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Detlev Auvermann Rare Books

Description du cerveau

Description du cerveau, des principales distributions de ses dix paires de nerfs, & des organes des sens. Avec les figures.

DROUIN, Vincent Denis FIRST EDITION OF THIS VERY RARE AND ORIGINAL WORK ON THE BRAIN AND THE SENSE ORGANS. Recorded as a Maître Chirurgien de l’Hôpital General, ‘Drouin enjoyed an excellent reputation as a skilled surgeon in the French army and returned to private life to become chief surgeon at Les Petites Maisons in Paris. ‘This work, important in the development of neuroanatomy during the late seventeenth century, is the result of keen observation and careful dissection. In it, Drouin discusses the skull, the brain and its circulation, and the structure of the nose, eye, tongue, and ear. The nine folding plates were engraved from Drouin’s own drawings’ (Heirs of Hippocrates p. 247). Drouin clearly relies on his own anatomical dissections, rather than the authority of others. He cites, sometimes critically, Descartes, Duncan, Stensen, Bartholin, and Malpighi. Provenance: manuscript ex libris ‘Pt. Cholet M.DCC.LXXX.IIIII’ [sic] in ink within floral border, and pasted slip in ms. ‘Philibert Cholet 46’ on front pastedown; a similar ex libris of a book belonging to Cholet appears in a copy of Elie Col de Vilars, Cours de chirurgie dicté aux écoles de Médecine de Paris (Paris 1759). Heirs of Hippocrates 700; Krivatsy 3404; Wellcome II p. 487; OCLC locates only three copies in the US, at Iowa, National Library of Medicine, and Minnesota.
Description of a Forty-Feet Reflecting Telescope.

Description of a Forty-Feet Reflecting Telescope.

HERSCHEL, William THE VERY RARE SEPARATELY PAGINATED OFFPRINT FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF HERSCHEL’S DESCRIPTION OF HIS FAMOUS TELESCOPE. ‘[Herschel] seems quickly to have realized that in order to investigate very distant (and therefore faint) objects, he would need telescopes with considerable light-gathering power, for a telescope directed to a faint object must not only magnify it but also collect enough light for the magnified image to be visible to the observer. As he put it in 1800, light-gathering power is "the power of penetrating into space." His need was therefore for reflectors with large mirrors; and as his ambitions grew, he found himself forced to undertake an increasing share of the labor of construction himself. In the grinding and polishing of large mirrors, and in the working of exquisite eyepieces, Herschel was soon without peer; and when in 1782 one of his telescopes was taken to the Royal Observatory for comparison with the instruments there, Nevil Maskelyne, the astronomer royal, conceded superiority to Herschel. For the rest of his life Herschel enjoyed the possession of telescopes which were incomparably the most powerful of the period for the study of faint objects, although he never attempted the carefully mounted and graduated instruments required for exact positional astronomy. In 1785 Herschel successfully requested the king to finance a fresh attempt to build a large telescope. "It remained now only to fix upon the size of it, and having proposed to the King either a 30 or a 40 feet telescope, His Majesty fixed upon the largest." Four years of labor followed for Herschel and his team of workmen, during which the original grant of £2,000 was doubled and an annual allowance of £200 was also made. The mirrors of forty-eight-inch diameter were cast in London, but all other work was carried out at Slough under Herschel’s direction. In mounting the mirror in the tube Herschel tilted it slightly to one side so that the observer might peer through the eyepiece directly at the mirror, without the need for additional mirrors (the "Herschelian" arrangement). The monster telescope was completed in 1789 and immediately revealed a sixth satellite of Saturn. But it was never fully satisfactory: the mirrors tarnished quickly, the structure was cumbersome to turn, and when Herschel in 1790 altered his opinion of the nature of nebulae, he thereby answered the very question of the telescope’s great light-gathering power may have been intended to settle. Yet it became one of the wonders of the world and a visible testimony to Herschel’s mechanical ingenuity and to the scale of his cosmological ambitions’ (DSB).
Acht Radierungen zu Byron’s Kain

Acht Radierungen zu Byron’s Kain

JETTMAR, Rudolf Folio, eight etched plates (46.3 x 33.2 cm) within a printed double sheet with title and, on the adjunct sheet, descriptive legend to the plates, and with note on print-run on verso, this copy marked ‘56’; all plates in rich, dark impressions and plate signed in pencil within plate-mark by the artist; title sheet with an image of Cain slaying Abel, repeated on the cover of the folder; one of the eight tissue guards to the plates lacking; an excellent set in the original cloth-backed folder; the cloth spine of the folder stained; rear board with some abrasion; two (of three) flaps with hinges restored. JETTMAR’S POWERFUL SUITE OF EIGHT SUPERB ETCHINGS ILLUSTRATING BYRON’S CAIN AND, TOGETHER WITH DIE STUNDEN DER NACHT (1910) AND PROMETHEUS (1916), HIS MOST FAMOUS ENGRAVED GRAPHIC WORKS. ‘Born in what was previously Austrian Galicia (today Poland), the painter and etcher Rudolf Jettmar showed artistic talent early in life. After his education at the Vienna Academy of fine Arts and the Vienna Academy’s Master School for Graphic Design among others, Jettmar became a member of the artists’ organization "Vienna Succession" in 1898. Jettmar can be viewed as the one of the most important representatives of European Symbolism. The "Stunden der Nacht" ("Hours of Night"), both "Prometheus" etchings (1910 and 1916), and above all the eight etchings of the cycle "Kain" of Lord Byron rank among his most important graphic works’ (Aeiou article, online). ‘The link Rudolph Jettmar established between music and fine art is not as apparent in his work as it can be in Max Klinger’s, but it is nonetheless at the very origin of his art. This is why, before examining his actual drawings executed in the Prometheus theme, it may be fruitful to consider first how Rudolph Jettmar apprehended myths and music. Indeed, as Hans von Hofstaetter put it, the Austrian artist, "gifted, as he was, for both arts [ ] was undecided between music and painting for a long time. As a matter of fact, he never did make that decision: although he became a painter and etcher, he also remained captured by music throughout his life. At the time of his death he was an honorary member of the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and also an honorary member of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. It is in this double membership that the two poles of his life find their expression". In actual fact, it is in the very conception he had of his art that he associated music and drawing, which explains why music was not used by Jettmar as a reference, or as a model to strive towards. It was at the root of his work. The two dominant elements in his work were landscape and mythology, which, for him, were musical traits ‘However, unlike many artists, and particularly Romantic artists, he did not see the faceless Christian God behind the great mystery of music, but the Greek gods from ancient mythology. It seems that to Jettmar the cosmic power of myths was inseparable from that of music, which reflects in an immaterial way the elementary and mysterious forces of the world’ (Caroline Corbeau, From Myth to Symbol: The Nineteenth-Century Interpretations of Prometheus, PhD Thesis, English Department, King’s College London). As with Prometheus, the power of myths – here biblical – is Jettmar’s foundation of Kain, expressed in superbly executed and highly nuanced, contrasting, areas of light and dark. Published in a sole edition of 200 copies, this is copy no. 56. Whilst the original folder shows some wear, the plates are in fine condition. Nebehay, Ver Sacrum 102; Pabst 327.
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Sur les équations différentielles linéaires homogènes. February 1892. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur l’irréductibilité des fonctions de plusieurs variables. March 1892. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur les équations différentielles linéaires homogènes. April 1892. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur l’intégration d’un système d’équations aux différentielles totales. May 1892. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur les équations différentielles régulières. May 1892. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur le développement des intégrales d’un système d’équations différentielles au voisinage d’un point singulier. April 1894. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur les points singuliers d’une équation différentielle linéaire. February 1895. BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto. Sur les points singuliers des équations diff

BENDIXSON, Ivar Otto 11 pamphlets, 8vo; all in original plain wrappers, four papers inscribed by Bendixson ‘M. J. Tannery hommage respecteuse de l’auteur’. FIRST EDITIONS, OFFPRINTS FROM ÖFVERSIGT AF KONGL. VETENSKAPS-AKADEMIENS FÖRFHANDLINGAR, OF THESE PAPERS ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. ‘Bendixson is probably best remembered for the Poincaré-Bendixson theorem. We shall say a little about how Bendixson came to prove this result. This came about because of his work in real analysis. In this area he first studied uniform convergence of series of real functions and took an important step towards giving precise conditions when the limit function of continuous functions is continuous. In examining periodic solutions of differential equations Bendixson used methods based on continued fractions. These methods had first been used by Legendre to prove that e and ? are irrational. ‘The analysis problem which intrigued Bendixson more than all others was the investigation of integral curves to first order differential equations, in particular he was intrigued by the complicated behaviour of the integral curves in the neighbourhood of singular points. This important problem was first studied by Briot and his friend Bouquet and, before Bendixson worked on it, had recently been investigated by Poincaré. Poincaré had obtained a qualitative description of the integral curves but it was Bendixson who gave a quantitative description near the singular points’ (MacTutor History of Mathematics). Provenance: Presentation inscriptions by Bendixson to Jules Tannery (1848-1910) on four of the papers. ‘Tannery studied under Charles Hermite and was the PhD advisor of Jacques Hadamard. Under Hermite, he received is doctorate in 1874 for his thesis Propriétés des Intégrales des Équations Différentielle Linéaires à Coefficients Variables. He discovered a surface of the fourth order of which all the geodesic lines are algebraic. He was not an inventor, however, but essentially a critic and methodologist. He once remarked, "Mathematicians are so used to their symbols and have so much fun playing with them, that it is sometimes necessary to take their toys away from them in order to oblige them to think." He notably influenced Paul Painlevé, Jules Drach, and Émile Borel to take up science. His efforts were mainly directed to the study of the mathematical foundations and of the philosophical ideas implied in mathematical thinking’ (Wikipedia).
Verschyde Schoorsteen Mantels nieulykx geinventeertVerschyde Schoorsteen Mantels nieulykx geinventeert. Amsterdam

Verschyde Schoorsteen Mantels nieulykx geinventeertVerschyde Schoorsteen Mantels nieulykx geinventeert. Amsterdam, Justus Danckerts, [c. 1690]. [bound with:] LE PAUTRE, Jean. Cheminees a la Moderne inventees. Amsterdam, F. de Wit, [c. 1700]. [bound with:] DECKER, Paul, the elder. [Designs of fireplaces and ornamental wall décor]. [n.p., n.d., c. 1708].

BULLET, Pierre 4to, ff. 22; 6; [6]; the title to Decker’s work with contemporary inscription in ink, ‘theodore’; the first leaf of the first work lightly browned and a bit brown-stained; the following five leaves with diminishing dampstain to lower gutter; otherwise only occasionally a little stained; bound in contemporary sheep-backed marbled boards; rubbed. THREE COMPLETE SUITES OF ORNAMENTAL FIREPLACE DESIGNS, WITH THE PLATES IN EXCELLENT IMPRESSIONS. Pierre Bullet (1639-1716) was the architect of a number of major projects in Paris. His Hôtels Crozat (now the Ritz) and d’Evreux in the Place Vendôme, Paris (1702–7), were precedents in their interior arrangement for later Parisian houses. He designed the Hôtel Poisson de Bourvalais (1703–7). His Château de Champs (1703–7) had an elliptical salon exposed in a protruding bow on the garden-front, while his Hôtel Dodun, Paris (after 1715), was a fine creation, with Rococo interiors. He was the author of Livre Nouveau de Cheminées, and L’Architecture Pratique (1691), which went through a number of editions. Jean Le Pautre (1618-1682) was long employed at the Gobelins factory. His work is often flamboyant and elaborate. He created nearly 1500 prints, nearly all after his own compositions. He disseminated the full repertoire of Louis XIV style across Europe. His chimney-pieces, in contrast, were often simple and elegant. Paul Decker the elder (1677-1713) was appointed court architect by Count Palatine Theodor von Sulzbach in 1708. This fine suite of designs, including one with Chinoiseries, was probably executed for him in the same year. Several engravings in these three suites show alternative décors on the same plate. See Ornamentkatalog Berlin 3787; Thieme-Becker 5, 217; See Ornamentkatalog Berlin 3801; Thieme-Becker 8, 524.
De Ioannis Calvine

De Ioannis Calvine, magni quondam Genevensium ministri, vita, moribus, rebus gestis, studijs, ac denique morte historia Nunc ex gallico eius Parisijs impresso exemplari Lantinè reddita. [bound after:] WIGAND, Johannes. De persecutione piorum. Exiliis piorum. Exiliis Facinorosorum. Martyriss Piorum. Pseudomartyriis. Fuga Ministrorum Verbi. Constantia. Apostasia. Patientia. Cologne, Alectorius u. J. Soteris, 1580.

BOLSEC, Jérôme Hermès 8vo, pp. 147 (recte 143, pagination erroneous, but complete); 368, [8]; Bolsec’s work with a fine woodcut portrait of Calvin; thumb-marker to Bolsec’s work (which is bound second) torn away from outer margin of title; otherwise fine copies bound in contemporary German blindstamped pigskin; covers with floral outer role incorporating a number of portrait medallions; upper cover with a central panel showing the baptism of Christ within an architectural border; lower cover with an annunciation scene; front free end-paper with contemporary inscription ‘Liber prohibit[u]s’; early ms paper labels to spine; the binding very slightly soiled. A SAMMELBAND IN AN ATTRACTIVE CONTEMPORARY BINDING, CONTAINING THE FIRST LATIN EDITION OF BOLSEC’S VICIOUS BIOGRAPHY OF CALVIN, AND THE VERY RARE FIRST EDITION OF THE LUTHERAN THEOLOGIAN JOHANN WIGAND’S WORK ON MARTYRDOM. I. Originally published in French at Paris in 1577, Bolsec’s Vita of Calvin reflects his earlier dispute with the radical reformer over the doctrine of predestination, of which he was a fierce critic. ‘Bolsec denied Calvin’s teaching regarding eternal predestination, saying that the doctrine made God a tyrant. Instead he proposed that predestination is based on foreseen faith (and reprobation on foreseen unbelief), and so neither was ‘eternal’, or ‘absolute’. For on this understanding of the Word, God elects and predestines those whom he foresees will respond in faith to the gospel. In the views of the pastors of Geneva, headed by Calvin, such sentiments weakened the foundation of God’s sovereignty in the gift of his grace and was contrary to the clear teaching of Scripture’ (Paul Helm in Credo). ‘A theologian and physician, [Bolsec] became a Carmelite monk at Paris. A sermon which he preached there aroused misgivings in ecclesiastical circles regarding the soundness of his ideas, and Bolsec left Paris. Having separated from the Catholic Church about 1545 he took refuge at the Court of Renée, duchess of Ferrara, who was favourably disposed towards persons holding Protestant views. Here he married, and began the study of medicine, about 1550 settling as a physician at Veigy, near Geneva. A theological controversy with Calvin, whose doctrine of predestination he deemed an absurdity, soon ensued. In 1551, at one of the religious conferences or public discussions, then held at Geneva every Friday, he interrupted the orator of the day, Jean de Saint André, who was speaking on predestination, and argued against him. As the triumph of his ideas would have meant the ruin of Calvin’s influence in the Swiss city, Bolsec was arrested, and through the influence of the reformer banished forever from Geneva (1551) He went to Paris and sought admission into the ministry of the Reformed Church. But his opinions were not found sufficiently orthodox, from a reformed point of view, for one wishing to hold such a position. He was asked for a declaration of faith, but refused’ (Catholic Encyclopedia). II. Rare first edition of this discourse on Christian persecution and martyrdom as a Christian condition by Wigand, an important contributor to the Magdeburg Centuries. ‘According to [Joachim Westphal, Flacius Illyricus, and Johann Wigand] the public confession of faith in the face of persecution, and perseverance in that confession, is not an indifferent matter, but is rather a mark of the truth of the Lutheran faith. This tendency became so pronounced that it was even asserted that the believer must be willing to accept persecution for refusing to compromise on matters that are not essential to the faith . (Lee C. Barrett, ‘Kierkegaard on the Problem of Witnessing while Yet Being a Sinner’ in Without Authority, edited by Robert L. Perkins, p. 158).I. Adams B2362; VD16 BN 6509; II.VD16 W 2822
Poëmes dramatiques d’Alexandre Pouchkine traduits du russe par Ivan Tourguéneff et Louis Viardot.

Poëmes dramatiques d’Alexandre Pouchkine traduits du russe par Ivan Tourguéneff et Louis Viardot.

PUSHKIN, Aleksandr Sergeevich 8vo, pp. [iv], 279, + 1 leaf table of contents and a final colophon leaf; some minor browning to edges, but a very good copy in contemporary half red morocco, spine lettered gilt, gilt bands on spine, marbled paper boards; bookplate of the ‘Sanatorium du Clergé de France’ (fonds Remy Canet) to front endleaf. SCARCE FIRST FRENCH EDITION OF FIVE WORKS BY PUSHKIN. TRANSLATED BY TURGENEV, THE WORK HELPED CEMENT PUSHKIN’S REPUTATION ABROAD. The collection includes an important Preface, and translations of Boris Godunov, the Little Tragedies (‘The Covetous Knight’, ‘Mozart and Salieri’, and ‘The Stone Guest’) and Rusalka, each with commentary. As Viardot did not know Russian, his contribution was as stylistic editor. In December 1860 Turgenev had delivered two public lectures on Pushkin in St Petersburg: unpublished, they were used in preparation of the Preface here, which was ‘signed by both translators but probably written by Turgenev alone’ (Izmailov). ‘In his years abroad Turgenev was one of the most active and tireless propagandists for Pushkin among the writers of Western Europe’ (Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, XV, 333), and during 1860–1 he corresponded with Mérimée, who suggested French equivalents for several passages. Poëmes dramatiques was the first of Turgenev’s translations of Pushkin to be published under his name, arousing a wide critical response in both France and Russia. Though extremely successful, it was, surprisingly, not reprinted. Mezhov, Puschkiniana, 3387; see N. V. Izmailov, ‘I. S. Turgenev – perevodchik Pushkina na frantsuzskii iazyk’, Pushkin: issledovaniia i materiali, 1974, VII, 185–203.
Fuge (in D.) für das Pianoforte zu 4 Händen. 137.tes Werk. PN 4979

Fuge (in D.) für das Pianoforte zu 4 Händen. 137.tes Werk. PN 4979

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van Oblong folio, with engraved title on upper wrapper and 4 engraved pages of musical notation; a very good copy, uncut in the original wrappers; the covers a bit worn at head and tail of spine; small piece torn away from lower outer corner; upper cover with small stamp ‘Prag bei Marco Berra’; lower cover stamped ‘Veuve de J. Hoffmann, editeur de musique’. A VERY ATTRACTIVE COPY OF THE RARE FIRST EDITION OF THE ADAPTATION TO THE PIANO OF BEETHOVEN’S STRING QUINTET. ‘This piece was written especially for a manuscript collection of Beethoven’s Works projected by Haslinger and was published by him in the fall of 1827 as Op.137. Beethoven was particularly interested in fugues at the time. "To make a Fugue requires no particular skill" he said later to Holz, "in my study days I made dozens of them. But the fancy wishes also to assert its privileges and today a new and really poetical element must be introduced into the old traditional form." The sketches for the conclusion of the Quintet fugue are mixed with notes from Bach and others showing how zealous were his studies in the form of that time’ (Thayer’s Life of Beethoven, edited by Elliot Forbes, 691-692). The original version for string quintet was composed in 1817, and this was first published by Haslinger after Beethoven’s death in 1827. The adaptation to Piano was printed at the same time.
Über die Wahrscheinlichkeitsfunktion einer Risikenmasse.

Über die Wahrscheinlichkeitsfunktion einer Risikenmasse.

LUNDBERG, Ernest Filip Oskar 8vo, pp. 83; a very good copy in the original printed wrappers, a little dusty; spine a little worn; unidentified owner’s initials on upper cover. FIRST EDITION, THE RARE SEPARATELY PAGINATED OFFPRINT FROM THE SKANDINAVISK AKTUARIETIDSKRIFT, OF LUNDBERG’S IMPORTANT 1930 PAPER ON RISK THEORY. In his dissertation of 1903 Lundberg treated a stochastic model for an insurance business and later formulated what we now call the compound Poisson model of a risk process.‘Lundberg’s 1903 thesis became the starting point of numerous attempts to get a firm grip on a theory both interesting and elusive. Lundberg wrestled for years with his collective-and-risk combination and his results are described in his publications of 1909, 1919, 1926, 1928, 1930.There were three obstacles on his way to a full understanding and acceptance of the definitive collective risk theory: time, space and notation.‘The 1909 and 1930 papers mentioned above are written in German and addressed to international life insurance congresses (in Vienna and Stockholm respectively), and thus were part of the international interchange of facts and findings.But Lundberg’s doctoral thesis and his contributions of 1926 and 1928 were all written in Swedish.This limited their circle of readers to a select group of Scandinavian and Finnish specialists.‘Lundberg’s mathematical notation was highly individual.Many scholars tried to examine what he had written about risk theory.Nearly as many simply gave up. But fortunately there was one person who could decipher Lundberg’s work and develop it into a coherent theory, namely Harald Cramér.In 1926 and later in 1969 he published penetrating reviews of Lundberg’s work, and in two monographs, of 1930 and 1955, he gave a lucid account of the development of the theory through his own and his students’ works’ (K. Englund and A. Martin-Löf, in Statisticians of the Centuries, edited by CC. Heyde and and E. Seneta, p. 310).
Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genaueren Kenntniss der Mondfläche

Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genaueren Kenntniss der Mondfläche, ihrer erlittenen Veränderungen und Atmosphäre, sammt den dazu gehörigen Specialcharten und Zeichungen

SCHROETER, Johann Hieronymus Two vols., 4to, pp. [18], xx, 676, [1]; [8], xxii, 565, [1], with engraved title vignettes to both volumes, and 75 engraved plates, five folding; a very few leaves with the odd spot; contemporary half calf over speckled board, red leather labels. A SUPERB COPY, CRISP, CLEAN, ENTIRELY UNCUT, AND COMPLETE WITH THE VERY RARE SECOND VOLUME, OF SCHROETER’S FAMOUS WORK, ‘THE FOUNDATION OF MODERN SELENOGRAPHY’ (Brown). ‘Schröter studied law at Göttingen but also attended lectures in mathematics, physics, and astronomy, the last under Kästner Through his appreciation of music he met the Herschel family, who revived his interest in astronomy. In 1781 he became chief magistrate at Lilienthal, a post that left him free time to devote to astronomy. With the aid of the optician J.G. Schrader he built and equipped an observatory that subsequently became world-famous for the excellence of the instruments. ‘Some were made in his own workshop; others he bought from Herschel, the latter including a reflector with a twenty-seven-foot focal length, the largest on the Continent. George III of England enabled Schröter to continue his astronomical work by buying all of his instruments, with the stipulation that they remain in Schröter’s possession until his death, when they would become the property of the University of Göttingen. Schröter was also awarded a grant to hire an assistant. K.L. Harding and, later, F.W. Bessel were among those who held the post. ‘For thirty years the observatory at Lilienthal was a center of astronomical research and was visited by foreign astronomers. On 21 September 1800 it was the site of the congress organized to search the space between Mars and Jupiter for a planetary body. Lilienthal was occupied during the Napoleonic Wars by the French, who looted and partly destroyed the observatory, although most of the instruments were saved. In the ensuing fire Schröter lost all copies of his own works, which he had published himself ‘Schröter was the first to observe the surface of the moon and the planets systematically over a long period. He made hundreds of drawings of lunar mountains and other features, and discovered and named the lunar rills’ (DSB). ‘The face of the moon is not only furrowed with craters, valleys, and seas, but it is laced with narrow clefts, or rills, and the honor of discovering the first lunar rills lies squarely in the lap of Johann Schröter His Fragments of Lunar Topography contains the results of a dozen years of observing; it has a large re-engraving of the Mayer moon map, and more importantly, dozens of engraved views of particular features of the lunar landscape. Especially noteworthy in Schröter’s lunar studies was his practice of studying the same feature under different angles of illumination, by which he was able to get a much better idea of actual lunar topography. He even calculated altitudes of many lunar mountains’ (Linda Hall exhibition catalogue). Whilst manyt copies of Schröter’s work were destroyed in 1813 during the occupation of Lilienthal by the French, the second volume, published closer to the event than the first, is of great rarity. Complete with all the plates, the copy offered here is further enhanced through the addition at the time of binding of three folding plates by Bode, including a large chart illustrating the parabolic paths of 72 comets, and a fine stereographic celestial map, measuring 76.5 x 76.5 cm and 67.5 x 66 cm respectively (these with short tears to folds and lightly offset). The large, apparently separately printed maps by Bode are of similar rarity, with the chart of cometary paths recorded at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, and Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg only, and – whilst a number of different examples of the stereographic celestial chart are recorded in German libraries – the only copy recorded as engraved by the Berlin engraver ‘C.C. Glassbach’, as here, is at the Burndy Library. The Face of the Moon 14 (vol. I only).
Das irrig Schaf. Sagt von kleinmütigkeit und verzweiflung. Gebredigt und gedeütscht durch den würdigen und hochgeboren doctoren Johannem Geiler von Keiserssberg mit sampt den nachvolgenden tractaten

Das irrig Schaf. Sagt von kleinmütigkeit und verzweiflung. Gebredigt und gedeütscht durch den würdigen und hochgeboren doctoren Johannem Geiler von Keiserssberg mit sampt den nachvolgenden tractaten

GEILER VON KAYSERSBERG, Johannes Seven parts in one vol., 4to, ff. [203], with a title woodcut to each of the seven parts; small hole to upper outer margin of main title; leaf c4 a bit stained on verso; a little light worming and minor dampstaining; a very attractive copy in contemporary blindstamped half pigskin over wooden boards; traces of clasps; lower cover with the outer section of the board renewed. FIRST EDITION OF THESE SEVEN TRACTS BY THE FAMOUS WRITER AND PREACHER, INCLUDING DER ESCHEN GRÜDEL, THE EARLIEST PRINTED VERSION OF CINDERELLA, AND CONTAINING ONE OF THE EARLIEST ILLUSTRATIONS OF THAT CHARACTER. Born at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, in 1445, Geiler was ‘the prince of the pulpit in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries’ (David C. Steinmetz, Reformers in the Wings: From Geiler von Kaysersberg to Theodore Beza p. 9). ‘In 1475, after earning his doctorate in theology, [Gailer] returned to Freiburg to teach theology. The following year he was elected rector. ‘His academic career was successfully launched. He was popular with the students and esteemed by his colleagues. Nevertheless, he was restless and dissatisfied with life in the university community. There lurked at the back of his mind the thought, which gradually grew into a conviction, that his real vocation was the pulpit rather than the lectern. Unable to shake the feeling of a missed vocation, he finally yielded to it. When the city of Würzburg invited him to preach a trial sermon, he readily accepted. He was willing to do so, even set out for Basel to collect his books. On his way to Switzerland, however, he stopped in the city of Strasbourg. The casual visit proved to be a fateful one. The Ammeister of Strasbourg, Peter Schott, persuaded Geiler to decline the invitation to Würzburg and to accept the post of preacher at the Strasbourg cathedral instead. ‘Geiler never regretted his decision to become the people’s priest in Strasbourg. For thirty-two years he preached at the appointed times in the municipal cathedral. His sermons were a ringing cry for the improvement of the moral level of clergy and laity alike and a stirring denunciation of the abuses of Christian discipline within the church His sermons were direct and pointed. Though they were written out in advance in Latin, they were preached in a homely and often pungent German. Geiler believed that the preacher, unlike the lecturer at the university, dared not run the risk of being obscure. ‘It is the business of the preacher of the gospel to be plain, to be understandable – if necessary, to be crude – in order to carry home to the hearts of his listeners in a direct and unforgettable way the simple truth that lies at the center of all Christian proclamation. The preacher cannot be an instrument of reform if he restricts himself to the delivery of learned and – from the standpoint of the common people at least – generally incomprehensible essays in Latin. If the use of secular literature will assist the preacher in the performance of his task, then secular literature should be gratefully received and gladly used’ (ibid, pp. 9-13, passim). Inspired by Jean de Gerson (1363-1429), French scholar, poet, reformer, and Chancellor of the University of Paris, the seven tales of Christian moral are: 1) Das irrig Schaf; 2) Der hellisch Löw; 3) Die christlich Kunigin; 4) Der dreieckecht Spiegel; 5) Der Eschen Grüdel; 6) Das Klappermaul; 7) Der Trostspiegel. All are without pagination or foliation; the final blank to Das Klappermaul has been cut away. Signed ‘HG’, the woodcut to the Dreieckecht Spiegel is attributed by Nagler to Hans Baldung Grien. Provenance: from the Capuchin monastery at Heidelberg, with a near contemporary inscription at head of title (partly effaced); from there the volume went into the library of the nearby Capuchin monastery at Waghäusel, founded in 1639, with three respective inscriptions to the title (one on the woodcut, one dated 1650). VD16 G764; Ritter 1078.
Libro Primero delos famosos hechos del principe Celidon de Iberia. Compuesto en Estancias

Libro Primero delos famosos hechos del principe Celidon de Iberia. Compuesto en Estancias

GOMEZ DE LUQUE, Gonzalo. 4to, ff. [4], 197 [recte 199], with large woodcut device on title; lacking the final leaf with the colophon (see below); numerous errors in pagination; some upper outer margins a bit short, but not affecting text; five or six leaves a little trimmed at outer or lower margins, affecting a couple of catch words only; an excellent copy in red morocco by Chambolle-Duru, gilt edges; preserved in a green morocco slip case, the case a bit rubbed; discreet private library stamp to verso of title and one text leaf. EXTREMELY RARE FIRST AND ONLY EDITION OF GOMEZ DE LUQUE’S CHIVALRIC ROMANCE, HIGHLY PRAISED BY CERVANTES IN THE CANTO DE CALLIOPE, HIS LAUDATORY POEM ABOUT THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE POETS OF SPAIN. ‘Tú que de Celidon con dulce plectro/ Hiciste resonar el nombre y fama,/ Cuyo admirable y bien limado metro,/ A lauro y triunfo la convida y llama:/ Recibe el mando, la corona y cetro/ Gonzalo Gómez, desta que te ama,/ En señal que merece tu persona/ El justo señorio de Helicona’ (Cervantes, ‘Canto de Calliope’, Galatea, book 6). ‘Dice el autor en su dedicatoria á Felipe II que hasta hoi (1581) en la felice España ninguno ha sacado de ficcion libro en metro: efectivamente, no recuerdo que nadie le precedera, pues aun cuando la obra de Garrido de Villena sobre la batalla de Roncésvalles, y la de Gómez Aillon [that is: Diego Ximénez de Ayllón] en que relata los hechos del Cid, son en gran parte caballeresca y de invencion, en el fondo están basadas en hechos históricos. ‘El Celidon de Iberia es un poema puramente caballeresco, dividido en cuarenta cantos, tan raro como mal impreso. Los ejemplares perfectamente completos son tan dificiles de encontrar, que los Srs. Sancho Rayon y Zarco del Valle solo han visto uno compuesto de 201 hojas en vez de 202: pues se conoce le faltaba la hoja suelta del fin con las señas de la impresion’ (Salva II p. 71). Little is known with any certainty about Gómez de Luque. Styling himself a ‘natural de la ciudad de Cordoba’ on the title, there is no documentation to confirm this; his date of birth and death remain unknown. His literary activity is confined to the period of 1580 to 1590, with a number of stanzas and sonnets published in collaboration with Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Pedro de Padilla, Pedro Lainez, and López Maldonado among others, and with which circle he appears to have maintained a close relationship (see the article ‘Poetas Luqueños’ by Antonio Cruz Casado, online, where the author furthermore suggests a probable influence of Gomez on the development of Cervantes’ literary work). Described as Libro Primero, no more was published. Included are two sonnets by Antonio Fernández de Córdoba and Juan de Quintana. The first Spanish fictional romance in verse, Gómez de Luque’s work is extremely rare, with almost all of the few copies located outside of Spain apparently equally lacking the colophon leaf, as was the case with the copy auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1933, the only other copy recorded as having come up for sale in over 80 years. Printed on poor paper stock, our copy is in remarkably fine condition. Martin Abad 932; Palau 104066; Simón Diaz X-5853; Vindel 1159; a very rare book, OCLC records three locations in Spain, at Biblioteca Nacional, Biblioteca de Catalunya, and Biblioteca Universitat de Barcelona (these three apparently complete); the copies there recorded outside of Spain, all without the colophon leaf, are located at Chicago, Harvard (also described as short margined), Thomas Fisher Library, Toronto (with the note: ‘first two leaves are defective’), University of Birmingham, and the British Library. In addition to the copies located in OCLC there is a copy with the colophon at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, however with a very mutilated title page and badly stained, and a further, complete copy, at the Hispanic Society of America (the Salva copy).
Reformatione

Reformatione, e tassa delli pagamenti da farsi alli guardiani delle carceri, et essecutori.

POPE PIUS V, Saint] A HIGHLY INTERESTING AND VERY RARE PAPAL DECREE IN THE VERNACULAR ON ROMAN PRISON REGULATIONS, ADDRESSING CORRUPTION AND EXTORTION PREVALENT AMONG WARDENS AND CAPTAINS, AND PRISONERS’ RIGHTS. With law and its application greatly differing throughout Italian states and provinces at the time, this bull provides rare contemporary insight into corruption within the judicial system, specifically the extortion of secret payments through prison wardens and their superiors, and gives official guidelines to both wardens and prisoners. Accounts are to be kept, noting prisoner’s meals. There are details on quantity and quality of food (‘buon pane e buon vino a bastanza, & almeno una libra di carne al giorno con la minestra’). Contraventions from the side of the wardens and captains are to be fined. Prisoners’ wants are to be reported to the captains through the wardens. Prisoners’ payments, any other objects including arms, are to be kept in a strongbox, with one key held by a captain, the other by his superior. Further sections discuss compensations due to mistreatment and beatings, the explicit prohibition of Executors or prison chiefs to make inventories of a delinquent’s possessions without specific instruction, the treatment of the poor, extortion of payments from prostitutes, etc. Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572) was Pope from January 1566 until his death in 1572. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman Rite within the Latin Church. Pius V was under constant pressure during the time of the passing of this decree. Following the recent first Diet of Augsburg and with the renewal of the war against the Turks, Emperor Maximilian was asking for financial assistance, Malta required aid following the Great Siege of 1565, and the beleaguered Mary, Queen of Scots equally required support. Printed by Blado, the decree is signed ‘v. vitellius card. camerarius’, one of the signatories of the bull concerning the confirmation of the Council of Trent. Catalogo delle edizioni romane di Antonio Blado, I, 422; not found in OCLC.
Opera omnia

Opera omnia, sive astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata. In duas partes distributa, quorum prima De restitutione motuum solis & lunae, stellarumque . secunda autem de mundi aetherei

BRAHE, Tycho Two parts in one vol., 4to, pp. [vi], [3-]470, [7]; 217, [1], [1 leaf, blank], with large woodcut printer’s device on both titles, and numerous illustrations and diagrams in text; the two leaves of dedication to the Bishop of Munich erroneously bound in at the end of the volume; some mild browning and foxing; the final twenty leaves with a few wormholes filled in, affecting a few letters, otherwise an unusually fine copy, bound in contemporary southern French red morocco, gilt arms to covers. A WONDERFUL COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION OF TYCHO’S ‘WORKS’, COMPRISING HIS TWO MOST SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS, THE PROGYMNASMATA (1602) AND DE MUNDI AETHEREI (1603), WHICH TOGETHER FORM ‘THE FOUNDATION ON WHICH KEPLER, AND LATER NEWTON, BUILT THEIR ASTRONOMICAL SYSTEMS’ (Sparrow). PRINTED AT FRANKFURT AT THE VERY END OF THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR AND ON PAPER STOCK GENERALLY TENDING TO SEVERE BROWNING, THIS WORK IS NEVER FOUND IN SUCH FINE CONDITION AND IN A HIGHLY REMARKABLE BINDING AS HERE. ‘Tycho’s influence and reputation stems from achievements that fall into three quite distinct categories. The one that was most important during Tycho’s life and for the fifty years following it was cosmological in character. It was initiated in 1572 by the appearance of what has come to be called Tycho’s nova (now classified as a supernova) and raised to the dimension of a crusade by the appearance of the even more spectacular comet of 1577. During the ensuing decade Tycho composed lengthy monographs on each phenomenon. These would form the great bulk of his life’s literary output, and would include the discovery which he himself undoubtedly regarded as the outstanding achievement of his career – the so-called Tychonic system of the world’ (Victor E. Thoren in The General History of Astronomy, 2A p. 3). ‘The star of 1572 and the comets observed at Hveen had cleared the way for the restoration of astronomy but helping to destroy old prejudices; and Tycho therefore resolved to write a great work on these recent phenomena which should embody all results of his observations in any way bearing on them. The first volume he devoted to the new star, but as corrected star places which were necessary for the reduction of the observations of 1572-72 involved researches on the motion of the sun, on refraction, precession, &c., the volume gradually assumed greater proportions . and was never quite finished in Tycho’s lifetime. On account of the wider scope of its contents he gave it the title Astronomia instauratae progymnasmata, or "Introduction to the new astronomy," a title which marks the work as paving the way for the new planetary theory and tables which Tycho had hoped to prepare, but which it fell to Kepler’s lot to work out . ‘[The new star] roused to unwearied exertions a great astronomer, it caused him to renew astronomy in all its branches by showing the world how little it Knew about the heavens . the star of Cassiopeia started astronomical science on the brilliant career it has pursued ever since, and swept away the mist that obscured the true system of the world’ (Dreyer, Tycho Brahe, 1890, pp. 162-62 and 196). Many Frankfurt imprints of this period (the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War in the year this book was published) are afflicted by heavy browning. Whist there is some browning to the paper of this copy, it is much less pronounced than usually found, and the binding is pristine. Provenance: François de Rignac (1580-1633), Attorney General of the Cour des Aides de Montpellier, with his gilt arms on covers (cf. Olivier-Hermal-de Rotton, pl. 1902 and Guigard, Nouvel armorial du bibliophile, II, 413). The superb binding of this copy is typical of the workshops of the South of France, especially that of Corberan, the binder of Peiresc. Though François de Rignac married a certain Jeanne de Fabry in 1627, she was not related to his namesake, Nicolas Fabri de Peiresc a native of Aix, even though this copy could imply family ties. According to
Dialogo . della musica antica

Dialogo . della musica antica, et della moderna

GALILEI, Vincenzo Folio, ff. [2], pp. 149, [10], title within a fine allegorical woodcut border, two engraved examples of musical notation, five illustrations of musical instruments, two full page; one pasted-in woodcut diagram, numerous woodcut text diagrams, some full-page, and woodcut printer’s device at colophon; one deletion in ink to two lines on page 70, and the odd marginal note in a contemporary hand; occasional light spotting, pale damp mark to the upper margin of the first few leaves, and to the lower outer corner, the odd stain; old ownership inscription on front free endpaper crossed through; contemporary limp vellum; spine with short splits over the cords, top corners worn, missing the original ties; preserved in a custom made morocco backed box. A BEATIFUL COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE OF VINCENZO GALILEI’S MAIN WORK. ‘Vincenzo Galilei, father of Galileo Galilei, the astronomer who disenchanted the universe, was among the first to cut the ancient monochord in a series of experiments conducted in the 1580s, by subjecting instrumental sound to the instrumental reason of empirical science. Indeed, Stillman Drake suggests that Galilei’s experiments with sound ‘may have led to the origin of experimental physics’, inspiring his son to interrogate the world to verify the laws of nature as empirical fact. Galilei wanted to ‘demonstrate real things’, he said, in the spirit of Aristotle and not the numerical abstractions of Pythagorean mysticism. He collapsed music into ‘reality’ as an audible fact divorced from celestial values. ‘Galilei in these experiments exercised an instrumental reality in two ways. First, he objectified music as a neutralised matter for experimentation. Numbers were not sonorous in themselves, he claimed, but had to be ‘applied to some sonorous body’. Music does not exist as some perfect numerological system out there in the celestial realms as Pythagoras and indeed Galilei’s teacher, Zarlino, believed; rather sounds are emitted from bodies whose different components colour the aural perception of their harmonic ratios. Why believe in the ancient ratio 2:1, for example, if, as Galilei demonstrates, the diapason can variously be obtained between strings whose length is in duple proportion, or weights in quadruple proportion? Empirical reality simply did not match up with the ancient integers that were to organise the universe ‘Secondly, having demythologised music with an empirical rationality, he subjects it with an instrumental efficiency that re-tunes music for modern ears. If, as his experiments proved, sounds were necessarily imperfect and unrelated to simple numbers, then there was no reason why the irrational tuning of Aristoxenus, that is equal temperament, should not be imposed upon music played on or accompanied by instruments. Indeed, the chromatic and enharmonic nature of modern music demanded it, and just to underline the point, Galilei composes ‘a song’ which if sung with perfect intonation would be out of tune with reality: the chromatic and enharmonic clashes of modern harmony can only be eradicated if played on instruments tuned to equal temperament’ (Daniel K.L. Chua, Absolute Music and the Construction of Meaning pp. 18-19). Galileo’s Two New Sciences was published some forty years after the experiments his father described. The late music historian Claude Palisca, after speculating on whether Vincenzo influenced Galileo or vice-versa, wrote, “While the possibility of such an influence is only conjectural, it is a striking fact that Galileo, in the section on consonances in the Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, repeats in the conversation between the two interlocutors, Sagredo and Salviati, the thought process that is documented in the discourses of Vincenzo Galilei” The work was re-issued by Giunta with a new title page in 1602. Adams G 139; Cinti 6; RISM B. IV, p. 344; Eitner IV, 128; Fetis III, p. 384; Gregory, p. 103; Gaspari I, p. 219; Bibliothèque A. Cortot, p. 83.
Arcana arcanissima. Hoc est Hieroglyphica Ægyptio-Græca. Vulgo necdum cognita. Ad demonstrandam falsorum apud antiquos deorum

Arcana arcanissima. Hoc est Hieroglyphica Ægyptio-Græca. Vulgo necdum cognita. Ad demonstrandam falsorum apud antiquos deorum, dearum, heroum, animantium, & institutorum pro sacris receptorum, originem, ex uno Ægyptiorum artificio, quod aureum animi & corporis medicamentum peregit, deductam. Unde tot poëtarum allegorie, scriptorum narrationes fabulosæ & per totam encyclopediam errores sparsi clarissima veritatis luce manifestantur, suæque tribui singula restituuntur, sex libris exposita

MAIER, Michael 4to, ff. [6], pp. 285, [14], with engraved title and an engraved architectural dedication leaf; the lettering of the first lines of the title within rules in red ink; tip of upper outer corner of title a little worn; paper flaw to lower blank edges of two leaves; lightly browned; four leaves a bit brown stained; a few early marginal ink marks or underlinings; a very good copy in early vellum; two 18th-century ownership inscriptions to lower margin of title and an early bibliographical note to upper margin. FIRST EDITION, EXTREMELY RARE, OF MAIER’S FIRST PUBLISHED WORK. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED WITH A LETTERPRESS TITLE ONLY, THIS SECOND ISSUE IS DISTINGUISHED BY A FINELY ENGRAVED ALLEGORICAL TITLE, AND WITH AN ENGRAVED DEDICATION LEAF ADDED. ‘By 1611 he [Maier] had visited many German towns and had befriended among others the Landgrave Maurice of Hesse and Prince Christian I of Anhalt, both of whom shared his passion for alchemy. Both princes were also connected with the mysterious Rosicrucian Fraternity After the Emperor’s [Rudolph II] death in 1612, Maier appears to have taken refuge for several years in England, where he learned the language and translated Thomas Norton’s Ordinall of Alchemy into Latin. In London he published his first work, Arcana arcanissima The Arcana arcanissima is a work of special importance, not only because it was the first of Michael Maier’s books to be published, but also because it presented at length for the first time the hermetick interpretation of Greek and Egyptian myths’ (Klossowski de Rola, The Golden Game, pp. 59-60). ‘Maier was deeply interested in the philosophical interpretation of mythology and that side of Bacon’s thought, expressed in his philosophical interpretation of myth in The Wisdom of the Ancients (1609), may well have had a fascination for Maier and his school. That his alchemical philosophy was hidden in the ancient myths was a basic tenet for Maier, and Bacon, too, had sought for his own natural philosophy in mythology’ (Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, p. 122). ‘Interest in the occult was a feature of the period, and many looked to Egypt as the source of all knowledge. Considerable impetus was given to the study of things Egyptian by the influence of Giordano Bruno, who believed that the ancient wisdoms of Egyptian religion were of great significance to Christianity; he held that Egyptian theology was not only acceptable, but demonstrated that Christianity was hardly unique, and there is evidence he may have influenced certain Hermetic developments in Protestantism and Rosicrucianism’ (James Stevens Curl, The Egyptian Revival: Ancient Egypt as the Inspiration for Design Motifs in the West, p. 129). Provenance: two 18th-century ownership inscriptions to lower margins of title, one dated 1768, the other 1789 and initialled ‘P.C.O.’, the latter spelled out ‘Pris, Corbiniani Oster, 1789,’ at end of preface; brief biographical note on Maier at foot of final page of index followed by a laudatory note to rear free end-paper, both apparently in ‘Oster’s’hand. Published without imprint some of the early bibliographers falsely assumed Oppenheim as place of printing. The work was first published with a letterpress title, dated 1614; in our second issue, which is undated, this has been replaced by an engraved title, and an engraved dedication leaf was added, of which two states are known: a) with a printed dedication between two engraved pillars, and b) blank, except for the two engraved pillars, as here. The finely engraved allegorical title page shows figures of Osiris, Typhon, Isis, Hercules and Dionysus, together with representations of an ibis, the Apis bull, and the mythical cynocephalus or ‘dog-head’, flanked by two obelisks. Caillet 6987; Duveen p. 380 (assuming an Oppenheim imprint); Ferguson II, p. 66; Gardner 416 (also assuming an Oppenheim imprint); STC 17196.5; not in Cimelia Rhodostaurotica, Krivatsy or Wellcome.
Sämmtliche Schriften

Sämmtliche Schriften, geordnet und mit einem Vorwort versehen von Gustav Schwab. Erstes [- sechsunddreissigstes] Bändchen

HAUFF, Wilhelm 36 vols., 16mo, with a lithographic frontispiece portrait of the author; occasional foxing; a few leaves stained; entirely uncut in the original printed wrappers; some spines a little worn (a few with very minor restorations); three or four wrappers with small portions torn away; preserved in a slip case. FIRST EDITION OF WHAT UNTIL THIS DAY REMAINS THE MOST COMPLETE COLLECTED EDITION OF THE GERMAN POET, NOVELIST AND FAIRY TELLER’S WORKS. THIS IS A WONDERFUL SET IN HIGHLY DESIRABLE CONDITION, EXTREMELY RARE COMPLETE AND WITH ALL OF THE FRAGILE ORIGINAL WRAPPERS PRESERVED. Included are his famous fairy tales, amongst them as Der kleine Muck (The Story of Little Mook), Kalif Storch (Caliph Stork) and Die Geschichte von dem Gespensterschiff (The Tale of the Ghost Ship), which are set in the Orient, and Der Zwerg Nase (Little Longnose), Das kalte Herz (The Cold Heart or The Marble Heart, which is sourced from Washington Irving’s The Devil and John Walker) and Das Wirtshaus im Spessart (The Spessart Inn), which are set in Germany. For both the framework and the setting of individual tales Hauff made abundant use of the fashion for things oriental which, as far as literature is concerned, went back to the Arabian Nights. New German translations of the Arabian Nights by Joseph von Hammer and Max Habicht appeared in 1823-24 and 1825 respectively, so Hauff had an immediate influence. During the Victorian and Edwardian periods, and published before the collections of folk tales by the Brothers Grimm brothers or by Hans Andersen, Hauff’s tales were better known than Hoffmann’s Nutcracker or Brentano’s fairytales. Other noteworthy titles are Mitteilungen aus den Memoiren des Satan (Memoirs of Beelzebub), Der Mann im Mond (The Man in the Moon), the historical romance Lichtenstein; Romantische Sage aus der wuerttembergischen Geschichte, which was inspired by the novels of Sir Walter Scott, the short novels Die Bettlerin vom Pont des Arts (The True Lover’s Fortune; or, the Beggar of the Pont des Arts), his masterpiece, Phantasien im Bremer Ratskeller (The Wine-Ghosts of Bremen), as well as some short poems. ‘In January 1827, Hauff undertook the editorship of the Stuttgart Morgenblatt and in the following month married, but his happiness was prematurely cut short by his death from fever on the 8th of November 1827 [aged not quite 25 years]. ‘Considering his brief life, Hauff was an extraordinarily prolific writer. The freshness and originality of his talent, his inventiveness, and his genial humor have won him a high place among the south German prose writers of the early nineteenth century’ (NNDB, online), and the popularity of his works ‘is so constantly on the increase as to suggest the thought that in time they may prove a formidable rival of the "Arabian Nights," in the regards of the young, the world over’ (Edward L. Stowell in his preface to Tales of the Caravan, Inn, and Palace, Chicago, 1881). This first edition of the Works was published in instalments over the period of one year. Some of the later volumes advertise Schwab’s edition of Sir Walter Scott’s novels on the back wrappers, again available in individual issues. Schwab also edited Hauff’s Sämtliche Werke in book form, first printed in three volumes in 1830-1834. I have not been able to trace a comparable set to the one offered, and with all the wrappers preserved as here; library searches indicate holdings of odd volumes only. Provenance: from the library of the noted collector of German literature, Dr. Viktor Achter (1905-1981), with his bookplate and discreet cypher in each volume. Goedeke IX, 211, 23a; Bibliothek Prof. Dr. Viktor Achter, Faksimile des Handexemplars 1980.
Erster [-dritter] Theil der grossen Wundartzney desz weitberühmten

Erster [-dritter] Theil der grossen Wundartzney desz weitberühmten, bewerten, unnd erfarnen Theophrasti Paracelsi von Hohenheim, der Leib und Wundartzney Doctoris, von allen Wunden, Stich, Schüss, Brendt, Thierbissz, Beinbrüch, Was nemlich die gantze Heilung, Zufell und Gebresten, gegenwärtig und zukünfftig, in sich begreifft, Auss rechtem grundt und erfahrnuss treüwlich an Tag geben, und auss seinem selbst geschriebnen Exemplar wieder auffs neuw in Truck verfertigt

PARACELSUS, Theophrastus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim Three parts in one vol., 4to (182 x 144 mm), ff. [12], 115,[ 1]; [12, including final blank], 129, [1]; [74, including terminal blank], title to each part printed in red and black and with a fine woodcut illustration, and two large woodcut illustrations in the first part; small wormhole in blank margins of a few gatherings in third part, a very clean, attractive copy in contemporary German vellum with yapp edges on upper and lower edges as well as fore-edges, ruled in blind, yellow-green silk ties. FIRST EDITION OF PARACELSUS’ GREAT SURGERY TO CONTAIN THESE FINE TITLE WOODCUTS, AND THE WOODCUT OF SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS. The Wundartzney is Paracelsus’ most important medical work, and one which had immense influence on the practice of medicine. Besides surgery, it contains the first presentation of his radical medical ideas. ‘The most original medical thinker of the sixteenth century, Paracelsus was perhaps the first to apply chemistry to practical medicine . Paracelsus taught that medicine could not advance solely by clinging to established ideas but that there must also be "experimentation controlled by authoritative literature". His first book on surgical techniques . dealt with the complete treatment of wounds caused by piercing, shooting, burning, animal bites, bone fracture, and other injuries. Advocating sound surgical techniques, he also recognized the natural power of the body to heal’ (Le Fanu, Notable medical books p. 25). ‘Among Paracelsus’ practical achievements was his management of wounds and chronic ulcers. These conditions were overtreated at the time, and Paracelsus’ success lay in his conservative, non-interventionist approach, which was based upon his belief in natural healing power and mumia, an active principle in tissues’ (DSB). The text was first published in 1536 at Ulm by Hans Varnier in an unauthorized version, which was strongly condemned by Paracelsus in the preface to his own ‘first’ of the same year. The Great surgery provides comprehensive instructions in all areas of surgery and wound management. The first chapter of the first part is a typically radical address to all physicians, surgeons, and barbers, defying quackery and instructing the reader to treat and heal according to the nature of the specific disease or ailment. The treatments include those of wounds caused by arrows, bullets, burns (including gunpowder burns, as well as ‘alchemistical accidents’), animal bites (with sub-chapters on poisoned bites), cuts, fractures, cancerous growths, fistulae, and syphilis. Interspersed are chapters on the importance of hygiene in wound management, astral influences on treatment, and numerous instructions for the preparation of remedies. Several chapters give an insight into Paracelsus’ mystical and gnostic views. According to Sudhoff the woodcut of the Weltbild (here on leaf 64 of part I) is an exact copy of the one contained in the Augsburg printing of 1537. The three title woodcuts depict an apothecary shop on the first title, a surgery room and wound management on the second, and a sick room with a patient in bed and a doctor checking astrological positions. The woodcut following the index to the first part depicts several surgical instruments. This Frankfurt edition has undergone minor textual changes. Whether the printers Han and Rabe or a follower of Paracelsus are responsible for these is not clear. Rabe and Han, and heirs, published three issues closely together. The first two volumes are identical in all three variants, which only concern the third volume. This volume is dated 1562 in the colophon of one issue, 1563 in another issue, and undated in ours. In our copy the first two gatherings are identical to those in Sudhoff 51, while the remaining gatherings are from Sudhoff 29 (1553), apart from the final gathering T2 with the colophon. No priority has been established. Sudhoff 49, 50 and 52 (see also 502); cf Durling 3457 and Wellcome 4744; not in Adams, Bird, Parkinson & Lumb, or Waller.
Pithecanthropus erectus; Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois

Pithecanthropus erectus; Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois, Militairarzt der niederlaendisch-indischen Armee.

DUBOIS, Euge?ne [Eugen] 4to, pp. [4], 39, [1], with three photographic illustrations in the text, and two photographic plates (faced by a half-page descriptive note each); lightly browned; front free end-paper reinforced in the gutter; a good copy in the original publisher’s cloth-backed boards; spine renewed and the boards a bit rubbed and lightly soiled; offered with a group of 26 offprints by Dubois, largely on the same subject. FIRST EDITION, THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DISCOVERY OF HOMO ERECTUS, PRINTED IN A SMALL PRINT RUN IN BATAVIA, NOW JAKARTA, AND HERE ACCOMPANIED BY A MOST COHERENT GROUP OF 26 VERY RARE PUBLICATIONS BY DUBOIS ON COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. Although hominid fossils had been found and studied before, Dubois was the first anthropologist to embark upon a purposeful search for them. Dubois was born and raised in the village of Eijsden, Limburg, where his father, Jean Dubois, was an apothecary, later the mayor. Interested in all phenomena of the world of nature, Eugène explored the ‘caves’ (‘Grotten’, actually underground limestone mines) of Mount St Peter and amassed collections of plant parts, stones, insects, shells, and animal skulls. From age 12-13 on, he attended school in the Limburg city of Roermond, boarding with a family there and then he dropped out. In Roermond he attended lectures on Darwin’s new theory of evolution given by the German biologist, Karl Vogt. Resisting his apothecary father’s plan to follow in his footsteps, Dubois, encouraged by his teachers, in 1877 decided to study medicine at the University of Amsterdam. While a student he taught anatomy at both of the brand new (founded 1880) art schools housed at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (State School for Applied Arts) and the Rijksnormaalschool voor Teekenonderwijzers (State Normal School for Drawing Instructors). In 1884 he obtained his medical degree. He declined an offer from the University of Utrech of a position as a teacher. Instead, at the invitation of his anatomy instructor, Max Fürbinger, creator of several ‘genealogical systems’ or evolutionary trees, he decided to train as an academic. From 1881 to 1887 he studied comparative anatomy and became Fürbinger’s assistant. His chief interest was in human evolution, influenced by Ernst Haeckel, who reasoned that there must be intermediate species between ape and human. Following the discovery of a prehistoric flint mine near the village of Rijckholt, Dubois himself finds human skulls there. ‘Appointed lecturer in anatomy at the University of Amsterdam (1886), Dubois investigated the comparative anatomy of the larynx in vertebrates but became increasingly interested in human evolution. In 1887 he went to the East Indies as a military surgeon and, on the island of Sumatra, began to excavate caves in search of remains of early hominins (members of the human lineage). ‘Continuing his quest on the island of Java, Dubois found at Trinil a jaw fragment (1890) and later a skullcap and thighbone. The skull gave evidence of a small brain, massive browridges, a flat, retreating forehead, and other apelike features. Dubois named the fossils Pithecanthropus erectus, or "upright ape-man," to indicate an intermediate phase in the evolution then believed to proceed from simian ancestors having the upright posture characteristic of modern man. After publishing his findings (1894) he returned to Europe (1895) and became a professor of geology at the University of Amsterdam. Because of controversy surrounding his discovery, he withdrew his materials from all examination until 1923’ (Encyclopaedia Britannica, online).The 26 offprints, dating from 1886 to 1939, included here (3 in German, 4 in Dutch, and 19 in English, the majority from the Proceedings of the Meetings of the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam) are significant both textually and in demonstrating Dubois’ on-going struggle in gaining recognition for his ground-braking discovery.
Account of the Discovery of a Sixth and Seventh Satellite of the Planet Saturn; with Remarks on the Construction of its Ring

Account of the Discovery of a Sixth and Seventh Satellite of the Planet Saturn; with Remarks on the Construction of its Ring, its Atmosphere, its Rotation on an Axis, and its spheroidical Figure [London, J. Nichols, 1790]. [bound with:] HERSCHEL, William. On the Ring of Saturn, and the Rotation of the Fifth Satellite upon its axis. With Miscellaneous Observations, &c. [London, J. Nichols, 1792]

HERSCHEL, William Two works in one vol., 4to, pp. 20; 27; with three folding engraved aquatints to the first work, and one to the second; the first 11 leaves of the second work with a section of the blank outer margins torn away (well away from text), and with old restoration; otherwise very good, clean copies in contemporary speckled boards; lightly rubbed. THE VERY RARE SEPARATELY PAGINATED OFFPRINTS FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF TWO IMPORTANT PAPERS ON SATURN AND ITS SATELLITES. ‘Besides his discovery of Uranus, Herschel made other contributions to the astronomy of the Solar System He observed and suggested the name "asteroid" for the small bodies that his contemporaries had begun to discover orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. His studies of Jupiter’s four known satellites revealed that, like our Moon, each rotates on its axis once per revolution. Between 1787 and 1789, he discovered Mimas and Enceladus, Saturn’s sixth and seventh satellites’ (The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers I, p. 496). ‘Saturn exercised a special fascination for Herschel, and between 1789 and 1808 he devoted seven papers and part of an eighth to the planet, its ring and its satellites. On 19 August 1787 Herschel suspected he had found a sixth and previously unknown satellite, but he was not able to confirm this until 28 August 1789, when the forty-foot telescope came into commission. A few days later he found the seventh satellite. For some months he carefully tracked the satellites, establishing for Mimas and Enceladus periods within seconds of their modern values, and giving evidence to show that Iapetus rotates in its period of revolution. ‘He also made careful observations of the rings, which he believed to be solid. As the earth happened to be in the plane of the ring structure at the time, he compared the thickness of the ring when seen edge-on with the diameter of Jupiter’s satellites; and although his time exceeds modern values, his method showed that the thickness did not exceed a few hundred miles’ (DSB). The miscellaneous observations mentioned on the title of the second work include a cometary observation by Caroline Herschel, notification of the disappearance of the star ‘55th Herculis’, and of a remarkable eclipse of the moon.
Isaaci Newton

Isaaci Newton, Matheseos Professoris Cantabrigiensis, & Regiae Societatis Anglicanae Socii, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Londoni, jussu Soc. Regiae, 1687, in 4. [contained in:] Acta Eruditorum Anno M DC LXXXVIII publicata, ac Serenissimo Principi Ac Domino Dn. Friderico, Regnorum Daniae ac Norvegiae Haeredi &c. &c. Dicata.

NEWTON]. [PFAUTZ, Christoph]. THE IMPORTANT ACTA ERUDITORUM REVIEW OF THE PRINCIPIA. There were four early reviews of the Principia: the first appeared in no. 186 of the Philosophical Transactions but, ‘not only did Halley finance, edit, publish and distribute Principia, he also reviewed it, anonymously, in P[hilosophical] T[ransactions]. It is little more than a summery interspersed with expressions of praise’. The second appeared in the Bibliothèque Universelle of March 1688, consisting ‘of nothing more than the headings of the sections of Books I and II translated into French. There is also a summary of Book III, and an introductory paragraph ’ The final review was that in the Journal des sçavans, August, 1688, in which ‘Newton’s hypothesis was dismissed as arbitrary, unproven and belonging to geometry rather than mechanics’. Published in June, 1688, the review in the Acta offered here is the third in sequence, and ‘the most detailed and serious of the four reviews. It was comprehensive enough to provide many people in Europe without access to the Principia itself with a fairly full account of its contents’ (Gjertsen, The Newton Handbook p. 472). ‘New evidence has recently enabled the author of this book review [in the Acta] to be identified as Christoph Pfautz (1645-1711), a professor of mathematics at the University of Leipzig . Pfautz was a logical choice to be the reviewer of the Principia. He was a professional mathematician interested in astronomy. He was also a close associate of the editor, Mencke, and was a regular reviewer of the Acta ‘It is evident that Pfautz is making a careful and complete paraphrase or summery or “epitome” (as we shall see Newton call it) of the Principia, much like an extended and detailed analytical table of contents Following an extended summery of the many different topics explored by Newton, Pfautz reaches the conclusion of Book Two. He fully appreciates the significance of Newton’s demonstration that the speed of planets in their orbits, moving “more slowly in their aphelia and more swiftly in their perihelia” is “the opposite of what ought to happen according to the mechanical law of vortices”. He apparently can find no fault with Newton’s ringing conclusion that the planetary speeds in Cartesian vortices contradict the celestial phenomena, even though he does not comment on the significance of the dreadful blow that Newton has dealt to Cartesian physics. That Pfautz fully understood some of the main principles of Newton’s dynamics is made clear in his discussion in Book Three of the motion of the planets. For he says that, using what he has “said in the preceding books”, Newton “demonstrates” that “the forces by which the circumjovial planets, the primary planets, and the moon are continually drawn away from rectilinear motions and are kept in the orbits” are the result of “their gravitation toward Jupiter, the sun and the earth”. It was a primary feature of Newtonian dynamics thus to explain curved or orbital motion and a continual acceleration or falling toward a center as a result of a centripetal force, which in the case of planets and satellites is the force of gravity. Thus Newton dismissed from physics the ambiguous and misleading notion of a centrifugal force. ‘Pfautz review achieved a special importance in 1689, when Lebniz referred to it in one of the three articles published in the Acta: the “Tentamen de Motuum Coelestium Causis” (Essay on the Causes of the Motions of the Heavenly Bodies). In this work, Leibniz set forth an alternative explanation to Newton’s’ (I. Bernard Cohen, ‘The review of the first edition of Newton’s Principia in the Acta Eruditorum, with notes on the other reviews’ in The investigation of difficult Things. Essays on Newton and the History of the Exact Sciences pp. 323-336).
Répétitions. Dessins de Max Ernst.

Répétitions. Dessins de Max Ernst.

ELUARD, Paul, and Max ERNST 8vo, pp. 51, [3], with 10 illustrations by Max Ernst, one in colour; recto of first leaf inscribed ‘à F. S. Flint / Cordial homage / de Paul Eluard; the page with the dedication a little discoloured; an excellent copy in the original mauve printed wrappers, with a further drawing by Ernst mounted on upper cover. THIS IS NO. 10 OF A TOTAL PRINT RUN OF 350 NUMBERED COPIES, HERE WITH A PRESENTATION INSCRIPTION TO THE ENGLISH POET AND TRANSLATOR F.S. FLINT, AND EXCEPTIONALLY ADDITIONALLY SIGNED BY ELUARD IN THE IMPRINT. Ernst met Eluard in 1921, and the two collaborated on various projects. Published in the same year as Les Malheurs des Immortels, this is a very early work illustrated by Ernst. ‘Eluard’s work from this time is known for its emphasis on linguistic and semantic dislocation; in his own poems, he was attempting to allow for visual and sensory perception of poetic meaning’ (Poetry Foundation, online). ‘Il s’agit d’un mince recueil, composé de 35 poèmes at de onze dessins de Max Ernst, publié au Sans Pareil, Librairie et maison d’édition de René Hilsum (1895-1990, ancient condisciple de Breton au lycée Chapsal), en mars 1922. Comme la majorité des recueils d’Eluard, il obéit aux goûts bibliophiliques de son auteur. Eluard aime depuis toujours, les beaux livres, et dès 1920, avec la publication des Animaux et leurs hommes pour lequel André Lhote avait fourni des illustrations, ses recueils s’accompagnent le plus souvent des collaborations picturales. ‘Avec Max Ernst, la bibliophilie n’est pas seule en cause et s’inaugure ce qui sera dorénavant de l’ordre du dialogue. Alors que André Lhote avait imaginé ses dessins à partir du recueil achevé, pour Répétitions, en cours de redaction, en 1921, c’est le poète qui puise dans l’oeuvre du peintre. Eluard a découvert Max Ernst à Paris, en mai 1921, à travers les oeuvres envoyées pour une exposition à la libraire du Sans Pareil. Il lui rend visite, chez lui, à Cologne, avec Gala, en novembre 1921. C’est pendant cette visite qu’il choisit des dessins déjà exécutés’ (Jean-Charles Gateau, Paul Eluard et la peinture surréaliste, Droz, 1982). Provenance: T.S. Flint (1885-1960), English poet and translator, and a prominent member of the Imagist group, ‘one of the greatest men and one of the beautiful spirits of the country’ (Ford Madox Ford), with a presentation inscription to him by Paul Eluard.
Theorie der Modulfunktionen. Erster Teil der Vorlesung: Über den Picard’schen Satz

Theorie der Modulfunktionen. Erster Teil der Vorlesung: Über den Picard’schen Satz

LANDAU, Edmund Folio, ff. [40]; typescript; mathematical equations inserted in black ink; five leaves with diagrams on verso, three as paste-ons; a very good copy in contemporary cloth-backed boards; from the library of Hans Georg Joseph, with his Archimedian bookplate in Art Nouveau style by Franz Stassen (1896-1949).AN ANNOTATED TYPESCRIPT OF LANDAU’S IMPORTANT LECTURE ON PICARD’S THEOREM. In 1879 Émile Picard proved that a meromorphic function which omits more than two values is a constant. This theorem was justly hailed as an outstanding achievement and for many years it stirred the imagination of many prominent mathematicians with results that were ultimately epoch making. Picard’s proof was based on the elliptic modular function, a theory which was in the center of analysis at that time. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, mathematicians tried to replace Picard’s method by more elementary considerations, and in 1896 Émile Borel succeeded in giving such a proof. In the able hands of Edmund Landau this proof gave in 1904 some astonishing results concerning the influence of the first two coefficients of a power series on the properties of a function defined by the series. These results were taken as a vindication of the elementary methods, but the triumph was brief, for in 1905 Constantin Carathéodory proved that the modular function played the role of extremal function in Landau’s problem’ (Einar Hille, Analytic Function Theory, p. 219).
The Elements of Euclid explain’d in a new but most easie method .

The Elements of Euclid explain’d in a new but most easie method .

EUCLID]. DECHASLES, Claude-François Milliet FIRST ENGLISH EDITION OF DECHASLES’S HUICT LIVRES DES ELEMENTS D’EUCLIDE RENDUS PLUS FACILES (Lyon, 1672), A PARAPHRASE OF EUCLID’S ELEMENTS. ‘Claude Dechales [also de Challes or Dechasles] became a Jesuit at the age of 15 and was educated within the Jesuit Order . Dechales lectured at Jesuit colleges, first in Paris where for four years he taught at the Collège de Clermont, then at Colleges in Lyons and Chambéry. From Chambéry he went to Marseilles where King Louis XIV appointed him Royal Professor of Hydrography. In Marseilles he taught navigation, military engineering and other applications of mathematics. From Marseilles he moved to Turin where he was appointed professor of mathematics. Dechales is best remembered for Cursus seu mundus mathematicus published in Lyons in 1674. ‘In 1678 he published in Lausanne his edition of Euclid, The Elements of Euclid Explained in a New but Most Easy Method: Together with the Use of Every Proposition through All Parts of the Mathematics, written in French by That Most Excellent Mathematician, F Claude Francis Milliet Dechales of the Society of Jesus. This work covers Books 1 to 6, together with Books 11 and 12, of Euclid’s Elements An English translation was published in London by M Gillyflower and W Freeman, the translation being by Reeve Williams. A second edition of this English translation appeared in 1696’ (J.J. O’Connor and E.F. Robertson, MacTutor online). ‘Dechales [is also known to have] adopted Galileo’s theory of motion, where he introduced several original views and developments. He attaches a preponderant significance to the experimental foundation of Galileo’s main theorems and, in his opinion, the proportionality of velocity and time is first an expression of Nature (ex natura rei), then a logical assignment. Dechales anticipates some aspects of Newton’s natural philosophy by emphasising questions depending on dynamics such as the concept of gravity (related to the free fall of bodies) and the mathematical treatment of air friction . (A. Nardi, An eccentric Galilean: the Jesuit François Milliet Dechales between Galileo and Newton (Italian), Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 49 (142) (1999), 32-74). This is a very attractive copy in a contemporary English binding. Wing E3400.
Suma de geografia que trata de todas las partidas y prouincias del mundo: en especial de las Indias. Y trata largamente del arte del marear: juntamente con la espera en romance: con el regimiento del sol y del norte: nuevamente hecha.

Suma de geografia que trata de todas las partidas y prouincias del mundo: en especial de las Indias. Y trata largamente del arte del marear: juntamente con la espera en romance: con el regimiento del sol y del norte: nuevamente hecha.

ENCISO, Martín Fernández de Folio (271 x 198 mm), ff. [75], with a large woodcut of a sphere within woodcut border on title, and two diagrams in the text; bound without the final blank; the early leaves with old foliation in ink; the chronological list on f. 25 extended in ink to include Spanish kings up to the 18th century; the early leaves very gently cleaned; a very few minor marginal repairs and a few wormholes filled in; bound in 18th-century Spanish vellum, spine lettered in ink. A VERY ATTRACTIVE COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST BOOK PRINTED IN SPANISH RELATING TO AMERICA, THE FIRST PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SAILING IN AMERICAN WATERS, AND THE FIRST NAVIGATIONAL MANUAL PRINTED IN SPAIN. Enciso s Suma de geographía (1519) is one of the cornerstones of Spanish cartographic and navigational literature in the first half of the sixteenth century. Although the book is known today mainly for containing the first printed description of America in Spanish, the Suma was in fact a synthesis of the geographic knowledge of all the known world (Andrès Prieto in: Hispanic Review, Vol. 78 (2010), p. 169). Fernández de Enciso (ca.1470-ca.1528) was one of the earliest settlers in Santo Domingo, the capital of Hispaniola, where he practiced law and participated actively in sea expeditions. The Suma attempts to cover the world s geography, but its most valuable information is the chapter on the West Indies. The word "America" was here used for the first time in a Spanish printed text . Using a great variety of both oral and written sources plus his own experience, Enciso compiled a practical book with useful information, especially for pilots. In his description of the natives he gives precise information about the distinct physical characteristics of each tribe as well as their particular attitude towards the Spanish (JCB, Spanish Historical Writing about the New World). It is not known when, why, or with whom he went to America, but in 1508 [Enciso] was living on the island of Santo Domingo, where he had accumulated a fortune in the practice of law. In 1509 Alonzo de Ojeda (or Hojeda) had been granted the government of Terra Firme (the region about the Isthmus of Darien), but he lacked the funds necessary to colonize the country. He then applied to Enciso, who had the reputation of being rich, able, and adventurous, and the latter agreed to provide a vessel with men and provisions. Among his followers was one Vasco Nuñez de Balboa who afterwards became famous for his discovery of the Pacific Ocean, then called the South Sea (Mar del Sur), and who had joined the expedition without Enciso s knowledge or authority, seeking to escape his creditors. Soon after the founding of the new city, Balboa stirred up rebellion among the men, and was able to depose Enciso, whom he banished to Spain. Here, the latter complained to the king of Balboa s arbitrary conduct and injustice, and the king, partly owing to these accusations, sent Pedrarias Dávila to America in 1514 as Governor of Darien, with instructions to have the wrongs of Enciso righted. Enciso accompanied the expedition . and continued to oppose Balboa until the latter s execution by Dávila in 1517. He soon afterwards returned to Spain where he published his "Suma de Geografia que trata de todas las partidas del mundo", the first account in Spanish of the discoveries in the New World. The work was published in 1519 at Seville and was reprinted in 1530 and in 1549 . According to Navarrete, Enciso has embodied all that was then known of the theory and practice of navigation. The geographical portion is given with great care, and contains the first descriptions of the lands discovered in the western seas . It is, on the whole, a more accurate work than the other early works of its kind (Catholic Encyclopedia). A great hydrographer and explorer, his work is invaluable for the early geographical history of this continent (Harrisse). Alden/Landis 519/4; Church 42; Harrisse 97; Palau 88433; Sabin 22551.
Naturalis dispositio Echinodermatum. Accessit Lucubratiuncula de Aculeis Echinorum Marinorum cum Spicilegio de Belemnitis.

Naturalis dispositio Echinodermatum. Accessit Lucubratiuncula de Aculeis Echinorum Marinorum cum Spicilegio de Belemnitis.

KLEIN, Jacob Theodor 4to, pp. [ii] 78, [1], with title printed in red and black and finely engraved vignette, and 36 folding engraved plates; a fine copy in contemporary speckled calf; lower cover a bit stained near spine; upper corners slightly bumped; spine a little rubbed; 18th-century bookplate ‘Comes de Solms’ to front paste-down; the front free end-paper inscribed ‘Dupl. Bibl. Acad. Lips. CDBeox 1790’ on verso.LARGE PAPER COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION OF KLEIN’S BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED WORK ON SEA URCHINS, THEIR FOSSIL REMAINS AS WELL AS BELEMNITES FROM SOME OF THE MOST FAMOUS CABINETS OF NATURAL CURIOSITIES OF THE TIME. ‘Klein’s Naturalis dispositio Echinodermatum (1734) was one of the earliest monographic treatments of the sea urchins. It includes descriptions, illustrations, and a classification of both recent and fossil sea urchins. Klein called these Echinodermata and divided them into three classes according to the position of the vent. The classes were then divided into nine sections, corresponding to the genera of late authors, and twenty-two species. Although altered and enlarged, this work was a major source of information on the Echinoidea for zoologists and paleontologists throughout the eighteenth century and remained a point of departure in discussions by such early nineteenth-century authors as James Parkinson. ‘Klein was a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. He was a frequent contributor to the latter’s Philosophical Transactions between 1730 and 1748’ (DSB). The final two pages of text contain a ‘conspectus’ of a Wunderkammer, detailing the cabinets’ contents, and their divisions. The superb plates, many engraved by Georg Wolfgang Knorr, depict specimens from a number of collections, including that of the important natural scientist Johann Heinrich von Horcher, who created various cabinets of natural curiosities at Dresden, the Danzig lawyer Nathanael Jacob Gerlach, the Lutheran theologian and historian Michael Lilienthal from Königsberg, member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and honorary professor of the University of St. Petersburg, the famous naturalist Johann Georg Gmelin, the Königsberg physicist and teacher of Immanual Kant, Johann Gottfried Teske, the Leipzig pharmacist and naturalist Johann Heinrich Linck, the influential Leipzig alderman and collector Johann Christoph Richter, the Leipzig mathematician Christian August Hausen, known for his research on electricity, as well as examples from a number of other sources. Nissen, ZBI 2205; Ward & Carozzi 1273 (specifying that this edition is never found with coloured plates).
Della fabrica del mondo ouero cosmografia. Trattato

Della fabrica del mondo ouero cosmografia. Trattato, nel quale si discorre di tute le parti componente questa gran machina con brevità e facilità in modo de Dialogo. [Manuscript on paper in Italian and Latin].

CALCAGNI, Girolamo, attributed to 4to (185 x 140 mm), c. 155 leaves in brown and red ink, including 15 leaves of tables, with a decorative armorial device on title-page, and numerous diagrams in the text, some with ink wash; the title soiled, damp-stained, and strengthened with a paper strip on verso at inner margin; the final, blank leaves, partly damp-stained and soiled; otherwise overall very well preserved; rebound in the 20th-century in vellum-backed boards. A HIGHLY INTERESTING AND FINELY ILLUSTRATED ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE IN DIALOGUE FORM IN THE IMMEDIATE POST-GALILEAN PERIOD, DISCUSSING AND ABSORBING THE NEW ASTRONOMY. STILL LARGELY UNSTUDIED, THIS IS THE EARLIER OF TWO RECORDED VERSIONS OF THIS TEXT, THE OTHER ORIGINALLY STEMMING FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE NOTED HISTORIAN OF SCIENCE AND GALILEO EXPERT, STILLMAN DRAKE, AND NOW HELD AT THE FISHER LIBRARY, TORONTO. Possibly compiled for private instruction, and highly likely inspired by Galileo’s Dialogo, this extensive manual employs two interlocutors, a Pellegrino Cantelli, and Girolamo Calcagni, whose arms are found on the title-page. Leading through from the elemental to complex astronomy, the treatise – apparently compiled the year after Galileo’s death in 1642 – frequently cites, then questions and challenges the teachings of the ancients, whilst cautiously presented and phrased. The third dialogue of the first part carefully treats the motion of the earth, first discussing the question of a revolutionary motion, then the possibility of rotation. A number of dialogues discuss geographical questions and details, and a table provides longitudinal and latitudinal data on various European cities. Folios 40-44 provide brief information on distances and sizes of various countries, kingdoms, and islands, including Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, the Moluccas, Japan, Cuba, and Hispaniola. Following a 7 page index to this first part there is another group of dialogues concerning astronomical questions such as parallax, as well as astrological questions. Folio 74 recto includes a reference to the existence of moving sun-spots; the verso of the leaf mentions the telescope, and refers to Kepler. The final dialogues are on solar eclipses, cometary theory, the stars, the milky way, the constellations, and astrology. Our manuscript appears to form the basis of another, later version of this text, originally in the collection of the noted historian of science and Galileo expert Stillman Drake, and now preserved at the Thomas Fisher Library, Toronto. Written in the same hand, the neater Fisher manuscript shows some changes to the text, and was possibly intended to form the basis of a printed version. Provenance: contemporary armorial device on title page of the Calcagni family of Ferrara in the province of Emilia-Romagna, one of the most thriving centers of Italian Renaissance culture – the place where Copernicus earned his degree in Canon Law, and Paracelsus his degree in medicine -, inscribed ‘Comitis Hieronymus Calcanei’ beneath the escutcheon.
Abbassaï

Abbassaï, Histoire Orientale

FALQUES or FAUQUES, Marianne-Agnès de] Three vols., 16mo., ff. [2], pp. 206; ff. [2], pp. 217, ff. [2], pp. 176, 19, [1], with engraved frontispieces to each volume; silk page-markers; the first frontispiece short at lower blank margin but not cut down or supplied; pages 40-41 of volume III with early ink doodles, most likely a child’s, but not obscuring text; otherwise a lovely copy in contemporary French polished calf, leather labels, marbled edges, spines gilt. VERY SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THIS BEAUTIFUL, TRAGIC, ORIENTAL TALE BY MARIANNE-AGNÈS DE FALQUES, A FASCINATING LITERARY FIGURE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Abbassaï tells the fictional love story of the eighth-century Abbasid Caliph Harun al Rashid, a character immortalized in the Arabian Nights, who falls in love with Zesbet to then learn that she is his sister, hidden away from the world by their mother Zulima, who has her own tragic story to tell. Forced by her family to become a nun and defrocked after 10 years in a convent, Mariann-Agnès Falques was duly registered as such by the authorities serving the regime of Louis XV. Her excesses gained her a notorious reputation at the time. Forced into exile, she became tutor to the children of affluent English families. Her English sojourn was marked by the publication of the Histoire de Madame de Pompadour of 1759, a scandalous text well known by Voltaire, and testimony to her audacity and independence of spirit. Famous in its time the work paints an unflattering picture of the Marquise and the omnipresent corruption at court. The audacity and malignity expressed there explains her reticence in returning to her native France, but she eventually decided to do so. She is thought to have committed suicide in 1773. ‘C’est toute une odyssée feminine que la vie de Mlle. De Fauques’ (Larousse). See Boudin, ‘Une romancière et aventurière des Lumières: Marianne-Agnès Falques, dite la Vaucluse’ (1994), and Grondin ‘La Représentation de la femme dans l’Orient de Marianne-Agnès Falques’ (2005). Barbier, Genre Romanesque, 1751-1800, 53 14; Weller, Falsche Druckorte II, p. 134.
A fine

A fine, personal autograph letter, signed in full (‘Charles Darwin’)

Darwin, Charles 8vo, two and a half pages, (one bifolium); on headed writing paper. A fine, personal autograph letter, signed in full (‘Charles Darwin’), written shortly before resuming work on the manuscript of The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. To the author of Problèmes de la Nature, Auguste Laugel, thanking him for the receipt of a copy of his recently published work, and explaining that he has not yet been able to read it due to protracted illness. The recipient of the letter, Antoine-Auguste Laugel published articles in various journals, such as the Revue des Deux Mondes, including an ‘excellent and appreciative notice of the Origin’ (Francis Darwin, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin vol. I, p. 539), a review held in high regard by Darwin from a man whom he described as ‘very agreeable, clever, & charming’ (letter to J.D. Hooker, April 17, 1865), and whose views on slavery and the American Civil War he shared (letter to Asa Gray, April 19, 1865). Laugel had sent a copy of his article to Darwin at the time of its appearance in the Revue. ‘It was from more popular or accessible sources than translations that many readers gleaned their notions of what Darwin said or meant A journal such as the long-lived and influential Revue des Deux Mondes, read by literate audiences all over Europe, carried reviews of a wide range of current books, including the Origin of Species; the reviewer, Auguste Laugel, a young Frenchman trained as an engineer or geologist, wrote an ample and discerning review (1860), grasping some of the implications and the difficulties of the theory, and also enthusiastically greeting the possibilities the theory suggested of transplanting flora and fauna around the world from and to a variety of landscapes: trade and exploration were strong concerns of the journal. Laugel even included an examination of current breeding experiments. Darwin, who followed his own reception with great care, invited the young writer to visit him and his family at their home at Down’ (Thomas F. Glick and Elinor Shaffer, editors, The Literary and Cultural Reception of Charles Darwin in Europe, vol. III, p. 4). ‘Auguste Laugel’s defense of Darwin in the literary journal La Revue des Deux Mondes – which had published Les fleurs du mal a few years earlier – summarized the main theoretical innovations of Darwin’s evolutionism, namely his concept of natural selection and his emphasis on the "transitionary characters" of species, an understanding that radically challenged the concept of species then current in France. Laugel’s was key to circulating Darwin’s ideas, particularly his challenges to the exceptional status of human beings by deflating qualitative distinctions between humans and animals’ (J. Dubino, Z. Rashidian, and A. Smyth, Representing the Modern Animal in Culture, 2014). Throughout his life Darwin suffered from periods of gastrointestinal distress, as well as headaches, fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. The particular bout of illness Darwin refers to in this letter set on in the spring of 1863. Darwin Correspondence Project, no. 4607F.
Della ragion di stato libri dieci

Della ragion di stato libri dieci, con tre libri delle cause della grandezza, e magnificenza della citta .

BOTERO, Giovanni Small 4to, pp. [xvi], 367, [1]; with woodcut printer s device on title and initials in the text; ink ownership inscription to recto of title covered with paper slips; some light staining to upper margin and to lower outer corner throughout, stronger in places, but still a good, crisp copy in contemporary limp vellum, spine direct lettered in ink, evidence of rodent damage to foot of spine and upper outer corner, ties lacking. FIRST EDITION OF A MASTERPIECE IN THE HISTORY OF ECONOMICS: THE MALTHUSIAN PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION TENDING TO INCREASE BEYOND ANY ASSIGNABLE LIMIT FULLY DEVELOPED IN 1589. Divested of nonessentials, the "Malthusian" Principle of Population sprang fully developed from the brain of Botero in 1589: populations tend to increase, beyond any assignable limit, to the full extent made possible by human fecundity (the virtus generativa of the Latin translation); the means of subsistence, on the contrary, and the possibilities of increasing them (the virtus nutritiva) are definitely limited and therefore impose a limit on that increase, the only one there is; this limit asserts itself through want, which will induce people to refrain from marrying (Malthus negative check, prudential check, "moral restraint") unless numbers are periodically reduced by wars, pestilence, and so on (Malthus positive check). This path-breaking performance the only performance in the whole history of the theory of population to deserve any credit at all came much before the time in which its message could have spread: it was practically lost in the populationist wave of the seventeenth century. But about two hundred years after Botero [1540 1617], Malthus really did no more than repeat it, except that he adopted particular mathematical laws for the operation of the virtus generativa and the virtus nutritiva: population was to increase "in geometric ratio or progression" (Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, pp. 254 5). A second edition was published at Ferrare in the same year. Adams B 2548; Bongi II, 431 2; Gamba 1271; Goldsmiths 248; Kress 178; Mattioli 395; STC Italian, p. 122.
Monumenta rerum petrificatarum praecipua Oryctographiae Noricae supplementi loco iungenda interprete filio Ferdinando Iacobo Baiero. Nuremberg

Monumenta rerum petrificatarum praecipua Oryctographiae Noricae supplementi loco iungenda interprete filio Ferdinando Iacobo Baiero. Nuremberg, Georg Lichtensteger, 1757. [bound with:] BAIER, Johann Jacob. Oryctographia Norica sive rerum fossilium et ad minerale regnum pertinentum in territorio Norimbergbensi eiusque vicinia observatarum succincta descriptio

BAIER, Johann Jacob Together two works in one vol., folio, pp. [iv], 20, with fifteen engraved plates, six double-page; pp. [iv], 65, [3], with a large engraved title-vignette, and eight engraved plates; short tear to lower blank margin of one plate; a few notes in pencil; a very good, clean copy in 19th-century red sheep-baked marbled boards; spine rubbed, head of spine a little worn. AN EXCELLENT COPY OF THIS WORK ON FOSSILS BY THE NUREMBERG PHYSICIAN AND GEOLOGIST JOHANN JACOB BAIER, ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1708 WITH SIX PLATES ONLY, AND HERE BOUND AFTER THE FIRST EDITION THE IMPORTANT SUPPLEMENT BY HIS SON, FERDINAND JACOB. ‘Baier was the son of Johann Wilhelm Baier, professor of Protestant theology at the University of Jena, and Anna Katharine Musaeus. After private tutoring he matriculated in 1693 at University of Jena, where he dutifully studied philosophy, classical languages, mathematics, medicine, and natural science. During 1699 and 1700 he travelled in northern Germany and in the Baltic Sea provinces to Riga and Dorpat, enriching his knowledge by conversations with other scholars and by examining collections and visiting libraries. In 1700 he finished his studies and war awarded the degrees of M.A., Ph.D., and M.D He settled in 1701 as a practicing physician in Nuremberg. In 1708 he became a member of the Leopoldina (Academy of Natural Scientists) and in 1730 was chosen its president. Baier’s scientific fame today does not rest on his medical investigations, but on his studies of minerals and fossils. Baier’s Oryctographia norica (1708) was a new, systematic presentation based on his own studies. By means of exact descriptions and good illustration he laid the foundations for the investigation of Jurassic fauna and of scientific palaeontology in general. Instead of theory, he clearly presented what could be observed. He believed that the earth had been created in one act and that the Deluge was the only great change since the Creation. His exact foundation work, however, helped to prepare the ground for the next generation to determine historically the geological structure of mountains and to transform oryctography into geology’ (Encyclopedia). The supplement by Baier’s son, Ferdinand Jacob (1707-1788), contains additional observations, referring to specific pages and plates in the first book, including identifications of the objects – mainly fossils, including many shells of molluscs and brachiopods – shown on the eight plates of his father’s work, plus his own, new series of fifteen superbly engraved plates. Nissen, ZBI, 189 and 191; Ward & Carrozzi, 97 and 99.
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Serie di Fourier e altre rappresentazioni analitiche delle funzioni di una variable reale.

DINI, Ulisse 8vo, pp. [1], vi, 328, [1]; a very good copy, partly unopened, in the original printed wrappers. FIRST EDITION OF DINIS IMPORTANT WORK ON FOURIER SERIES. Fourier frames go back to Dini (1880) and his book on Fourier series. There he gives Fourier expansions in terms of the set {e?} of harmonics, where each ? is a solution of the equation x cos ?x + a sin ?x = 0. FIRST EDITION OF DINIS IMPORTANT WORK ON FOURIER SERIES. Fourier frames go back to Dini (1880) and his book on Fourier series. There he gives Fourier expansions in terms of the set {e?} of harmonics, where each ? is a solution of the equation x cos ?x + a sin ?x = 0. (3.1) Equation (3.1) was chosen because of a problem in mathematical physics from Riemanns (18261866) and later Riemann-Webers classical treatise. Dini (1845 1918) returned to this topic in 1917, just before his death (John J. Benedetto, online). Le serie di Fourier hanno accompagnato e in molti casi determinato lo sviluppo dellanalisi durante tutto il secolo decimonono. La teoria dellintegrazione di Riemann, il modello di Canto dei numeri reali, le prime ricerche sulla topologia della retta, per non fare che degli esempi, traggono tutte la loro origine da problemi sorti nellambito delle serie di Fourier, ma che presto hanno acquistato la loro fisionomia di settori autonomi di ricerca (La Matematica in Italia 55).
Super octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Commentaria. Secunda aeditio nuperrimè ab Authore recognita

Super octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Commentaria. Secunda aeditio nuperrimè ab Authore recognita, multisq[ue] in locis aucta & à mendis quam maximè fieri potuit repurgata.

SOTO, Domingo de. Two vols. in one, folio, ff. 129, [1, blank]; 108, [1], with printer s device in woodcut to both titles, large device at the end of volume II, woodcut initials, and a few woodcut diagrams in the text; numerous errors in foliation, especially to volume I; the first two leaves a bit brown-stained and with a faint dampstain to upper margins; otherwise only occasionally lightly browned or stained; the title to volume II with a tear to lower outer corner (paper-flaw); a few early notes in brown ink to volume II (a couple just shaved); an excellent copy in near contemporary Spanish limp vellum, yapped edges, spine lettered Physica de Soto in ink. THE EXTREMELY RARE FIRST COMPLETE EDITION, THE FIRST TO CONTAIN THE HIGHLY IMPORTANT SECOND VOLUME, WHICH FIRST PRINTS DE SOTO S FORMULATION OF THE LAW OF FALLING BODIES (Vol. II, Book 7, questio tertia-quarta). CONTRARY TO ARISTOTELIAN TEACHING, AND EXPRESSED AS UNIFORMITER DIFFORMIS , DE SOTO S FORMULATION LARGELY ANTICIPATES THAT PRONOUNCED BY GALILEO IN HIS DISCORSI BY OVER 80 YEARS. [De Soto s] works on the Physics are particularly important for the history of science, since in the question on Book VII [i.e. vol. II, book 7, questio tertia-quarta] Soto was the first to apply the expression uniformly difform to the motion of falling bodies, thereby indicating that they accelerate uniformly when they fall and thus adumbrating Galileo s law of falling bodies (William A. Wallace in DSB VII, p. 548). In seeking an appropriate global measure of the velocity of a uniformly accelerating object such as a falling heavy body, de Soto notes if the moving object A keeps increasing its velocity from 0 to 8, it covers just as much space as [another object] B moving with a uniform velocity of 4 in the same period of time. He was thus the first to apply mathematics to this physical problem without experimental verification, but in a way that, because it was mathematically precise and physical, constituted an exceptionally clear invitation to experimental verification for such inquisitive minds as were prepared to recognize it. If de Soto s writings did influence Galileo, as seems quite probable, they may have influenced his thinking on dynamics as well as on kinematics. According to Juan José Pérez Camacho and Ignacio Sols Lucía, de Soto s concept of the resistentia interna of a body foreshadows Galileo s resistenza interna in being intrinsic to the body itself rather than to its medium, and proportional to the weight of the body (Jorge Mira-Pérez, Domingo de Soto, early dynamics theorist , in Physics Today, January 2009, p. 10). Referred to in Mira-Pérez s article as of probable influence on Galileo, William A. Wallace, the first historian of science to examine this question in depth in a number of papers, traces de Soto s influence and his formulation of the law of motion through the decades prior to Galileo s own statement in his Discorsi via Jesuit teaching, including through that of de Soto s favourite pupil, Franciscus Toletus, who first became an instructor at the Collegium Romanum in 1559. Showing that de Soto himself was likely to have witnessed actual experimental work regarding laws of fall conducted by Italian scientists, physicians and philosophers prior to the completion of this much amended 1551 edition, Wallace draws attention to an early notebook by Galileo, recording Jesuit teaching notes in which de Soto is referred to, as well as to the fact that the penultimate edition of de Soto s commentary was published in Venice in 1582, at a time when Galileo was beginning his studies of the Physics in Pisa: We should note that Soto had finished writing his commentary and questions on the Physics up to book VII, where the passages I have quoted are to be found, early in 1545, at which time he was called to the Council of Trent. To make them quickly available to students his texts were printed in an incomplete edition of 1545, which does not contain the passages about falling motion. But Soto r
Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata. Quorum haec prima pars de restitutione motuum solis et lunae stellarumque inerrantium tractat. Et praeterea de admiranda nova stella anno 1572 exorta luculenter agit.

Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata. Quorum haec prima pars de restitutione motuum solis et lunae stellarumque inerrantium tractat. Et praeterea de admiranda nova stella anno 1572 exorta luculenter agit.

BRAHE, Tycho, and Johannes KEPLER 4to, pp. [xvi], 9-112; 1-28; 113-256; ff. 257-272; pp. 273-822 [recte 820] [12, index and errata], with numerous woodcuts in the text, including 5 full-page illustrations of instruments, a full-page star chart, and the illustration of the new star in Cassiopeia; two leaves (5F1 2) with old brown-stain and some minor paper restoration affecting a few letters; otherwise an exceptionally clean and attractive copy in contemporary vellum, overlapping fore-edges; stamped in gilt on upper board G M S and dated 1605 , labelled in ink on spine, edges gauffered and stained blue. THE RARE FIRST EDITION OF BRAHE S MOST IMPORTANT WORK AND THE FOUNDATION ON WHICH KEPLER, AND LATER NEWTON, BUILT THEIR ASTRONOMICAL SYSTEMS (Sparrow). The bulk was printed at Brahe s observatory on the island of Hven but left unfinished; it was completed by Kepler in Prague. This work, a consequence of the new star of 1572, established the observational and theoretical techniques which initiated the era of modern scientific astronomy. The number and accuracy of Brahe s observations provided the evidence for verifying the heliocentric theory and for Kepler s deduction of his three laws of planetary motion. The star of 1572 and the comets observed at Hven had cleared the way for the restoration of astronomy by helping to destroy old prejudices; and Tycho therefore resolved to write a great work on these recent phenomena which should embody all results of his observations in any way bearing on them. The first volume he devoted to the new star, but as corrected star places which were necessary for the reduction of the observations of 1572 73 involved researches on the motion of the sun, on refraction, precession, &c. the volume gradually assumed greater proportions than was originally contemplated, and was never quite finished in Tycho s lifetime. On account of the wider scope of its contents he gave it the title Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata, or Introduction to the New Astronomy, a title which marks the work as paving the way for the new planetary theory and tables which Tycho had hoped to prepare, but which it fell to Kepler s lot to work out in a very different manner from that contemplated by Tycho . [The new star] roused to unwearied exertions a great astronomer, it caused him to renew astronomy in all its branches by showing the world how little it knew about the heavens. His work became the foundation on which Kepler and Newton built their glorious edifices, and the star of Cassiopeia started astronomical science on the brilliant career which it has pursued ever since, and swept away the mist that obscured the true system of the world (J.L.E. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe, 1890, pp. 162-63 and 196). Tycho Brahe provides locations of 777 stars with far greater accuracy than previously achieved and details his observations of the 1572 nova in his posthumous Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata, edited by Johannes Kepler. The work also contains estimates of the diameters of the sun, the moon, the planets, and the supernova, plus revisions to the theory of solar motions and significant advances in the theory of lunar motions (Parkinson Breakthroughs p. 58). This work was composed and printed over a period of several years from 1588 on at Brahe s private press on the island of Hven (Uraniburg), but at the time of his death in 1601 was still unfinished, as the imprint makes clear. It was completed by Kepler, who added the Appendix (pp. 817-822), index, and presumably the extensive list of errata, and was published in 1602, as above, but very few copies were distributed. The undistributed stock was acquired by the Frankfurt publisher Tampach, who reissued the work in 1610. There are at least two different issues of this 1610 edition. According to Dreyer, Tampach reprinted the first twelve leaves, comprising title, dedication by Brahe s heirs to Rudolph II, privilege, and the first four leaves of Brahe s text with errata corrected. However, there is also an
Descrizione degli Elmi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo

Descrizione degli Elmi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo, nobile de Villareggio precedono alcune notizie sull’uso, sulla forma, ecc., degli elmi nel medio evo e nei tempi anteriori e posteriori ad esso. Con tavole litografiche. [with:] Descrizione degli scudi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo, nobile de Villareggio precedono alcune notizie sull’uso, sulla forma, ecc. degli scudi nel medio evo e nei tempi anteriori e posteriori ad esso. Con Tavole litografiche.

UBOLDO, Ambrogio Together two vols., folio pp. [10], 33, [1], [20]; [8], 27, [1], [18], with ten lithographed plates to the first work, and nine to the second; some spotting to text, the plates largely fresh and clean or some occasional light marginal foxing; attractive copies in contemporary orange lacquered boards, gilt printed frame on covers; rubbed and a little soiled; dedicatory letters from Uboldo pasted onto front fly-leaves of each volume to Gaetano Costantini, dated 1842 and 1845 respectively, and with additional inscriptions above. ATTRACTIVE COPIES OF THE TWO MAJOR ILLUSTRATED WORKS ON THE ‘ARMERIA UBOLDO’, THE ITALIAN FINANCIER AND FORMER MILITARY OFFICER’S SUPERB COLLECTION OF ANCIENT HELMETS AND SHIELDS. Ambrogio Maria Martiniano Uboldo (1785 – 1865) was an Italian art collector, patron and military man from a rich Milanese family of bankers and soldiers (he was a nephew of the Austrian general Anton Joseph von Brentano-Cimaroli). From a young age he was destined to a promising career as a banker, but decided instead to enter the Napoleonic guards to fight campaigns in the French army. After the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire and the return of the Austrians, Ubaldo was made a nobleman of Villareggio, Tuscany, where his family owned various properties as well as land. Uboldo was an avid collector and became a member of the Milan Fine Arts Academy (the current Academy of Brera), a member of the Academy of Fine Arts of Modena and of the Accademia dei Virtuosi al Pantheon in Rome, organizations that put him in touch with the artistic world of Milan and beyond. In a few years he acquired numerous paintings by contemporary painters (Francesco Hayez, Andrea Appiani, Angelo Inganni), sculptures (in particular by Pompeo Marchesi and Enrico Emanueli), archaeological finds, rare plants, and above all antique weapons that he accommodated in his villa in Cernusco sul Naviglio, in Milan. A famous episode is recorded in a painting by Carlo Bossoli, which took place during the Five Days of Milan in 1848 when the rebels, knowing of the large collection of ancient weapons owned by the collector, decided to storm his Milanese Palace and appropriated the weapons to face the Austrians. A large part of the collection of weapons was eventually purchased by Gian Giacomo Poldi Pezzoli and today constitutes the nucleus of the armory of the Poldi Pezzoli Museum. Probably a vanity publication, the two works were distributed between 1839 and 1843 by three Milanese publishers: Angelo Stanislao Brambilla (the volume on shields only), Paolo Andrea Molina, Giuseppe Crespi (later Crespi and Pagnoni), but apparently with only slight changes to the title-pages and or imprint and date. The publication of these two, finely illustrated works was preceded by a little, seemingly unillustrated, pamphlet of 11 pages on a particular shield, published in 1837 by Giuseppe Crespi, who also printed a Raccolta di Descrizioni delle opere piu’ interessanti di Belle-Arti in Uboldo’s collection in 1842, which was again issued in 1844, with a Crespi and Pagnoni imprint. As mentioned above, printing and distribution of the work appears to have been shared by various publishers, with the various issues apparently only differing with regard to their title-pages, imprints, and dates. Provenance: long, personal inscriptions in ink from the author to his cousin, Gaetano Costantini, to front fly leaves, dating from relatively shortly after publication. Cumulatively OCLC records copies of the volume on helmets at Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Universitat de Barcelona; for the UK at the British Library, Warburg Institute, and Victoria & Albert Museum; for the US at the Metropolitan Museum, Illinois, and Newberry Library. The volume on shields is recorded at Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, Humboldt University, and National Library of Sweden; for the UK at the British Library, Warburg Institute, and the Victoria & Albert Museum; for the US at the Newberry Library, Illinois, National Gallery
Tulip Calendar].

Tulip Calendar].

ESHQI, Mohammad 4to, ff. [16], manuscript on glazed paper, executed in a beautiful, small nashkī script; opening page with a panel of finely-worked illumination in colours and gold; title inset in red ink; all pages within a four-line border in red, black, and gilt; finely preserved in its slim, contemporary binding of red morocco boards; a large leopard-speckled paper panel inset on covers within a silver (oxidized) ornamental scroll; the binding a little worn at head and tail of spine; old European (?) shelf-label to lower cover; end-papers mauve or mauve-speckled opposite lightly pink paste-downs. A VERY RARE SEASONAL CALENDAR FOR THE PLANTING OF TULIPS BY A NAMED AUTHOR, SEEMINGLY A PERSONAL GARDENER UNDER, AND TO, SULTAN SELIM III. A very rare planting calendar for the wonderful, much sought after tulip, written during the reign of the enlightened Sultan Selim III (1761-1808), known for his reform-mindedness, his associations outside the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, and his endeavours to modernize and reform his state. The son of the equally progressive Sultan Mustafa III and Mihrişah Sultan, Selim was fond of literature, poetry and calligraphy, a great lover of music and one of the best composers in the Ottoman classical music tradition. When Selim succeeded his uncle Abdülhamid I (April 7, 1789), he attempted to end the social, economic, and administrative chaos facing the empire. He set up a committee of reformers (1792 93) and promulgated a series of new regulations collectively known as the nizam- i cedid ( new order ). These included reforms of provincial governorships, taxation, and land tenure. More significant were his military reforms: in addition to new military and naval schools, he founded new corps of infantry trained and equipped along European lines and financed by revenues from forfeited and escheated fiefs and by taxes on liquor, tobacco, and coffee. Finally, to provide for direct contact with the West, Ottoman embassies were opened in the major European capitals. Selim, who came to the throne during a war (1787 92) with Austria and Russia, was compelled to conclude the treaties of Sistova (Svishtov; 1791) with Austria and of Jassy (1792) with Russia. In 1798 Napoleon s invasion of Egypt drove Selim into alliance with Great Britain and Russia. After the French evacuated Egypt (1801), Selim, dazzled by Napoleon s successes in Europe, not only recognized him as emperor (1804) but also, under the influence of General Sébastiani, Napoleon s ambassador in Constantinople, declared war (1806) on Russia and Great Britain (Encyclopaedia Britannica, online). Selim was eventually strangled in 1808 on the orders of his successor, Mustafa IV. The 26-page calendar lists the varieties of tulips in red, and their colours, qualities, sizes, etc., in black ink, and by alphabetical order. Written a long time after Europe s Tulipomania of the seventeenth century, which ended in bankrupting a large number of investors, with single bulbs of certain specimens, such as the striped Semper Augustus, having been traded for extraordinary sums until the collapse of the scheme, this manuscript is rare testimony to the appreciation of this particular flower in its place of origin around the end of the eighteenth century. This is a wonderful little manuscript: a Sultan s gardener s planting calendar and on a most singular topic; finely produced and calligraphed, and in its original binding.
Curiositez de la nature et de l’art

Curiositez de la nature et de l’art, aportées dans deux voyages des Indes; l’un aux Indes d’Occident en 1698. & 1699. & l’autre aux Indes d’Orient en 1701. & 1702. Avec une Relation abregé de ces deux Voyages

BIRON, Claude 8vo, ff. [3], 23, [1], pp. 282, [4], with eight engraved plates, one folding; old collector’s stamp to outer margin of title; four leaves at the beginning a bit stained in the margins; a very good copy in contemporary French calf, spine gilt, red leather label. FIRST EDITION, RATHER RARE, OF BIRON’S ACCOUNT OF HIS TWO VOYAGES TO THE LESSER ANTILLES AND TO INDIA, INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS OF CURIOSITIES, BOTH NATURAL AND MAN-MADE, AND ONE OF THE WORKS KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN WITH SIR JOSEPH BANKS ABOARD THE ENDEAVOUR. The first, brief log gives a synopsis of his journey to the West Indies, notably La Martinique and Guadeloupe, with special reference to samples of sulphur collected at La Soufrière on Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, for analysis back in Paris. This is followed by a long letter received by Biron from the French physicist, numismatist and writer Pierre Le Lorrain, Abbé de Vallemont, prior to his second, longer journey encouraging him to thoroughly study the three realms of nature, with the specific request of recording anything of medical interest or application. The section that follows describes the voyage around the Cape towards India aboard the French East India Company vessel Maurepas, accompanied by three other ships, the Pondichéri, the Bourbon, and the Marchand des Indes, with some detail on the various stops along the journey. The remainder of the work describes a number of curiosities, herbs, stones, fruit, animals, man-made artefacts, etc. some of which are shown in the plates. There are notes on ‘Terre de Patna’, used in India to produce a fine earthenware, snake-, eagle- and smallpox stones and their purported properties as remedies, jade and jasper, lychee, mangosteen, star anise, aouara, macha mona (a sort of calabash), marine palms, bamboo, agarwood, tacamaca resin, mabouia wood, manatee stones, hummingbirds, the caiman, the rhino and the use of its parts in oriental materia medica, bezoar stones, etc. The folding plate shows a sculpture of Confucius with a pupil, not so much chosen for the rarity of imagery, but for the alabaster-like multi-coloured stone used in its making. Full of interesting detail and curious information, Joseph Banks chose to carry a copy of the work on his journey to the Pacific on the Endeavour in 1768. Provenance: Masonic ownership stamp ‘Félix Debraise’ below balance scales and the letters ‘J L’ to blank area of title. Sabin 5582; Dryander, Catalogus Bibliothecae Historico-Naturalis Josephi Banks p. 87; the work is rather uncommon outside of France, with OCLC locating copies at Oxford, BL, Wellcome, and the Natural History Museum, London, for the UK, and Getty, Minnesota, John Carter Brown, Newberry, and New York Public for the US; a single copy is recorded for Australia, at the State Library of New South Wales.
Le Nozze di Paride ed Elena rappresentate in un vaso antico del museo del signor Tommaso Jenkins gentiluomo inglese.

Le Nozze di Paride ed Elena rappresentate in un vaso antico del museo del signor Tommaso Jenkins gentiluomo inglese.

ORLANDI, Orazio Folio, ff. [2], pp. 27, [1], with an engraved frontispiece and a large folding engraved plate by Guglielmo Miller after Federico (Friedrich) Anders; some light foxing, stronger on the first 2 and final two leaves; nonetheless an attractive copy in contemporary Italian patterned boards; minor wear to spine. ONLY EDITION OF ORLANDI’S STUDY OF THE SO-CALLED ‘JENKINS VASE’, A MARBLE VASE INCORPORATING AN ANCIENT SCULPTURED WELL-HEAD, SHOWING THE MARRIAGE OF PARIS AND HELEN ATTENDED BY EROS AND THE MUSES, AND A SUPERB EXAMPLE OF 18TH-CENTURY ANTIQUARIAN CRAZE, RESULTING IN THE CREATION OF A ‘MODERN’ CONCOCTION, WITH A BEAUTIFUL, ANCIENT RELIC AS ITS CENTERPIECE. Thomas Jenkins (ca. 1722–1798) was a British antiquary and painter who went to Rome accompanying the British landscape-painter Richard Wilson about 1750 and remained behind, establishing himself in the city by serving as guide and sometime banker to the visiting British, becoming a dealer in Roman sculpture and antiquities to a largely British clientele and an agent for gentlemen who wished a portrait or portrait-bust as a memento of the Grand Tour. Among the antiquities that passed through Jenkins’s hands, often improved by restorers like Bartolomeo Cavaceppi, was a version of the discus thrower discovered in Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli, which is now in the British Museum. Jenkins also exported paintings to London. Jenkins also helped form the collections of William Petty (later Lord Shelbourne and Lord Lansdowne), Henry Blundell (on his Grand Tour in 1765–66, for Ince-Blundell Hall, Lancashire, including the ‘Jenkins Venus’ or ‘Barberini Venus’ from Palazzo Barberini) and Lyde Browne of Wimbledon (which were eventually bought by Empress Catherine II for the Hermitage). In 1770 a dispensation from Pope Clement XIV enabled Jenkins and the painter-dealer Gavin Hamilton to manage the dispersal of the Mattei antiquities, which had formed one of the most-visited private collections in Rome. Clement made a first selection for his Museu Pio-Clementino at the Vatican before permitting export, with Jenkins and Hamilton acting as agents for Don Giuseppe Mattei. By the time the three volumes of Monumenta Mattheiana were issued, 1776–79, most of the Mattei marbles, some bought by Jenkins directly, were no longer in Italy. Jenkins also dealt in modern works of sculpture: in 1786 he purchased Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Neptune and Glaucus from the gardens of Villa Montalto; as a consequence, conserved in the Victoria & Albert, it is the only Bernini sculpture in Britain. The body of the vase is made from a well-head first recorded at Pozzuoli, near Naples, in 1489. Jenkins is thought to have purchased it on a visit to Naples in 1769. At his instigation, the well-head was mounted as a vase, by the addition of a vine leaf frieze and lip above, and cup with Satyr’s head, stem and base below. A drawing in the British Museum shows it before its transformation into a vase in the eighteenth century. The vase itself is now in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. Cicognara, 3290; OCLC locates just two copies, at the British Library, and Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire, Strasbourg.
Idyllia.

Idyllia.

LA RUE, Charles de 12mo, pp. 88, with engraved vignette on title, six engraved head-pieces, two engraved tail-pieces, and 5 full-page emblems; oil or brown stain to lower portion of one emblem, slightly off-set on the opposite page of text; otherwise a clean and crisp copy in the original vellum over boards; spine and upper cover lettered ‘Caroli Delarue Idyllia. 1669’ in ms. A CHARMING COPY OF THE FRENCH JESUIT’S LITTLE EMBLEM BOOK, INCLUDING PANEGYRICS IN VERSE CELEBRATING THE RECENT VICTORIES OF LOUIS XIV IN FLANDERS IN 1667, AND A VICIOUS ANTI-ENGLISH SONNET CELEBRATING THE DEVASTATION OF LONDON BY THE GREAT FIRE. A French Jesuit, royal preacher and confessor, and a poet of renown, Charles de la Rue dedicates his work to the French tragedian, Pierre Corneille. On this follow laudatory poems in Latin and French on Louis XIV and his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands, a funeral ode on the recently perished Anne of Austria (1601 – 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, wife of Louis XIII, and mother of Louis XIV, as well as other odes and poems, including one on Louis’ minister of Finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, here honoured with a full-page emblem of an eagle hovering above its chicks, headed by the lemma ‘Jovis educat’. The siege and capture of Lille was the only major engagement of the War of Devolution, which saw the armies of Louis XIV overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Free County of Burgundy. Louis XIV justified the war through the fact that the promised dowry for his marriage to Maria Theresa, the daughter of Philipp IV, had not been paid, and that the French queen’s renunciation of her Spanish inheritance was therefore invalid. Louis argued that his wife’s prior claims to her father’s estate properly ‘devolved’ to her. Siege techniques applied by the French military engineer Vauban, the use of 4-gun batteries, as well as numerous fires set around as well as at the gates of Lille secured victory near the end of August 1667, with negotiations for surrender beginning on the 28th of that month. Interestingly, La Rue’s Idyllia also includes a sonnet of strong anti-English sentiment just after the Great Fire of London and possibly inspired both by the fires successfully set to the town of Lille, ongoing English aggression regarding the protection of its colonies, and Louis’ involvement in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: ‘ Londres d’un bout à l’autre est au flames en proye, Et souffre un mesme sort qu’elle merite mieux. Le crime qu’elle a fait, est un crime odieux On voit le chastiment par degrez arrivé. La guerre fuit la peste, & le feu purifie Ce que toute la Mer n’aurait pas bien lave.’ (Idyllia, p. 82) The finely engraved head and tail-pieces and full-page emblems are by Louis Cossin (1627-1704). Adams, Rawles, and Saunders, A Bibliography of French Emblem Books of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, vol. II, F383; Sommervogel VII, col. 291. Whilst reprinted twice in 1672 at Paris (re-set, slightly expanded, and with two emblems added), the original, Rouen printing of 1669 is very rare: OCLC locates two copies only for France, at Paris-Mazarine and Bibliothèque Nationale; two copies for the UK, at the British Library and Glasgow, one copy for Germany, at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, and a single copy for North America, at Yale.
Réflexions su la Liberté Avec une Préface par M. Formey

Réflexions su la Liberté Avec une Préface par M. Formey

REINHARD, Adolph Friedrich von. 8vo, pp. xiv, 73, with woodcut vignette on title and one woodcut head-piece; very lightly browned; a fine copy in contemporary speckled boards. VERY RARE FIRST EDITION OF THIS WORK ON LIBERTY BY ADOLPH FRIEDRICH VON REINHARD, A HIGHLY ACCLAIMED LAWYER, AND AN AUTHOR OF APPARENT INTEREST TO IMMANUEL KANT WHO OWNED A COPY OF THE CONTEMPORARY GERMAN TRANSLATION, AS WELL AS THREE OF REINHARD’S OTHER WORKS. ‘[Reinhard’s] father was Hofrat to the Mecklenburg-Strelitz court, i.e. he was part of the legislature, and he contributed greatly to [his] education. Reinhard went to the University of Halle, but returned to his home town when his father died in 1747. He then became a secretary to the Herzogliche Justizkanzlei in Neu-Strelitz. In 1753, he became an honorary member of the Teutsche Gesellschaft in Göttingen and in 1754 a member of the Gesellschaft der nützlichen Wissenschaften in Erfurt as well as an honorary member of the Jenaische Teutsche Gesellschaft. Although his main occupation was law, he published on a broad range of mostly philosophical topics. He also acquired some command of the English language, which was still unusual at this time. In 1759, he became “Justizrat” in Neu-Strelitz, a high position in the judiciary. In 1774, he was appointed “Consistorialrat” and at the same time professor of law at the University of Bützow. The duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin appointed him judge at the “Reichskammergericht” (the highest court of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation) in Wetzlar and thereby ennobled him. ‘Dissatisfied with Wolffianism, he was attracted by the philosophy of Christian August Crusius. In 1755, his critical essay on Leibniz’s optimism won the prize essay contest of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres (Dissertation sur l’optimisme), which attracted some attention, for example from Jean Louis Samuel Formey who wrote a critical review in Nouvelle Bibliothèque Germanique (vol. 18, pp. 23-31). In Réflexions sur la Liberté (1762), Reinhard defends free will against fatalism and argues that there are certain restrictions on the freedom of will (e.g. that it is natural to will freely to choose the good)’ (Heiner F. Klemme and Manfred Kuehn, editors, The Bloomsbury Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers, pp. 618-619). Reinhard’s work carries a preface by Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey. Born in Berlin, Formey was the son of immigrant Huguenots. In 1744, Formey was named a member of the Academy of Berlin, and in 1748 its perpetual secretary, at a time when the language between the Academy’s scientists was changed from Latin to French. Between 1741 and 1753, successive publishers in The Hague brought out the six volumes of Formey’s La belle Wolffienne, which was his effort to explain the philosophy of Christian Wolff to women. He wrote more than 17.000 letters during his life, and corresponded for several years with Francesco Algarotti, author of the famous Newtonianism for Women. A German edition of Reinhard’s work, translated from the original French, was printed at Leipzig in the same year. The German translation, as well as three further publications by Reinhard are known to have been present in the personal library of Immanuel Kant (see Arthur Warda, Immanuel Kants Bücher p. 53, no. 97, for the German printing). Reinhard’s work is very rare: OCLC records just four German locations, one copy in Denmark, at the National Library, one at the National Library, Israel, and one copy in the UK, at the British Library. There are no North-American library holdings.
Traité des usures

Traité des usures, ou explication des prets et des interets par les loix qui ont eté faites en tous les siecles

COLLET, Pilibert 8vo, pp. [16], 303, with an interesting woodcut illustration on title (see below); an excellent copy in contemporary French calf, gilt; head of spine a little worn. PRESENTATION COPY OF THE SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THIS INTERESTING WORK ON USURY IN WHICH THE AUTHOR MAINTAINS THAT ‘USURY IS MORE LEGITIMATE THAN THE TITHE BECAUSE IT IS THE PRICE OF A SERVICE RENDERED BY AN INSTRUMENT, CAPITAL’ (Gilles Jacoud, translator and editor, Jean-Baptiste Say and Political Economy p. 257). ‘[Philibert Collet] was the son of a notary, and was born at Châtillon-les-Dombes, in 1643. He pursued his studies at Lyons, in the college of the Jesuites, of which order be became a noviciate, but acquitted their society at the age of 22, and dedicated himself to the profession of the law. ‘By the liberality of sentiment which he displayed in his writings, he excited an ill-founded suspicion, that he was an enemy to religion. This imputation has, indeed, been in all ages the lot of those who have impugned ecclesiastical abuses, and could not fail to be levelled at Philibert, who attacked the power of the priests, in a “Treatise on Excommunication;” a “Tract on Usury;” “Discourses on Tythes and Alms,” and on the “Cloystering of Nuns.” He died in 1718, after a solemn declaration, that he did not repent of any of these publications which had excited against him no ordinary degree of prejudice’ (Abraham Rees, The Cyclopaedia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature vol. 8, 1819). Collet was a highly interesting character. After renouncing his vows he spent time in England, meeting with a number of learned men, including Thomas Willis and Robert Boyle. He eventually returned to Châtillon where he filled the function of both judge and mayor ‘with great integrity and honour through his zeal, his work, his vast erudition, and the number and variety of his writings’. Collet had excommunication procedures raised against himself over his suspension of the funeral of a man suspected of suicide at his native Châtillon, an event regarding which he is recorded as having ‘garrotted’ the priest overseeing the funeral with the cord of a church bell to then personally take him into custody. As with some of his other works the Traité des usures was published anonymously, and without the printer’s name, as they contained ‘singular sentiments, more free than his church permitted’ (Robert Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica or a General Index to British and Foreign Literature, vol. I, 1824, p. 247). His thoughts on tithes paid to the Church show his stance against a divine right or justification of such; his much criticised treatise on excommunication finds favourable mention at the end of the Traité des études monastiques in the author’s, Jean Mabillon’s ‘catalogue of choice books’. The interesting woodcut illustration on the title shows a representation of the star sign of Taurus, sometimes associated with spring, above a field of flowers and in between the motto: ‘Usuram verno sidere terra parat’ (‘In spring the land prepares itself to yield interest’ – with interest here represented as a natural product of the cycle of seasons in agriculture, a notion much in opposition to the scholastic view of interest as sinful for being unnatural. Provenance: title inscribed ‘Raviot ad[voc]at ex dono authoris’. Raviot may well be identified as Guillaume Raviot (1667 to circa 1735), ‘avocat au parlement et conseilleur des Etats de la Province de Bourgogne’, author of several works on legal matters, and of Latin poetry. Goldsmiths’ 2820; Kress 1727; I.N.E.D. 1146 (remarking that the author’s conclusions are in favour of the legitimacy of interest on loans).
De homine libri duo. Georgi Merulae alexandrine in Galeotum annotationes. Cum indicibus utrobiq[ue] contentoru[m] & copiosissimis & certissimis.

De homine libri duo. Georgi Merulae alexandrine in Galeotum annotationes. Cum indicibus utrobiq[ue] contentoru[m] & copiosissimis & certissimis.

MARZIO, Galeotto 4to, ff. [10], 133, [1]; title within a fine woodcut border by Hans Holbein, numerous fine woodcut initials, two over 9 lines; Froben’s large woodcut device at end; a fine copy, bound in a stiff contemporary vellum sheet (see below). FIRST FROBEN EDITION, THE FIRST PRINTING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AND THE FIRST PRINTING OUTSIDE ITALY, OF MARZIO’S WORK ON HUMAN ANATOMY, BEAUTIFULLY PRODUCED AND HERE PRESERVED IN A WONDERFUL EXAMPLE OF A STRICTLY CONTEMPORARY, ASCETIC VELLUM BINDING. Martius Galeotti (1442-1494) was an Italian astrologer, born in Narni, Umbria. He settled first in Boulogne and then went to Hungary after his religious views proved unpopular with the Catholic Church. In Hungary he became secretary to King Matthias Corvinus (Matthias I), and also tutor to the latter’s son, Prince John. His work De jocose Dictis et Factis Regis Matthias Covirni further incurred the displeasure of the church and he was taken to Venice where he was imprisoned for a time. He was released following the intervention of Pope Sixtus IV, whose tutor he is said to have been at an earlier date. He subsequently returned to France where he became state-astrologer to King Louis XI. De homine is arranged in the classic way, describing the various parts of the body from head to toe, and with discussions of various diseases interspersed. Besides references to authorities such as Cornelius Celsus and Pliny, most others are to classical poets including Plautus, Persius, Manilius, Lucretius, Horace and Vergil. Galen and Hippocrates are not generally named, but appear cumulatively as (auctores) ‘Graeci’. Appended to Martius’ work is a critical commentary by the Italian humanist and classical scholar Giorgio Merula (c. 1430–1494). The greater part of his life was spent in Venice and Milan, where he held a professorship and continued to teach until his death. While he was teaching at Venice, he was the subject of a personal polemic by Cornelio Vitelli, directed at his scholarship. Merula produced the editio princeps of Plautus (1472), of the Scriptores rei rustica, Cato, Varro, Columella, Palladius (1472) and possibly of Martial (1471). He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero, on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors. De homine was first printed in Italy around 1471 two further incunable editions followed. The first joint appearance of Martius’ work with Merula’s critical commentary appended was the Milan edition of 1490. Froben’s, the first sixteenth century printing, appears to be the most influential. There were subsequent editions and commentaries. Binding and provenance: bound in a thick vellum sheet, a generous section of the outer edges folded in; the vellum sheet attached to the book block via two strips of sinew and twirled across the spine; no front- or rear paste-downs, as per its original structure; the book block stitched across its back and onto three sets of thick cords over short vellum guards; the cords’ loops equally exposed at the back, the whole allowing for perfect insight into the entire, original structure of the binding and the process of its making; smudged inscription to the first (of two) front fly-leaves; near-contemporary inscription ‘Caspar von Escherlbach’ at head of title below what appears to be a Latin motto; another inscription, with the surname partly erased and dated 1646 to the center of the title-page; a third early inscription ‘ Ex Supellectili Jo[ann]is Philippi Flachichierni (?), Sti Lubentij on f. 133 verso. dams M 746; Hieronymus 239; VD 16 M1306; Wellcome I 4095.
Della caduta di un sasso dall aria ragionamento.

Della caduta di un sasso dall aria ragionamento.

TROILI, Domenico 4to, pp. [viii], 120; some very light marginal foxing, but a fine copy, entirely uncut, in the original Italian carta rustica; end-papers foxed; covers lightly soiled. VERY RARE FIRST EDITION OF THIS FASCINATING SCIENTIFIC REPORT BY THE ITALIAN JESUIT AND STUDENT OF BOSCOVICH, DOMENICO TROILI, RECOGNIZED THROUGH THE PRESENT PUBLICATION AS THE FIRST PERSON TO DOCUMENT THE FALL OF A METEORITE. In 1766, Troili witnessed the fall of a stone from the sky near the town of Albareto, in the Duchy of Parma, Italy. He collected reports from many other eyewitnesses, closely examined the stone and detected in it small grains of a brassy mineral. He called the material marchesita (from Italian little marchioness ). Troili summarized the results of his research in [his] Ragionamento della caduta di un sasso ( Concerning the fall of a stone from the air ) published in Modena in 1766. The report by Troili said that at about five hours after midday, when the sky was clear except for some clouds over the mountains on the far horizon, many people leaving their fields suddenly saw distant flashes of lightning and heard thunder. This rose in a crescendo of cannonading with loud explosions overhead. Numerous people saw a body streak across the sky and plunge to the ground. To some, the trail looked bright and fiery; to others, dark and smoky. The body hit the ground with such a force that a cow was knocked off its feet and two women clung to trees to avoid falling. The stone made a hole a meter deep in the earth and instantly broke into many pieces. It was a stone that was very heavy, irregular in shape, and magnetic. The outer surface looked as though it had been burned by fire. The inner parts looked much like sandstone with small steely sparkles. Approximately 2 kilograms of the stone were recovered. Today its small fragments are dispersed in numerous museums and laboratories, with the largest piece of 605 g located in the Museum of the University of Modena. The main component of the meteorite was long assumed to be pyrite, FeS2. However, in 1862, German mineralogist Gustav Rose analyzed the composition and determined it as FeS, an iron sulphide. Rose named this new mineral troilite after Troili (Wikepedia). Highly erudite, Troili traces back recordings of meteorite falls through history, with references to and quotes from Pliny, Aristotle, Titus Livius, and more recent and contemporary authors such as Gesner, Cardano, Gemma Frisius, Gassendi, Descartes, Cabeo, the English natural theologian and natural philosopher, William Derham, Redi, Daubenton, Vallisnieri, Josef Stepling, Boscovich, and the pioneer of conchology, Niccolò Gualtieri. He also refers to samples preserved in various museums or private collections, such as those of Anselmus de Boodt and Johann Joachim Brackenhoffer, and discusses related electrical phenomena and lightning, as studied by Beccaria and Franklin. The work was republished by the same printers in the following year. Poggendorff II, 1136; Riccardi I/2, 560. 2; Sommervogel VIII, 252; not in Houzeau and Lancaster or Sinkankas; KvK records two locations only, at Göttingen, and Österreichische Nationalbibliothek; OCLC locates copies at the Smithsonian, Harvard, University of California, Berkeley, and Columbia University, New York.
De igne

De igne

THEOPHRASTUS. Two vols. in one, 4to, pp. 24; [4], 25, [3]; occasional foxing, slightly heavier to the Greek title-page; the Latin title and dedication misbound towards end; otherwise a very good copies in 18th-century calf over marbled boards; boards and spine a bit worn; upper joint cracked, but firm. FIRST EDITION OF TURNÈBE S ANNOTATED LATIN TRANSLATION OF THEOPHRASTUS INTERESTING WORK ON FIRE, A WORK SOMETIMES INTERPRETED AS A SERIOUS DEPARTURE FROM ARISTOTLE S PHYSICS, AND HERE BOUND WITH TURNÈBE S PRINTING OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK TEXT OF THE FOLLOWING YEAR. Concerning Theophrastus account of the four elements, it has been debated to what extent this conforms to the Aristotelian doctrine. In particular, it is not clear whether Theophrastus followed Aristotle in holding that the heavens are made of a fifth element, the ether, distinct from the four sublunary elements, or whether he claimed that the heavens are simply made of fire It has been argued, for instance, that Theophrastus abandoned the fifth element, but used it only in arguments against Plato without endorsing it himself (see Steinmetz 1964). There is no doubt, on the other hand, that he gave prominence to the element of fire. In his short treatise On Fire, Theophrastus distinguished heavenly fire from terrestrial fire, which is always mixed with other elements, and pointed out that, in contrast to the other three elements, terrestrial fire can be generated artificially and constantly requires refuelling. Most importantly, Theophrastus postulated that fire, or heat, is active while the other three elements are passive In fact, this Theophrastean view has been interpreted as a serious departure from Aristotle s physics, according to which hot and cold are active while moist and dry are passive. Against this interpretation, however, it has been remarked that, since the Aristotelian biology postulates only the hot as active, Theophrastus did nothing but extend Aristotle s view to physics in general (see Longrigg 1975). Furthermore, although some scholars have presented the action of the hot as constituting for Theophrastus the reason for the interchanges between the elements, others have counterclaimed that these should be understood as qualitative and not just due to a mechanical mixture (see Steinmetz 1964; Gottschalk 1967) (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online). One of the most eminent French humanists of the Renaissance, Adrien Turnèbe was a specialist in Greek textual criticism, and printer. His Greek edition of Theophrastus work on fire is one of the first Greek printings from the Royal Press (1552-1556); the text first appeared in the monumental Greek of Aristotle s Opera printed by Aldus. Turnèbe (1512-1565) was born at Les Andelys, a former province of northwestern France on the English Channel, now Normandy. At the age of twelve he was sent to Paris to study, and attracted great notice by his remarkable abilities. After having held the post of professor of belles-lettres at the University of Toulouse, he returned to Paris as professor, or Royal reader, of Greek at the College Royal in 1547. In 1552 he was entrusted with the printing of the Greek books at the Royal Press, in which he was assisted by his friend Guillaume Morel. He died of tuberculosis on June 12, 1565. Provenance: Dr Askew sale, Baker and Leigh, 4 March 1775, lot 3145 (manuscript auction label to upper cover), and apparently acquired by Michael Wodhull on that day; William O Brian, bequest booklabel dated 1899; stamp of the Jesuit library at Milltown Park on front free endpaper. Adams T 580 & T 581; Neville Historical Chemical Library II, pp. 542-543 (the Latin text only); Partington I, 127; not in Durling, Duveen, Ferguson or Wellcome; with the Greek text apparently decidedly rarer than the Latin, the few copies containing both the Greek and Latin versions located by OCLC are at the University of Firenze Humanities Library, Staatsbibliothek Berlin, British Library, Cambridge, and Manchester; the