting it on pp. 153-246. Recognising that purchasers of the "Mutiny" might feel a little misused, the publisher inserted a note in the "Advertisement" to the full account explaining that "for the accommodation of the purchasers of the Narrative already published, those who desire it, will be supplied with the other parts of the Voyage separate; i.e., the part previous to the mutiny, and the additional account after leaving Timor". This is an example of the rare composite (sometimes described as "advance") issue as advertised, a deliberate separate issue with pp. 154 and 245 of the "Voyage" left blank so that the "Mutiny" narrative follows and precedes the other text as it should, presenting a complete and continuous narrative.Such is the rarity of this special issue that on its few market appearances it has been celebrated: in 1964 Maggs Bros. remarked that ‘we have only handled three copies’ (Voyages and travels IV, item 1402); Ferguson, in 1941, could cite just the Mitchell Library copy while the Addenda adds a copy in the National Library of Australia. It is not described by ESTC. On the market the most recent sale known to Wantrup was that of the Australian collector F. G. Coles in 1965, but subsequently, also in Australia, Rodney Davidson acquired a copy, which was sold in 2005 (Australian Book Auctions, 7 March 2005, lot 111, $39,610). Another copy came onto the market with the Brooke-Hitching collection (Sotheby, 27 March 2014, lot 143, £21,250).As is usual leaf C1 in the "Mutiny" is a cancel with the correct reading ". account to King and country for the misfortune . Provenance: Charles Shaw-Lefevre, first Viscount Eversley (1794-1888), sometime speaker of the House of Commons, with armorial bookplate. Very skilfully rebacked, preserving old spine.
Original drawing of a scene in Mauritius: "Vue prise sur le chemin du Tamarin à l'ile de France"

Original drawing of a scene in Mauritius: "Vue prise sur le chemin du Tamarin à l’ile de France"

BAUDIN VOYAGE] MILBERT, Jacques Gérard Pencil sketch, 135 x 195 mm.; laid down on the original blue-paper mount, signed on the lower left of the mount and captioned. A striking pencil sketch by the Baudin voyage artist Milbert, done in the south-west of Mauritius after he had jumped ship from the Géographe in 1801. Jacques-Gérard Milbert (1766-1840) joined the Baudin expedition as one of the official artists but took advantage of an illness to be left in Port Louis when the ships sailed for New Holland (several of his shipmates commented that the artist had seemed depressed and anxious about the voyage). In a curious twist, Milbert was still in Port Louis when the Géographe returned from Australia in 1803, and rejoined the expedition. Back in France, Milbert was given the task of overseeing the publication of the plates for Péron and Freycinet’s official account (1807-1816), and also wrote his own companion account, the Voyage Pittoresque of 1812, a work of great significance for the natural history of the region, in which he described himself as both a Baudin artist and the "directeur" of engravings.In his book Milbert wrote that during his time on the island he made two long expeditions in the south-east, and was overawed by the rugged wonder of the landscape, particularly in the locality of the present scene, along the small and remote Rivière du Tamarin with its "plusieurs cascades magnifiques." He poetically recounted how in the region one travelled to the sound of the blows of the axes clearing a path through the liana which enveloped the trees, and how many of the larger trees appeared to have been thrown down by nature to serve the weaker and parasitic vegetations, and to nourish them in the otherwise barren earth: as a description of the present scene this could scarcely be bettered. The sketch showcases Milbert’s particular skill in rendering botanical scenes and makes an important addition to the rather slender group of known works by him, particularly relating to his time in the Indian Ocean. Of the three men in the clearing, the seated figure at far left in a hat is likely to be Milbert himself, given that a similar figure with a palette also appears in many of his finished engravings.On an intimate scale and full of botanical detail, this sketch makes a fascinating counterpoint to the great engraved views of his book, most obviously one showing the main waterfall at the nearby "Cascade du Tamarin", but also to several others which show slaves labouring to fell trees and mill logs. Provenance: United States source, believed to derive from the same original source as the Lesueur drawing described at catalogue number 3 and to have been among the archive left in America by Milbert.
HMS Collingwood off Bora Bora

HMS Collingwood off Bora Bora

THOMAS, Robert Strickland (1787-1853), R.N. Signed lower right, inscribed on stretcher, oil on canvas, unlined 514 x 722 mm; in original gilt frame. The magnificent 80-gun battleship HMS Collingwood cruises to its anchorage at Bora Bora in 1845, the last deep-water harbour in the Society Islands to retain its allegiance to Britain. In the 1840s, rivalries in the Pacific nearly flared into open warfare after the French claimed Tahiti as a protectorate in the wake of the expulsion of two Catholic missionaries (the "Pritchard Affair"). The Collingwood had been sent out with two conflicting missions: to shore up British prestige at a time when the French outgunned them in the region, but also to ensure that war was averted. The man appointed to command the Collingwood on this delicate mission was Sir George Francis Seymour (1787-1870), a resourceful officer, "successful in all his commands" (ODNB) and ultimately Admiral of the Fleet, the highest-ranking position in the entire Navy. His ship had been chosen just as carefully: not only was it regarded as one of the most beautiful in the Navy, it was, for its time, the largest British warship ever sent to the Pacific, dwarfing the two steam-vessels in the painting, HMS Salamander, and the French ship that was shadowing their movements, the Phaeton.Seymour’s diplomacy decisively altered the history of the Pacific, not least as a catalyst for the drive towards self-determination in Australian politics. Although acclaimed in England for his peaceful negotiations, Seymour’s apparent inaction appalled the policy hawks in Sydney, who petitioned Queen Victoria for a military response. Significantly, while the voyage is remembered for ceding Tahiti to French rule, the precise scene in the painting has a dramatic undercurrent, because Bora Bora was the last pro-British bastion in the Society Islands, the local chiefs refusing to formally submit to French government. Seymour commissioned the painting in 1848, immediately after his return. Hitherto unattributed, it is now confirmed to be the work of the great naval artist Robert Strickland Thomas (1787-1853), who had been a Naval officer in his youth. His works are marked by superb realism, attention to the sorts of details that would please an Admiral (rigging, figureheads, precisely rendered ensigns) and a more than handy ability of suggesting the local features of a scene, as with the buildings clustered on the shore here. A number of his preparatory sketches are now in the Royal Museums Greenwich. Provenance: Commissioned by Admiral Seymour personally, later with his third daughter Emily Charlotte (1825-1892), who had sailed with him to the Pacific. She married the second Baron Harlech, William Richard Ormsby Gore (1819-1904), then by descent, remaining at the family seat Glyn Cywarch, in Wales, until 2017. In fine original condition, conserved by David Stein & Co. to remove grime and other remediable results of aging. In a fine original frame, which had some surface damage over the last 150 years, also carefully restored by the Stein studio. A report on the conservation work is available.
Typus orbis terrarum.

Typus orbis terrarum.

ORTELIUS, Abraham Hand-coloured engraved map, 465 x 590 mm. (sheet size), old central crease (as always), Latin text verso; some marking and browning to the margins, very good. An excellent copy with bright original colour: the major world map of the great cartographer Ortelius, of the highest significance for the imagining of the Pacific and the Great Southern Land. One of the more remarkable aspects of the map is how fully it investigates the southern hemisphere, depicting the speculations of classical geographers and the vague reportage of Marco Polo, jostling with the very latest reports from Spanish and Portuguese voyagers in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) had an early career as an engraver and a book dealer but, partly through the encouragement of Gerardus Mercator, turned to scientific geography in the 1560s, and published his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ("theatre of the world") at the end of the decade, widely considered to be the first and certainly most influential modern atlas. This world map is based on a much larger and extremely rare wall-map by Mercator of 1569, but the accessible format of the Ortelius version meant that it would become the map that gave currency to the theories that would dominate scientific thinking for centuries. The central premise of the map, the notion of the "balancing" of the top and bottom of the globe, can clearly be seen by the two polar landmasses: a series of four large islands in the north, pierced by great waterways that seem to go through to the pole and, much more dramatically, the massive "Terra Australis Nondum Cognita," at the bottom. Unlike for the Arctic, which is largely non-descript, the Great Southern Land is enriched with a series of (partly fictional) landfalls. The Southern Land, that is, is a complicated synthesis of classical geography, the travels of Marco Polo (Beach, Lucach, Maletur), a garbled account of what had originally been a description of parts of South America as the "kingdom of the parrots" (Psittacorum Regio), a completely speculative reworking of what truly lay below the southern banks of the Straits of Magellan and, lastly, the fragmentary knowledge of New Guinea and the surrounding waters. Of course, while it is easy to dismiss the ways in which the map is a pastiche of early travellers’ tales, it has been the subject of endless speculation because parts of the imagined coastline are so suggestive of parts of northern and western Australia, not formally mapped until the incursions of the Dutch in the seventeenth century. The present example is the first issue of the plate, engraved by Francis Hogenberg, second state of the plate, recognised by the very faint line or crack at lower left, and some subtle changes to the cloud border.
The Directors General of Inland Navigation in Ireland

The Directors General of Inland Navigation in Ireland, to whom, in Pursuance of The Act of The 40th Year of His Majesty’s Reign, The Improvement of The Harbour of Dublin is Committed, have Caused The Following Reports to be Printed, With a Map Annexed to Each, Upon Which is Delineated a Sketch of The Works Proposed by The Several Reports to Be Constructed for The Purpose

BLIGH, William, and others Folio, 84 pp., with six folding engraved maps with coloured details; contemporary dark calf. Very rare. This collection of reports on proposed improvements to the Dublin waterways, submitted to the Directors-General of Inland Navigation in Ireland, contains a significant contribution by William Bligh, commissioned to carry out surveying work in Dublin Bay after the end of his command of the Director in 1799. The resulting map was "is the first modern-style chart of Dublin Bay" (Daly). Bligh’s report (pp.23-49) deals with the area in general, and has detailed specific comment on the areas proposed for improvement: Dalkey Sound, Bullock Harbour, Dunleary, Howth and Ireland’s Eye. His work constitutes about a third of the volume, with an accompanying map; other contributors include Joseph Huddart, John Rennie, Daniel Corneille and Richard Broughton as well as Thomas Hyde Page of the Royal Engineers, apparently the overall editor of the work.Bligh wrote to Joseph Banks in October 1800 (the letter is in the Mitchell Library) that he was in Dublin "to make a Survey of Dublin Bay, and give my opinion what can be done for the shelter and security of ships. This survey will keep me for some time here, and I hope will be of considerable benefit.". His work was evidently well received as he wrote to Nepean in February 1801 that "The Board of Navigation in Dublin, having particularly requested by letter that I would publish my survey of Dublin Bay, stating it as their opinion "it would be of infinite importance to their navigation, it being a work so correct and of such authority". I hope their Lordships will be pleased to permit me to do so, as thereby I will come more correctly before the publick, than by being published in Dublin, and be of some advantage to myself." (quoted by Mackaness, Life of William Bligh, II, p. 61).Despite Bligh’s request, the reports were published in Dublin, and so presumably without financial benefit to him. Bligh’s works in print were very few: the Mutiny and Voyage of 1790 and 1792 (the second actually includes the first), the very rare Answer to certain assertions of 1794, and his 4-page Memoir of 1803 (known in a single copy) constitute his entire printed body of work; this significant and rare piece on Dublin harbour is thus of considerable interest. "But it is the survey and the chart resulting from it which is Bligh’s enduring memorial to his visit. It is the first modern-style chart of Dublin Bay. John Cowan’s map, dated 1800 but probably drawn much earlier, is very crude by comparison with few soundings and an outmoded style of showing land features. Earlier maps were as bad or worse."The number of soundings shown in Bligh’s chart is far greater than on earlier ones of the bay. The direction of currents are carefully shown; there are lines of sight to various landmarks; anchorages and the position of wrecks are marked. It is a thoroughly practical chart for the use of navigators sailing in dangerous waters drawn up with a thoroughness and attention to detail which was typical of the man. When one remembers the methods used in those days for finding the depth with a lead weight on a line it seems extraordinary that so many soundings could have been taken in so short a time and in bad weather conditions. It would have been impossible to take soundings on a day of rough weather. Bligh also took samples from the bottom as he remarks in his report that there is fine sand all over the bar. The soundings shown on the chart are for extreme low water spring tides and the actual soundings had to be adjusted to that base. The currents would have to have been measured with a buoy or float, and again fairly calm weather would be needed for the exercise" (Daly). Provenance: Inscribed at the start "The Gift of the. Directors of the Inland Navigation to John Vernon Esq. the 9th Jany. 1803". We can reasonably assume that this would have been the influential figure John Vernon of Clontarf Castle, who would have had a close interest since the castle directly overlooked Dublin Bay. Among other manuscript at the start of the volume is a long quotation from a judgement by Lord Kenyon about property rights. Binding slightly worn at edges but good.
Voyage de La Pérouse autour du Monde. rédigé par M.L.A. Milet-Mureau

Voyage de La Pérouse autour du Monde. rédigé par M.L.A. Milet-Mureau

LA PEROUSE, Jean François de Galaup de Four volumes, quarto, and folio atlas, with 69 maps and plates (21 folding) in the atlas; the text in fine condition on bluish-tinted paper; text volumes in contemporary or near-contemporary English dark green straight-grained morocco, spines banded and lettered in gilt, all edges gilt; atlas in a modern half morocco binding to match. First edition of one of the finest narratives of maritime exploration ever published. This is a very clean and attractive set of this great book, in an excellent binding. La Pérouse’s two ships sailed from Brest in 1785. On their way to the northwest coast of America they stopped in Chile, Easter Island and Hawaii, where they were the first Europeans to land on Maui. During 1786 La Pérouse followed the American coast from their landfall near Mount St Elias in Alaska to southern California, exploring and mapping the coast and making particularly significant visits to Lituya Bay where they transacted with the Tlingit tribe (as dramatised two centuries later by Carl Sagan in Cosmos), the outer islands of British Columbia, San Francisco and Monterey. The first non-Spanish visitor to California since Francis Drake, the French explorer took close note of Spanish activity in the pueblos and missions. Sailing on, they visited Macau, Manila, Korea, the Pacific coast of Russia, Japan, and Samoa and explored the central Pacific, but their main instructions were to make for Australian waters to check on English activity in the region. On 24 January 1788, two and a half years after their departure from France, La Pérouse’s ships sailed into Botany Bay just hours after the settlers under Governor Phillip began the move from Botany Bay to Port Jackson. After their subsequent departure from the Australian east coast they "vanished trackless into blue immensity" (Carlyle); no further trace would be found of the expedition for three decades. La Pérouse’s habit of forwarding records whenever he had an opportunity to do so ensured the survival of at least the narrative to that point. The first portion of the expedition’s records had been forwarded by sea from Macao; the second (Macao to Kamchatka) went overland with de Lesseps, and the final reports went back with British despatches from Botany Bay, the British extending what was then a normal courtesy between the exploring nations. It was from these records that Milet-Mureau, the editor, established the official narrative of the expedition for its publication in this form.The folio Atlas includes magnificent maps of Russian Asia, Japan, California and the Pacific Northwest Coast with important new data for the then imperfectly known Asiatic side of the Pacific; it also contains the wonderful series of views chiefly after the original drawings by the chief official artist, Gaspard Duché de Vancy, that had been sent back to France with the various despatches; many of these were recently exhibited at the Musée de la Marine in Paris. Strikingly interpreted as engravings and printed here in rich dark impressions they were, as Christina Ionescu (Book Illustration in the Long Eighteenth Century) has noted, like the engravings in the huge Napoleonic Déscription de l’Egypte, continuing a tradition of "large and extravagant productions" at a time when more commercial publishers were generally downsizing the illustrative content of publications.- – -With regard to the meeting in Botany Bay it has been remarked that the friendship between the two nations grew in proportion to their distance from home. Certainly the English attitude to La Pérouse seemed natural to Watkin Tench: "during their stay in the port the officers of the two nations had frequent opportunities of testifying their mutual regard by visits and other interchanges of friendship and esteem;" and La Pérouse endeared himself particularly "by the feeling manner in which he always mentioned the name and talents of Captain Cook."As Glyn Williams has characterised it, the French voyage was ‘A deliberate réplique française or counter-stroke to Cook’s voyages. a follow-up to Cook’s third voyage, [with] its instructions a running commentary on what Cook had discovered and left undiscovered.’. Philip Gidley King noted in his journal that the French explorer "informed me that every place where he has touched or been near, he found all the astronomical and nautical works of Captain Cook to be very exact and true, and concluded by saying, ‘Enfin, Monsieur Cook a tant fait qu’il ne m’a rien laissé à faire que d’admirer ses oeuvres’ ["Captain Cook has done so much that he has left me with nothing to do but admire his achievements’].A voyage despatched in the fullest spirit of the Enlightenment, under the direct orders of the monarch himself, it was intended to complete discoveries and satisfy many different curiosities. La Pérouse was specifically instructed to study climates, native peoples, plants and animals, to collect specimens and artefacts and to observe the activities of other European powers. The official instructions included the requirement that he should ‘act with great gentleness and humanity towards the different people whom he will visit’.The timing was remarkable: coincident at its close with the Australian First Fleet, La Pérouse left France in 1785 and never knew of the French Revolution; and while Marie Antoinette chose Cook’s voyages to read the night before her death, Louis XVI is said to have repeated on his way to the scaffold the question that he had been asking for months: ”Is there any news of M. de La Pérouse? ‘. Provenance: Library of the Earl of Derby at Knowsley Hall (bookplates, and ms. shelfmarks for "Garden Library").
Pen & ink drawing with a central coloured oval photograph of a young girl

Pen & ink drawing with a central coloured oval photograph of a young girl

FORDE, Helena Pen drawing, signed at bottom ‘Helena Forde delt. 21 July 1875’; on thin card with an embossed stamp of [G]oodall’s Bristol Board. 380 x 310 mm, backed onto board; the drawing surrounding an oval hand-painted photograph of a young girl, 73 x 56 mm, A charming original natural history painting by Helena Forde (née Scott, 1832-1910). Helena and Harriet Scott were the foremost natural science painters in New South Wales from 1850 until 1900: "true artists and naturalists of note" as described by Rose Docker of the Australian Museum. Through prodigious talent, the two sisters became highly skilled artists, natural history illustrators and specimen collectors, shining in what was essentially a male domain in 19th-century Australia. With the guidance of their Hunter Valley neighbour, S. T. Gill, the sisters also became accomplished lithographers. Both Helena and Harriet were educated by their father, Alexander Walker Scott, first in Sydney and later on their father’s estate, Ash Island. A visiting Ludwig Leichhardt had observed in 1842 ".it is a remarkably fine place, not only to enjoy the beauty of nature, a broad shining river, a luxuriant vegetation, a tasteful comfortable cottage with a plantation of orange trees, but to collect a great number of plants which I had never seen before. Climbing Polypodium, the Aerostichum growing on the trees, a great number of creepers, the nettle Tree, the Caper, the native Olive and many others". This picture captures the exotic abundance of Ash Island with wallabies, cockatoos and water birds in an idealised botanical paradise of ferns, water lilies and native gums, all set within a finely drawn pen border. The identification of the sitter is not confirmed, but the slight chin line, sculptured nose and soulful eyes suggest the young girl is of the Scott family; such features can be seen in the photograph of Helena held in the collections of the Australian Museum. Helena, still a young woman on the death of her father as well as her husband Edward Forde, was forced to seek commissions for her economic survival. During the 19th century Helena and Harriet "executed almost all the art work for scientific literature in New South Wales." (Australian Museum). Commissions came from the leading families, Macleay, Macarthur and Mort to name just a few, and the extensive Scott family archives are now held in the Australian Museum and the State Library of New South Wales. Original paintings by either Helena or Harriet are rarely seen on the market.As one of Australia’s earliest professional female artists, this beautifully drawn work illustrates both Helena’s outstanding artistic competence and deep knowledge of Australia’s exotic natural history. A few light marks, mounted on board which is very slightly bowed, otherwise very good.
Land Grant to Neil McKellar.transfer to William Minchin and then Anthony Fenn both of the New South Wales Corps

Land Grant to Neil McKellar.transfer to William Minchin and then Anthony Fenn both of the New South Wales Corps

GROSE, Lieutenant Governor Major Francis Folio, manuscript in ink on paper, 370 x 320 mm and suspended paper seal, and on the verso two land transfers signed and witnessed. This eighteenth-century document is a rare early and interesting land grant. Dating from the first years of settlement, it is signed by Francis Grose and inscribed by David Collins as Governor’s Secretary. Francis Grose (1758-1814) had served in the American War of Independence as a young man, before becoming commandant of the New South Wales Corps and eventually Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales. Two of the other witnesses to the grant, John Harris (1754-1838), Surgeon to the Colony and a young Charles Grimes (1772-1858), surveyor and magistrate were also figures of note. The grant was originally made to Neil McKellar, who had arrived as an ensign in the New South Wales Corps in 1792. By 1797 he was promoted Lieutenant, and was in command at the Hawkesbury. He was a member of the court appointed by Lieutenant-Governor Francis Grose to investigate Philip Gidley King’s actions during the disturbances at Norfolk Island in 1794. He was again promoted by Governor King, who installed McKellar as his aide-de-camp and secretary in 1800. McKellar had been prosperous, for this grant adjoined a previous grant to him of sixty acres known as Glendarwell Farm. However, in 1801 as a result of his involvement in a duel with John Macarthur (as a second for Colonel William Paterson) McKellar was ordered by Governor King to sail for London and this grant records on the verso the transfer of the 100 acres in Petersham from McKellar to William Minchin of the New South Wales Corps on the 27th March 1802. Minchin had his first appointment in command of a detachment of troops aboard the Lady Shore. The prisoners mutinied and along with 27 others Minchin and his wife were cast adrift making landfall in Brazil. On return to England, Minchin successfully argued his case and arrived in New South Wales, succeeding McKellar as adjutant in 1800. The land grant also records the transfer of land from Minchin to Anthony Fenn, Captain in the New South Wales Corps, a year later on the 17th October, 1803. Wear to early folds, in good original condition
Cimelia Physica: Figures of Rare and Curious Quadrupeds

Cimelia Physica: Figures of Rare and Curious Quadrupeds, Birds &c. with Descriptions by George Shaw

MILLER, John Frederick Folio, two works bound together, with a total of 67 hand-coloured engraved plates (see note), several with manuscript captions and small annotations, bookplates; a magnificent tall copy in contemporary full calf, original gilt-decorated spine laid down, red morocco label. A rare and extremely attractive work of natural history with magnificent ornithological, zoological and botanical plates, several depicting specimens collected on Cook’s voyages for the first time. Unlike many contemporary works which included illustrations of the natural history of the Pacific, Miller’s book is both folio-format and hand-coloured, to dazzling effect. This fine copy offered here is the early issue without later watermarks unlike others recorded.All of the plates are by the artist John Frederick Miller (1759-1796), who cut his teeth engraving the plates for the official account of the Endeavour voyage (1773). Miller had planned to sail on Cook’s second voyage with his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, but when Banks withdrew so did he, travelling instead as part of the Banks entourage to Iceland in 1772. Starting in 1776, Miller began to publish these beautiful plates depicting the very latest and most striking discoveries: gulls and cassowaries, jerboas and falcons, as well as Cook specimens such as the two beautiful Tahitian Rails and the penguins from different regions of the southern oceans. He ultimately published 60 plates, creating a publication that is so rare that even its actual title is not firmly recorded; it is listed as either Icones Animalium et Plantarum or Various Subjects of Natural History. The project was all but abandoned until, in the 1790s, the zoologist George Shaw recognised its importance, writing a substantial accompanying text and helping publish the whole as the Cimelia Physica ("treasures of the physical world"): while sometimes called for convenience’s sake the "second edition", this is the first appearance of the complete book and the only edition ever offered for sale. At the time Shaw, a lecturer at the Leverian Museum, had recently published the first ever zoology of Australian animals, which is why the text here includes occasional printed comparisons with some of the animals of New Holland.Beautifully bound, this volume includes a complete copy of the Cimelia Physica (essentially 60 plates & 106 pp. text), many of them with original manuscript captions, perhaps signifying early issue. The present copy has added significance because the original owner has extra-illustrated it with a further seven exotic botanical plates and a leaf of text, including two depicting New Zealand specimens which also date from Cook’s voyages. These plates were done by Miller’s father Johann Sebastian Müller as a rare supplement to his Illustratio Systematis Sexualis Linnaei, published from 1775-1777, although these "Icones Novæ" plates are dated 1780 (see Soulsby, for a description of a similar copy in the British Museum). Provenance: "Wrest Park" bookplate of Thomas Philip Earl de Grey (1781-1859); ink stamp of twentieth-century collector Pierpaolo Vaccarino.
Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum

Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum, late The Allan, formerly The Tunstall, or Wycliffe Museum: to which are prefixed Memoirs of Mr. Tunstall, the founder, and of Mr. Allan, the Late Proprietor, of the Collection; with occasional remarks on the species, by those gentlemen and the editor

FOX, George Townshend Octavo, with 13 engraved plates including a portrait of Tunstall; nineteenth century quarter calf, marbled boards. Rare and pioneering work, which describes the contents of one of the most significant collections of natural history specimens and ethnographic artefacts assembled in the eighteenth century. The Newcastle Museum grew from two important private collections: the naturalist Marmaduke Tunstall (1743-1790), who began collecting specimens for his private museum in London in the 1770s, moved his collections in 1776 to his new home at Wycliffe, Yorkshire. After his death the Wycliffe Museum was purchased by George Allan (1763-1800), lawyer and avid antiquary of Darlington, who added the collection to his own substantial holdings, to form the Allan Museum. On his death the museum went to his son, and in 1822 the combined collections passed into the hands of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. The collection remains intact today, and is housed in the Hancock Museum, Newcastle.Fox’s Synopsis is an important work in the early cataloguing of collections of this type and remains the main source of information for this still extant collection. Working mainly from the handwritten labels in the Museum, Fox catalogued the huge number of natural history specimens which included various species newly-discovered at the time of collection. Of particular interest to Australia are the descriptions of the wombat (with an engraved plate) and the duck-billed platypus (pp. 248-250), both based on the first specimens of their kind sent back to Europe (in 1798 by Governor Hunter, a member of the Museum’s parent institution "The Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society"). There are a number of ornithological specimens from New Holland, New Zealand, and the Sandwich Islands (pp. 127-162). There is reference to a pair of parakeets brought to England by the King and Queen of Hawaii (p. 31), while the most interesting of the birds must be the "Blue-headed and bellied Parrot", the Australian lorikeet taken alive in 1770, while Cook’s Endeavour was at Botany Bay; it became the pet of the Tahitian priest Tupaia and after his death came into the possession of Joseph Banks, who took it back to London. It later made its way, still evidently as a living specimen, into Tunstall’s museum.Of significance too are various ethnographic specimens brought back from Cook’s voyages. The section "Utensils of Savage Nations" contains notes on artefacts from New Zealand, ‘Owhyhee and other Sandwich Islands’, Otaheite, Tonga, New Caledonia, and the Americas. Allan had mentioned ‘curiosities brought by Captain Cook’ in the title of a manuscript catalogue of this collection, and recent research has confirmed that two artefacts derive from the Endeavour: a painted paddle from New Zealand drawn by Sydney Parkinson during the voyage, and a Tahitian nose-flute drawn by J.F. Miller in 1771. Another source of artefacts described by Fox was a collection donated by Captain Wilson of the missionary ship Duff. The two major items described by Fox – a Tongan barbed spear and a Marquesan wooden gorget – survive in the collections today.This catalogue is a rarity: Forbes records a single copy (Bishop Museum) and, despite much of Australian interest, it was not noted by Ferguson. Two earlier inked owner’s names on free endpaper, a very good copy.
Portrait of Sr. Joseph Banks. President of the Royal Society" (early caption)

Portrait of Sr. Joseph Banks. President of the Royal Society" (early caption)

BANKS] PETTY, A.S. (Amelia Susannah) Pastel on paper backed onto linen 62 x 50cm; in the original gilt frame and glass. A compelling lifetime portrait of Sir Joseph Banks at the height of his powers, recently rediscovered in England. The portrait is based on a pastel John Russell RA drew in 1788, showing Banks holding a lunar map. Banks loved the Russell drawing, consenting for it to be engraved by Joseph Collyer, and later singling it out as his favoured portrait and "a most decided Likeness" (quoted in Carter, Guide, p. 306). It shows him in his prime, during the era of New South Wales and the Bounty, the rapid expansion of Kew, and the voyages of Riou and Vancouver. In the Georgian era the practice of copying, updating and circulating portraits was widespread, and there can be no doubt that the artist of this well-executed work in crayons knew either Russell’s original or, more likely, Collyer’s version, but has removed the lunar map and updated Banks’s outfit to include the sash of the Order of the Bath, presented to Banks in July 1795. Not only has this change been very neatly contrived, it provides the likely date of composition: it is certainly not much later, given that one of the more striking aspects of the picture is that it is in the original frame, largely untouched and unrestored, with fragments of an old newspaper from 1804 that was used as paper backing. The identity of the artist is neatly recorded on an old caption on the back of the frame as "A.S. Petty", but no artist of that name is noted in any of the standard references of the era, which is frankly surprising given its quality. The answer turns out to be fascinating, because it must have been one Amelia Susannah Petty (abt.1767 – 2 April 1827), the only child of James Petty Esq., himself the wealthy natural son of the rather louche James Petty, Viscount Dunkeron (abt. 1713-1750) and one Elizabeth Gipps. Amelia was, that is, the great-great-granddaughter of the economist and scientist Sir William Petty. Her father, James Petty Esq. (abt. 1740-1822), was an extremely well-connected figure, who travelled widely on the Continent before settling at the grand estate of Broome Park, in Betchworth, Surrey. His connection to Banks is patent: Petty was elected to the Royal Society in 1771 and wrote his President at least one letter, from Vienna in 1784 (now NLA).Not enough evidence has yet been unearthed to explain Amelia’s remarkable skill, but the portrait is beautifully contrived, and likely to be, given the tangled social web of Georgian England, at least partially the product of direct observation. It is likely that there was a connection between the artist Amelia Petty and John Russell, given that the latter had a small holding in Dorking, only some five kilometres down the road from the Petty family estate at Broome Park. Provenance: United Kingdom art dealer
Description of the anatomy of the ornithorhyncus hystrix. From the Philosophical Transactions

Description of the anatomy of the ornithorhyncus hystrix. From the Philosophical Transactions

HOME, Everard Quarto, 19 pp. and four large folding plates; contemporary (? original) neat quarter red roan binding. The first scientific notice of the echidna: this important separately-issued pamphlet is very rare in this first issue form. The text (and engravings) would later appear, from the same type-setting, in Philosophical Transactions for 1802, but this is an example of a special separate and earlier printing made available for the author, differing in certain details, and separately paginated (1 to 19; as against 348 to 364 in the Transactions, now available online) and with a printed note on the verso of the title-page in which "Gentlemen who are indulged with separate Copies of their Communications" are asked to ensure that they don’t get reprinted before the volume of Transactions is published. Sir Everard Home’s study is illustrated with four fine engraved plates by Basire of tremendous interest and some beauty, particularly the two depicting complete specimens. The first of these was based on a specimen preserved in spirits and given to Sir Joseph Banks by William Balmain in 1802, while the second followed a drawing of a Tasmanian specimen shot at Adventure Bay in Tasmania by Lieutenant Guthrie in 1790, then serving on the Providence under William Bligh. The other plates show detailed sections of the head, palate, and tongue of the echidna.This work followed closely on the heels of Home’s study of the platypus, and it was Home who first hypothesised the familial link between the two animals. The first notice of this animal was by George Shaw in 1792, but it was not until 1802 that a young male specimen was actually dissected in London, at the behest of Banks and Home. As Home notes, his work was based on a specimen brought back from New South Wales by "Belmain" (that is, surgeon William Balmain) and given to Banks. Banks also allowed the sketch of the echidna from Bligh’s voyage in his possession to be copied. Home read this paper to the Royal Society in June 1802.On the early notice of the echidna, see Penny Olsen, Upside Down World (pp. 22-29). This offprint is recorded in Ferguson, who listed an author’s presentation copy in the Dr. Clifford Craig collection, "present whereabouts unknown." A copy of this work is listed in the Mitchell Library, where it is catalogued as an "extract", implying that copy was not separately issued. Some wear to joints otherwise very good.
Carte des Costes de l'Asie sur l'Ocean contenant les Bancs Isles et Costes &c.

Carte des Costes de l’Asie sur l’Ocean contenant les Bancs Isles et Costes &c.

MORTIER, Pierre Engraved map, 565 x 860 mm (map size); contemporary hand-colouring, framed. First issue of Mortier’s important and highly attractive large format Dutch map depicting the "coasts of Asia" and including a good and substantial early depiction of the Australian coast, showing VOC voyages from Hartog (1616) to Tasman (1642-1644). The map is unusually detailed regarding the Dutch voyagers in Australian waters, with the stretches of coast they explored named, including the now familiar rollcall of captains such as Houtman (1619), Leeuwin (1622), Carstensz (1623), de Wit (1625) and Nuyt (1627). The fact that the outline of Australia retains the same basic shape it had had since the mid seventeenth-century, is testament to the hiatus in major European voyages in the region, although the map does inadvertently improve the relative position of Tasmania compared to other Mortier maps of the era, which had shown the island too far to the west (much like the Thevenot map which is the original source).One of the more remarkable aspects of the map is that it includes an attempt to clarify the question of New Guinea and the Torres Strait at a time when the region was very poorly understood, and actually notices landfalls made by Luís vaz de Torres, although his name is not specifically mentioned: of course, it was not until the time of Captain Cook and the Admiralty hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple that this region was better understood. The mapping of the west coast of Cape York is based on the 1623 Carstensz voyage, and not the earlier explorations of Janszoon on the Duyfken. This is the rarer Pierre [Pieter] Mortier issue: a Huguenot émigré, Mortier (1661-1711) established his mapmaking business in Amsterdam when he was given the privilege of printing French maps in Holland in 1690. After his death in 1711 his widow continued the business until 1719, when their son Cornelius took over, establishing the famous firm of Mortier and Covens with his partner Johannes Coven in 1721. An unchanged version of the map with the "Mortier & Covens" imprint was later issued by the company.
Maps & Plans

Maps & Plans, Showing the Principal Movements, Battles & Sieges, in which the British Army was engaged during the War from 1808 to 1814 in the Spanish Peninsula and the South of France. [Compiled by Thomas L. Mitchell]

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingstone. WYLD, James, publisher Elephant folio (855 x 685 mm), with engraved title and dedication, 37 lithographed maps and plans, some folding or double page (up to 855 x 1390 mm), many with hand-coloured troop positions and some geographical features, including three maps with coloured overlays and seven maps with vignette views, and a lithographed plate with five views; in half morocco; expert repairs to corners and spine replaced to style; dark green old cloth sides incorporating the large, gilt title label from the original cover; marbled endpapers. This extraordinary publication mapping the military progress of the Peninsular War – very large, enormously detailed, and extremely rare – represents the early and highly-skilled work of Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, one of the greatest Australian explorers and the long-serving Surveyor-General of New South Wales. Mitchell’s magnum opus is as rare as it is important, and as important as it is large: in fact enormous. The complex printing techniques employed, the very specialist subject, and the sheer size and weight of the publication suggest a very limited print run, while the size and weight of the Atlas have undoubtedly been further responsible for its narrow survival rate; meanwhile, even if known to military historians its significance as testimony to the enormous and varied skills of the great Australian explorer and surveyor has been far from sufficiently noticed. As a recent commentator has remarked, "[it] is virtually unknown. No recorded copy of this vast tome exists in Australia, and the only publicly available version lies battered and obscurely catalogued in the British Library. This major work of art by a seminal character in Australia’s history requires exposure and exposition". In fact there are now copies of the Atlas in the National Library of Australia and in the State Library of New South Wales, but the point is well made.Thomas Mitchell served as a young man in the Peninsular War: in 1811 he was gazetted a second lieutenant in the 95th Regiment and served at the battles of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz and Salamanca. A number of men who would later be important in Australian history served together in Wellington’s campaigns: Mitchell served alongside William Light, the founder of South Australia, James Taylor, creator of the splendid A Panoramic View of Sydney. The Entrance, The Town, and Part of the Harbour of Port Jackson (London 1823) and James Wallis, whose An Historical Account of the Colony of New South Wales of 1821 was the first book of views engraved in Australia.Mitchell’s patron Sir George Murray, Quartermaster-General, recognised Mitchell’s topographical and mapping skills and organised his commission to produce plans of the major Peninsular battlefields. This commission occupied Mitchell for five years in Spain and France, and subsequently eight years in England before his departure for Australia, and later, once again in England, completing the working up into finished maps for the Atlas from 1838 to 1840. This massive input is reflected in the immense size and detailed scope of the resulting publication.The story of the involvement of Mitchell and his peers in the Peninsular campaigns has been told especially well by Christine Wright in Wellington’s Men in Australia: she identifies the parallel early career of Mitchell, along with William Light, the founder of South Australia, and a number of other men subsequently significant in Australian exploration or history, including the topographical artists James Taylor and James Wallis.Wright makes the point that military officers of the period were often – thanks to their training – artistically skilled; she identifies seventeen such Australian figures: ‘Alphabet’ Boyes, George Barney, Thomas Bunbury, Edward Close, Henry Dumaresq, Foster Fyans, George Gawler, Robert Hoddle, William Light, Edmund Lockyer, William Lyttleton, Richard Meares, Thomas Mitchell, Samuel Perry, Charles Sturt, James Taylor and James Wallis.In the course of his Australian explorations, and during his surveying work, it fell to Mitchell to name many features of the Australian landscape, from mountains to streets, and both Sargent and Wright have demonstrated quite how often Mitchell’s names were chosen to commemorate his former colleagues from the Peninsula campaigns.Mitchell’s mapping on the battlefieldsWhat survives of Mitchell’s original work in Spain and France is today chiefly in the archives at Sandhurst, while some original maps and drawings collected by Sir William Dixson are now held by the State Library of New South Wales (along with the only other copy of the Atlas known to be in this country).Mitchell’s biographer Cumpston noted that "The maps and plans [that Mitchell] had prepared at Sandhurst, which can still be seen, are sufficient evidence that his selection for this task was fully justified. Many of them were reproduced in Wyld’s Atlas of the Peninsula War. There is also contemporary testimony. Sir William Napier, in his History of the Peninsula War, wrote: ‘Captain Mitchell’s drawings were made by him after the war, by order of the government and at the public expense. Never was money better laid out, for I believe no topographical drawings, whether they be considered for accuracy of detail, perfection of manner, or beauty of execution, ever exceeded Mitchell’s’."Murray’s own verdict, written on 23 October 1825 from Dublin, where Murray was then Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Ireland, is given in a letter to Hay, Permanent Under-Secretary at the Colonial Office: ‘There is a Captain Mitchell who has been employed by me first in making surveys in the Peninsula of the several fields of Battle, and subsequently in drawing military plans from their actual surveys. He is a very intelligent and industrious man and possesses a considerable share of enterprise and adventure. He is a skilful, accurate, and practised surveyor, and a very good draftsman. His plans are indeed beautifully executed’."The Survey Secti
Album of forty fine watercolours by the artist of the Leverian Museum signing under her married name

Album of forty fine watercolours by the artist of the Leverian Museum signing under her married name, in striking original condition

STONE, Sarah [SMITH] Quarto album, 40 original watercolours tipped onto coloured pages, most signed "Sarah Smith" (see the handlist), ornately gilt-printed title-page with added hand-painted monogram in gilt reading "JLS & SS"; the binding of an embossed design of maroon roan, with central classical motif surrounded by an ornate floral pattern, signed by the manufacturer Remnant & Edwards with gilt-stamped "Scrap Book" lettered on the spine. An exquisite and unrecorded album of watercolours by Sarah Stone, the artist who made a decisive contribution to the early natural history of the Pacific and Australia, with a clear provenance to her family. The album is a dazzling testament to Stone’s range and skill, and is also likely to be a key that will help unlock more details of her later career, because the great majority of works in the album are signed with her married name and therefore date from after her 1789 marriage to John Langdale Smith, by far the least known period of her work as an artist. All-in-all, it is a fascinating and enigmatic assemblage, dominated by a series of Stone’s signature depictions of sea-life, exotic birds and artificial curiosities, notably six wonderful depictions of parrots, including what seems certain to be a slightly ragged Rainbow Lorikeet (still recognisable despite the vagaries of taxidermy in this era). The variety is incredible, ranging from a fine image of the mysterious "Tahitian Chief Mourner" acquired by Captain Cook, through to religious icons, bucolic barnyard scenes and a number of rural and coastal scenes that appear to show holiday-makers. The latter images, which frequently feature a young couple, suggest that this is a very personal selection: it is difficult not to speculate that some of the scenes in England and the highlands of Scotland (or perhaps Switzerland), may in fact be autobiographical. This hypothesis is strongly supported by Stone’s addition of the monogram "JLS & SS" to the title-page: given that the binding can be dated to the late 1820s (around the same time that her husband was afflicted by chronic illness, dying in 1827), we consider the album is very likely to have been meant as a memento or gift, perhaps for their only child, Henry. Sarah Stone (c. 1760-1844) was a teenager when she was employed as an artist by Sir Ashton Lever, the owner of the greatest eighteenth-century collection of natural history and objects of curiosity. She "spent hours in Sir Ashton Lever’s museum, faithfully drawing and painting mounted birds, insects, mammals, fishes, lizards, fossils, minerals, shells and coral from all over the world, as well as ethnographical artefacts brought back from exploratory voyages, including those of Captain Cook" (Jackson, Sarah Stone, p. 9). Such is Stone’s connection to Cook’s voyages that it has tended to obscure her profound importance for the early natural history of Australia, despite her central role in the illustration of First Fleet surgeon John White’s Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales (1790).Although the album itself dates from the 1820s, it is clear that many of the watercolours are much earlier. Indeed, the fact that the works are signed Smith (not Stone), together with the condition of some of the birds, is the closest thing to a time-stamp that could be imagined on an undated watercolour: after 1789 because of the change in her name, but before the end of the 1790s because their appearance broadly matches those in other works of this pioneering era, such as the awkwardly posed birds in the Museum Leverianum (1796). Of the six exotic parrots, one has been firmly identified as an African Grey, Psittacus erithacus (Jackson, p. 21), two are certain to be Indonesian species, and one is considered to be a (probably juvenile) Rainbow Lorikeet. As yet, the precise nature of the other two remains unknown, although one could feasibly be a Rosella. A fourth watercolour depicts three beautifully-rendered seabirds, two gulls and a tern, on a rocky outcrop overlooking a bay. The album also includes an uncommonly fine depiction of seven exotic shells, dominated by a large Charonia, as well as a fine Cone with purple striations and another with an opalescent green. Another familiar inclusion in the Leverian were sharks (and their teeth), which must explain why the present album includes a fine example of a shark, very similar to one depicted in Stone’s so-called Sketchbook I (see Kaeppler’s Holophusicon, p. 72). The last of the definitively Leverian works is an exceptionally important depiction of the Tahitian Chief Mourner, the religious dress of tapa, shells and feathers which fascinated Cook, who personally acquired the examples that ended up in the Museum. Stone’s depiction here is not unlike another of her watercolours now in the Bishop Museum (see Kaeppler, Artificial Curiosities, p. 124-5), but even a cursory comparison makes it quite clear that two distinct outfits are depicted; in short, it is possible that the sketch depicts the "lost" example of the dress from the second voyage, at one point recorded in the Leverian collection.A list of the watercolours and a fuller description is available. Provenance: Gilt monogram "JLS & SS" (for John Langdale Smith and Sarah Smith), the embossed binding manufactured by Remnant & Edwards in the late 1820s. By the twentieth century the album was in the possession of Elizabeth Bateman, who worked at Hall’s Bookshop in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, from 1955 until her death in 1983, and with her descendants until recently sold.
Colección de los viajes y descubrimientos que hicieron por mar los españoles desde fines del siglo XV. Con varios documentos inéditos concernientes a la historia de la marina castellana y de los

Colección de los viajes y descubrimientos que hicieron por mar los españoles desde fines del siglo XV. Con varios documentos inéditos concernientes a la historia de la marina castellana y de los

FERNANDEZ DE NAVARRETE, Martin Five volumes, small quarto, three folding maps and two portraits; an excellent set in contemporary marbled sheep, later labels. A good set of this highly important collection of Spanish sea voyages – the Spanish equivalent of Burney’s great collection. "It may safely be asserted that the enterprise of this laborious compiler has rescued from oblivion the earliest and rarest records of American discovery" (Sabin). Fernandez de Navarrete provides the texts of many historical documents, from manuscripts, many previously unpublished, or from rare printed books, of great significance for the history of the discovery of America, concentrating on the voyages of Columbus and Vespucci, and the subsequent Spanish voyages. A full list of the contents can be found in Leclerc, who described this as "collection extremement importante et devenue difficile à trouver", or in Rich who devotes almost a page to the work."This, as Brunet observes, is an important collection, and was the source from whence Washington Irving drew the materials for his Life of Columbus. It contains the original Diary of the voyage of Columbus, compiled by B. de las Casas, and the expeditions of Amerigo Vespucci. The editor has reprinted rare early printed works and original documents in the early history of the American discoveries, which would have otherwise been inaccessible to many later researchers" (Bernard Quaritch catalogue 883, 1967). Most sets that we have traced, including the one quoted from Quaritch’s catalogue above, seem to contain at least two volumes in the reprint of the 1850s, implying that the original printings must have been very small. The present set has just the first volume in the 1858 reprint while all the others are first editions dating from 1825 to 1837. Some slight wear to heads of spines; occasional light browning as expected; a very good set.
L'Amiral de France. Et par occasion

L’Amiral de France. Et par occasion, de celuy des autres nations, tant vieiles que nouuelles

LA POPELINIERE, Henri Lancelot-Voisin de Tall octavo, title-page vignette, with the 10 pp. index and 2 pp. errata, early owner’s marks including neat library stamp to title-page; an excellent and very attractive tall copy in eighteenth-century sprinkled calf, flat spine gilt with crimson morocco label. Rare sixteenth-century proposal for French voyaging, advocating the founding of a colony in the unknown – "australe" – land. The work was written during the period, as Frank Lestringant has argued, that French cosmographers had decided to leave the northern confines of the New World to the ambitions of the English; instead ‘the myth of a southern continent would in France nourish, for another generation and beyond, dreams of empire and revenge’ (Mapping the Renaissance World, p. 118).Voisin de la Popelinière (1541-1608) was a speculative geographer known for his interest in the "incogneu" world, and particularly for his proposal that the French should not just explore these regions, but colonise them. His utopian project for French expansion in the then only vaguely theorised unknown worlds of the southern hemisphere marks him out as a significant and very early precursor not only to Gonneville (1663), but as one of the foundation writers of the long French interest in the region that would culminate in the voyages of Bougainville and his successors.Even more extraordinarily, La Popèliniere is thought to have mounted the first genuine attempt to found just such a colony, sailing from La Rochelle in May 1589 with three tiny ships. John Dunmore writes that they ‘got no further than Cap Blanc in West Africa, where dissensions and dispondency made him abandon the expedition and return to France. The captains of the two other ships, Richardiere and Trepagne, decided to continue to South America, but only succeeded in reaching the coast of Brazil. A century and a half was to elapse before another attempt was made.’ (French Explorers in the Pacific, I, p. 196) Despite its inglorious end, it thus remains possible that he was the first French explorer to search for the Terre Australe, a good 75 years before Gonneville even propounded such an idea.In 1582 he had published a book called Les Trois Mondes which distinguished between the so-called three worlds of Renaissance geography, the ‘vieil’, the ‘neuf’, and the ‘incogneu’; he discussed ancient and modern discoveries, concluding with a petition to the French government to colonise the australe lands, having shown that the Americas were too politically fraught to allow French expansion there. Colonisation, he argued, would provide an answer to the grave religious, political and economic crisis in France.In 1584, he returned to the fray with this work, L’Amiral de France. Taking the even more direct form of a petition for French naval expansion, he propounded his belief that France must undertake a colonising expedition, simply because ‘Terres infinies belles & riches sont encor a desconurir.’ Virtue, he concludes gloriously, lies in action, not in idle books, and L’Amiral de France finishes with his endorsement for an actual expedition.
Recueil de différentes choses. Relation du royaume des Feliciens

Recueil de différentes choses. Relation du royaume des Feliciens, Peuples qui habitent dans les Terres Australes.

LASSAY, Armand-Léon de Madaillan de Lesparre, Marquis de Four volumes, quarto; contemporary speckled calf, gilt backs with raised bands, contrasting spine labels with gilt lettering, with gilt stamped coat-of-arms arms at foot of spine encircled by the text ‘Monstrant regibus astra viam’. Rare large and thick paper copy, from the library of the Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt: a duodecimo in printing terms the size of this set has jumped to a quarto, and a thick one at that. The "Don Juan of the Grand Siècle", Armand de Madaillan Lesparre (1652-1738) was a soldier on the battlefield, a gossip in the salons, and a man of letters. He served as aide-de-camp to the Grand Condé. His work is a collection of facts and fancies, memoirs, historical and genealogical records, gallant notes, thoughts, portraits, tales, anecdotes of his time. and concludes with Lassay’s imaginary voyage to a southern land, Relation du Royaume des Feliciens, Peuples qui habitent dans les Terres Australes. This is an utopia which takes advantage of the contemporary vogue for the southern continent as the site of a perfected European society. Like most works in the imaginary voyage tradition, the provenance of the story is made as complicated as possible: it purports to be a translation of a manuscript found in the jetsam of a vessel which wrecked off the Guinea coast in 1714, was salvaged, and finally sent to a Dutch addressee whom the VOC encourage to set himself up in Batavia. Sailing on the Texel, they round the Cape of Good Hope, and travel for seventeen days in uncharted waters until between 40º and 50º latitude they discover an unknown land, guarded by a fortress wall and inhabited by a people who speak Latin. Their wonderfully ordered city is comparable to the splendour of Paris, but also displays a perfected government similar to the English model. Lassay provides a lavish account of the kingdom, detailing everything from their seemingly inexhaustible natural riches to their magnificent urban design, the accoutrements of a people ‘plus spirituels.’ Lassay also includes a brief account of the nation’s founding which, like Killigrew’s 1720 Description of New Athens, involves a seamless blending of classical exiles with the local population.This is the best edition (a 1726 two-volume publication of Lassay’s works was a rather unmethodical collation of his papers, and only distributed privately, and anyway this is ‘plus complète et plus méthodique’ — Querard). Lassay was a pillar of the salons and so it is no surprise that this book in its rather sumptuous format would have appealed to the Marquis des Roys and the Duc de la Rochefoucauld. The only other copy that we have traced as having been sold in the last twenty years was that owned by the Comtesse du Barry, though that was in regular format. Provenance: Marquis des Roys (armorial device on spines, bookplates with motto ‘Monstrant regibus astra viam’); Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt (bookplate as Duc de Liancourt in each volume); L. Dussieux (booktickets).
Esterno Di Una Capanna [The exterior of a Cabin]. Questa Scena fu esequita pel Ballo Pantomimo serio Il Naufragio de La Peyrouse

Esterno Di Una Capanna [The exterior of a Cabin]. Questa Scena fu esequita pel Ballo Pantomimo serio Il Naufragio de La Peyrouse, posto sulle scene dell’I.R. Teatro alla Canobbiana, dal Sig. William Barrymore. L’Autuno dell’anno 1825

LA PEROUSE] SANQUIRICO, Alessandro, after, engraved by Carolina LOSE Aquatint with original hand colouring, 340 x 390 mm, mounted and handsomely framed. Atmospheric coloured aquatint depicting an evocative scene from the staging of the "Ballet-Pantomime" based on the disappearance of La Pérouse in the Pacific. Between the complete disappearance of the expedition in 1788 and the discovery of relics in 1827, just a couple of years after this performance, the mystery had captivated Europe. (Famously Louis XVI is said to have repeated on his way to the scaffold the question that he had been asking for months: ”Is there any news of M. de La Pérouse?").The disappearance inspired various highly imaginative performances or visualisations, and this scene was evidently one of the highlights from a very successful "pantomime" much performed in England and here being toured in northern Italy. As the caption notes the Naufragio was staged at the Teatrico Lirico in Milan (known as the Canobbiana until the 1890s). It starred the English actor William Barrymore (1759-1830). His European tour is not noted in the biography provided by the wonderful Garrick Club archives which mention his appearances in ‘musical pieces and comedies. He was also a leading actor at the Haymarket Theatre for many summer seasons. Critical reports describe him as an awkward performer, who acted with stiff knees, and had trouble retaining his lines; but at least one friendly source praised his judgment, noted his improvement over the years and suggested that he was industrious and steady as a second-rate actor. The last several years of his career he spent in the provinces.’. The image dates from the high-water mark of early Italian opera, a period when innovations in set-design saw staging become a vital part of the art form. The staging was certainly dramatic with a hut apparently made from salvaged timbers at right in the shade of a rocky outcropping and several exotic plants. This moody scene is by Alessandro Sanquirico a Milanese artist and stage-designer who was inspired to document the striking sets of the Milanese opera. It was engraved by Carolina Lose, née von Schlieben, who was well known for engraved topographical views of Italy produced in collaboration with her husband Federico. Sanquirico and the Lose pair collaborated on a number of Milanese theatrical subjects.An extremely handsome image, one of the finest produced on the epic story of La Perouse: we have tracked down just one other example, in the Cia Fornaroli collection of the New York Public Library.
Three rare printed documents relating to Hydrographic Survey and the Admiralty Chart

Three rare printed documents relating to Hydrographic Survey and the Admiralty Chart

BRITISH NAVY] ADMIRALTY CHARTS Three large sheets, folded to bifolium measuring 320 x 202 mm., neatly folded to letter size, all in excellent condition; printed on one side, all three circulars signed by second secretary to the Admiralty William Marsden, the first addressed in manuscript to Vice Admiral Lord Seymour. A group of three rare documents fundamental to the establishment of the Admiralty Chart, and immediately predating Matthew Flinders’ 1801-1803 survey of Australia: he would certainly have been aware of these new requirements due to his close relationship with the Admiralty. These detailed instructions to gather information on ‘Seas but little frequented’ are the blueprints for modern naval cartography and reflect the conditions that would lead to the great naval atlases of the nineteenth century such as those of Flinders and his successors. We have not discovered any other examples of these printed letters, perhaps confirming that documents such as these would typically have been discarded by ship’s captains once they had been noted.The documents date from 1800, at the time when the Admiralty Chart was first being planned. They instruct the masters of British naval vessels to record and transmit vital hydrographic information to the Admiralty, and are signed by William Marsden as second secretary to the Admiralty. The first document bemoans the fact that masters of vessels have hitherto failed to communicate the information essential for the correction of naval charts. Captains and lieutenants are instructed to forward all such information, including prevailing winds, tides, reefs and other submerged obstacles. The second document repeats the demands of the first in significantly greater detail, adding the incentive that the names of those who furnish significant information shall be published on revised charts ‘with a view to encouraging others to take advantage of the opportunities which may hereafter be afforded to them for obtaining the same useful information.’ The third document is an example of the letter sent by Marsden to senior naval officers, instructing them to distribute copies of the letters to their men. The present example, a manuscript note confirms, was sent to Vice-Admiral Lord Seymour, then serving in the Lesser Antilles islands of the Caribbean. Seymour, who had first sailed with Edward Riou, would later enjoy an eminent naval career including serving as commander-in-chief of the Pacific Station, and subsequently commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, his flagship HMS Victory.Ritchie’s work on the Admiralty Chart notes the inconsistency and inadequacy of eighteenth century British naval charts and the problems associated with collecting and verifying information from officers: it is interesting to note that at the time of Cook’s disoveries in the Pacific the commanders of His Majesty’s vessels were expected to buy maps and charts from their own pocket. Provenance: One, perhaps all, originally the property of Vice-Admiral Lord Seymour.
Original pencil sketch of Port Louis from the Ile aux Tonneliers

Original pencil sketch of Port Louis from the Ile aux Tonneliers

BAUDIN VOYAGE] LESUEUR, Charles-Alexandre (attrib.) Pencil sketch, 263 x 428 mm., fugitive note in pencil lower right; mounted. A fine pencil sketch of Port Louis, with the Géographe at the precise anchorage Baudin noted in his journal: any original depiction of the ship is an important discovery, let alone such a comprehensive view of this important harbour as the great explorers would have known it. In the foreground, ranged dramatically towards the viewer, are the cannons of the fort on the low-lying Ile aux Tonneliers, the man sketching between two of the guns presumably meant to be the artist himself. The background is dominated by the dramatic ridges of the mountains, while the foreshore is rendered in accurate detail, ranging from the Trou Fanfaron on the left to the open country beyond the slave encampments on the right. Charles-Alexandre Lesueur (1778-1846) was appointed to the Géographe because of his skills as a scientific artist: such was his ability that he and his great friend François Péron were appointed to publish the official voyage account, alongside Milbert (see 4311663) who was in charge of the engravings. Although not signed, the view is based on a preliminary pencil study by Lesueur held in the museum at Le Havre, which has an identical perspective and includes all of the main features of the foreground, including the fort itself, the details of the ramparts and the Géographe ("suite de la vue prise à l’île aux tonnelliers [sic]", Baglione & Crémière, p. 52). In fact, stylistically and technically the drawing appears to be a finished study for a never completed engraving: the style, shape and layout of the scene is closely in keeping with the two known plates which depict Timor and Port Jackson, both also after Lesueur, and both of which show the Géographe from an almost identical angle. It is certainly possible that the present scene was being considered for publication as the third of the three main European settlements visited on the expedition, but was ultimately abandoned: the torturous publishing history of the Baudin voyage makes such a hypothesis genuinely quite likely, not least because of the provenance. Provenance: Baudin voyage artist Jacques-Gérard Milbert when he was in the USA (between 1815 and 1823): the view was in a small portfolio of works he gave to one of his students, which included at least one other Lesueur watercolour and several of Milbert’s own important views. The entire portfolio remained with the family of the student, whose name is now recorded only as "Raschmann," until about 1990, when it was sold to an art dealer in California. A little browning and some light creasing to the paper (particularly noticeable on the margins), generally very good, the actual scene crisp and clear.
Historia General y Natural de las Indias

Historia General y Natural de las Indias, Islas y Tierra-Firme del Mar Océano.

OVIEDO Y VALDES, Gonzalo Fernandez de Four volumes, folio, with a total of 15 plates (three folding, one coloured); a fine uncut set in contemporary half morocco. The first full publication of one of the great eyewitness accounts of the Spanish settlement of the New World, only published in full for the first time in this edition: "this is the source from which most literary writers have drawn their accounts of the early occurrences in the New World" (Church). The great sixteenth-century text was "a massive work which, if published when it was written, might have given its author the literary stature of Barros. As Oviedo’s work stands, it is a noble monument; in fact, it is the greatest classic of the early years of Spanish activity in the New World to be chronicled by a contemporary." (Penrose). Oviedo gives the earliest full and credible descriptions of many New World species, along with the best depiction of life in the Americas in the early 16th century. The Spanish historian and writer was well-connected at the Spanish court, which enabled him, for example, to be present at the return of Christopher Columbus in 1493. After travel and study in Italy he made his way to the New World in 1514, holding held many offices there; he began his Historia general y natural in the 1520s; returning to Spain in 1523, publication of his brief work Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias brought him to the attention of the Emperor, and led to his appointment as official Chronicler of the Indies in 1532. He travelled frequently to the Americas, spending almost twenty years in Panama, Colombia, and on Hispaniola, until his death shortly after mid-century. The first nineteen books of his Historia general were printed in Seville in 1535. The twentieth book did not appear until 1577, the year of his death, while the complete fifty books of the history were printed only in this form in 1851-55. No full English translation was ever published. For the ethno-historian Oviedo’s Historia is one of the most valuable of the early chronicles. He is especially important for southern Middle America, where he had considerable personal experience. For other areas he used many first-hand sources now lost to us. The strongest criticism that has been directed against him is that he followed his sources uncritically and is a more a chronicler than historian. But because of his interest in all aspects of the New World, he recorded much that is of interest to the student of Indian life at the time of Contact’ ("Handbook of Middle American Indians", vol. 13).