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Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" in Science 189 No. 4201 pp. 460-463, August 8, 1975

Broecker, Wallace FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF BROECKER'S "LANDMARK SCIENTIFIC PAPER" ISSUING ONE OF THE EARLIEST (and most famous) WARNINGS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE & POPULARIZING THE TERM 'GLOBAL WARMING'" (New York Times Obit). This work is famous for the accuracy of Broecker's predictions: "he predicted the rise in average global temperature over the next 35 years with stunning accuracy" (Grist Portal 2019). "It's quite remarkable that a prediction made in 1975 using such a simple model of the climate system could so accurately match the observed global temperature change" (Wallace Broecker's Remarkable 1975.Prediction, ThinkProgress, Aug. 2011). "Dr. Broecker, a geologist by training whose questing mind led him to rove from field to field, had an uncanny ability to draw a comprehensive understanding of the Earth's climate system from research into the oceans, the atmosphere, the planet's ice and more. He gave early warning of a planetary crisis if humans continued to spew carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. He published a landmark scientific paper [this paper] in 1975 that asked in its title, "Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" (NYT). "Broecker was among the first climate scientists to use simple climate models to predict future global temperature changes" (ThinkProgress). "The innovation of Broecker's article was in combining estimates of CO2 warming with natural variability. Basically his prediction involved just three simple steps that in essence are still used today. Step 1: Predict future emissions Step 2: Predict future concentrations Step 3: Compute the global temperature response" (Real Climate Web Portal). Specifically, "Broecker modeled the effects of the expected future increase of CO2 due to humans burning fossil fuels, combined with a natural climate cycle which he estimated based on Greenland ice core records, and tweaked to match the observed temperature record at the time. This was a very simple model, excluding the effects of the sun, volcanoes, other greenhouse gases, aerosols, and so forth, which Broecker acknowledged: 'In this report only the interaction of the CO2 effect and natural climatic change is considered. As other anthropogenic effects are shown to be significant and as means to quantitatively predict their future influence on global temperatures are developed, they can be included in models such as this'" (ThinkProgress). Note that while Broecker is commonly thought to have coined the term 'Global Warming' and first used it in this paper, the Oxford English Dictionary traces its usage first to a San Antonio newspaper in 1952 and then in 1957 to an editorial in an Indiana paper. Without question however, it is Broecker popularized the term. CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. Discreet label on front wrap (see photo). 8vo. Fine condition.
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Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains" and "Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains" in Science 177 No. 4044 pp. 166-170, July 14, 1972

Hafele, Joseph C.; Keating, Richard E. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF THE HAFELE-KEATING EXPERIMENT SUPPORTING TIME DILATION IN SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY. In short, Hafele and Keating observed that there was a discrepancy between the times measured by the traveling clocks and the times measured by similar clocks that stayed at the lab in Washington. The first paper offered here lays out the design of Hafele and Keating's experiment as well as its predictions; the second details the observed time differences recorded by the experiment. In 1971, time dilation, predicted by the special (and the general) theory of relativity, was experimentally verified in a particularly convincing manner by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The experiment itself, sometimes referred to as 'the flying clock experiment', is widely regarded as brilliant. Hafele and Keating used regularly scheduled commercial flights to fly two very precise atomic clocks - who incidentally had their own tickets -- around the earth close to the equator, one on eastbound flights and the other on westbound flights. Their goal was to test Einstein's theory of relativity with macroscopic clocks. Hafele and Keating's "theory predicted that the flying clocks, compared with reference clocks at the U.S. Naval Observatory, should have lost 40+/-23 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and should have gained 275+/-21 nanoseconds during the westward trip" (Abstract, Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, p.166). "Relative to the atomic time scale of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the flying clocks lost 59+/-10 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and gained 273+/-7 nanosecond during the westward trip, where the errors are the corresponding standard deviations. These results provide an unambiguous empirical resolution of the famous clock "paradox" with macroscopic clocks" J.C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, Science 177, 166 (1972). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. Discreet label on rear wrap. 8vo. Fine condition.
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Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance" by Raymond Damadian in Science 171, No. 3976, pp. 1151-1153, March 19, 1971

Damadian, Raymond FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF DAMADIAN'S GROUND-BREAKING EXPERIMENT SUCCESSFULLY USES NMR TO IDENTIFY CANCER IN A HUMAN BODY. The American physician Raymond Vahan Damadian believed that cancerous cells could be differentiated from non-cancerous ones using magnetic resonance. Working with only two grad students and without any consistent funding, Damadian theorized that cancerous cells hold more water and would show up in NMR due to the increased number of hydrogen atoms in relation to the extra water. Damadian believed that tumors would emit different 'signals' - signals detectable by an NMR body scanner -- when compared to healthy tissue. His work, detailed in the paper offered here, proved that he was right: Cancer cells have longer T1 and T2 values than do normal cells and Damadian's work proved that it is possible to see this. "Without Damadian's discovery, it could not be known that serious diseases like cancer could be detected by an NMR scanner or that tissue NMR signals possessed sufficient contrast to create medically useful images" (Wikipedia). Because of Damadian's discovery as well as his 1977 invention of the MRI, doctors can now visualize organs and their diseased parts without the risks of exploratory surgery or the radiation associated with traditional scanning methods. CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. 8vo. Discreet library sticker at the foot of the front wrap; mailing label on rear wrap. Small tear at the foot of the front wrap where it meets the staple binding. Clean and bright throughout. Very good + condition.
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Visibility of single atoms" in Science 168, No. 3937, pp. 1338-1340, June 12, 1970

Crewe, Albert et al. FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST PICTURES OF INDIVIDUAL ATOMS WITHIN A MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. Note that this paper includes those photographs. "Although individual atoms [had] been produced by field ion microscopes, there previously had been no way to reveal a single atom within a molecular structure" (Fling, First Photographs of a Single Atom, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 918, August 1970). Using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) Albert Crewe made headlines around the world. "In 1964 Crewe, a professor emeritus in physics at the University of Chicago and former director of Argonne National Laboratory, invented the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) based on a concept that came to him on an airplane trip. Crewe used focused beams of electrons instead of light waves for magnification. Because electron waves are thousands of times shorter than light waves, they can be used to resolve much smaller objects than can be seen through optical microscopes. "The technique involved scanning a beam of electrons across an object or specimen. The electrons scattered from the structure in the specimen were then used to generate an image on an oscilloscope, which converts electrical impulses into pictures, much like a television set. "He imaged single uranium and thorium atoms magnified a million times. Crewe's STEM was able to view samples smaller than five angstroms-about the distance between atoms. Atoms measure approximately one angstrom, or four-billionths of an inch, in diameter. Because atoms are smaller than a light wave, it is impossible to see them through an optical microscope regardless of its power. "'Crewe's STEM achieved much higher resolution than existing electron microscopes of the day. 'The reason is that Crewe for the first time used a field emission electron source, effectively a point source of electrons, much smaller and brighter than any other electron source,' said Riccardo Levi-Setti, Professor Emeritus in Physics at University of Chicago. 'This enabled him to focus the scanning electron beam to a spot size of atomic dimensions. The field emission electron source is the key to his development'" (University of Chicago Obituary). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. 8vo. Discreet mailing label on rear wrap. Clean and bright. Near fine condition.
Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewächse [Gewachse]

Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewächse [Gewachse], 1868

Hofmeister, Wilhelm [Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt] FIRST EDITION OF HOFMEISTER'S GROUNDBREAKING 1868 WORK DESCRIBING HIS FUNDAMENTAL FINDINGS ON HOW PLANTS GROW & ARE DEVELOPED. Hofmeister's work inspired Gregor Mendel to begin his research on plant hybridization that led to Mendel's discoveries on the inheritance of traits, the beginning of the science of genetics. Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewachse was never translated into English. This volume bears the ownership stamp of Cornelis Eliza Bertus Bremekamp (1888-1984), a Dutch botanist in whose honor a number of plants are named. Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister (1824 -1877) "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel" (Kaplan, The Genius of Wilhelm Hofmeister). Well ahead of his time, however, Hofmeister is by comparison virtually unknown" (Dibner 34). Still, his inspired Gregor Mendel to begin his research on plant hybridization which led to Mendel's discoveries on the inheritance of traits, the beginning of the science of genetics. A German botanist, "Hofmeister was a man of penetrating insight. He not only observed the constant changes in size, form and complexity that attended any embryological development: he also carried out physiological experiments and he constantly inquired: How does the observed form come to be? Here he had in mind the need to formulate explanations or interpretations, in general terms, incorporating mathematics and the physical sciences. These studies, which disclosed a new approach to morphology, were presented in . Allgemeine Morphologie der Gewächse" (Claude Wilson Wardlaw, Essays on Form in Plants). NOTE: We separately offer On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the Coniferae, 1862 [Frederick Curry's English translation of Vergleichende Untersuchungen]. CONDITION & DETAILS: Octavo. 664pp. Profusely illustrated with 192 drawings. Provenance: Cornelis Eliza Bertus Bremekamp (1888-1984), a Dutch botanist in whose honor the Acanthaceae genus Bremekampia and the Rutaceae species Toddaliopsis bremekampii are named. Bound in quarter cloth over the rare original wrappers which have been mounted on boards. Bound upside-down and backwards. Inside, the half title faces the title page. A small rectangle on the half title has been meticulously cut out, exactly mirroring "MIT 134 Holzchnitten" on the title page, meaning that from the person of the half-title, you can see clearly through to the mirrored area. Minor toning to endpapers, otherwise bright and clean throughout. An attractive copy in with original wraps.
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Experimentelles zur Theorie von Bohr, Kramers und Slater" (Bothe & Geiger, pp. 440-441) WITH "Bemerkungen zur Quantenmechanik freier Elektronen" ( Elsasser, p. 711) WITH "Ersetzung der Hypothese vom unmechanischen Zwang durch eine Forderung bezüglich des inneren Verhaltens jedes einzelnen Elektrons" (Uhlenbeck & Goudsmit, pp. 953-954) in Die Naturwissenschaften 13, 1925

Bothe, Walther; Geiger, Hans WITH Elsasser, Walter WITH Uhlenbeck, George; Goudsmit, Samuel Full volume. FIRST EDITIONS OF THREE IMPORTANT PAPERS: (1) WALTHER BOTHE AND HANS GEIGER show that energy is conserved in quantum interactions. (2) WALTER ELSASSER proposes the Davisson-Germer experiment. (3) GEORGE UHLENBECK & SAMUEL GOUDSMIT introduce the concept of electron spin. BOTHE & GEIGER, in this paper, announced the results of the test demonstrating strict conservation of energy and momentum at the quantum level. "Among the topics that Bothe studied in 1924 was the ejection of electrons by X rays, and it was in connection with this phenomenon that he and Geiger performed an important experiment. In an effort to reconcile the particulate and wavelike properties of radiation, Bohr, Kramers, and Slater in 1924 formulated a new quantum theory of radiation. According to the hypothesis, momentum and energy are conserved only statistically in interactions between radiation and matter. "Bothe and Geiger suggested that this could be tested experimentally by examining individual Compton collisions. Bothe introduced a modification into the Geiger counter that made it appropriate for use in coincidence experiments . . . using two counters, they studied the coincidences between the scattered X ray and the recoiling electron. Correlating photons with electrons, Bothe and Geiger found a coincidence rate of one in eleven; since the chance coincidence rate for the situation was 10-5, the experimental results contradicted the theoretical predictions and indicated small-scale conservation of energy and momentum" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography). WALTER ELSASSER, came to the ideas in this paper after he had been "browsing in the Göttingen library in 1925 at the age of 21 [and] found a newly completed dissertation by Louis de Broglie containing the suggestion that matter such as electrons might also behave as waves. Elsasser made the fundamental observation that the hitherto confusing and unexplained experimental results of electron interaction with metals from Bell Laboratories were in fact confirmation of de Broglie's hypothesis" Marsh, memorial to Elsasser, 1991). "With the encouragement of his colleagues, he wrote a short paper in [this paper] suggesting that de Broglie's theory could be tested through an improved crystal diffraction experiment" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). This discovery characterized Walter and established him as a scientist of world class, though as sometimes happens, two others later received the Nobel Prize for making the same observation two years after Elsasser did. UHLENBECK & GOUDSMIT, in this paper, introduced electron spin, which posits intrinsic angular momentum for all electrons. "While still students studying at Leiden under Paul Ehrenfest, two Dutch physicists, George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit postulated that the electron must have an intrinsic angular momentum ('spin') and therefore a magnetic moment because the electron is charged. Each electron, they argued, spins with an angular momentum of ½ Planck constant and carries a magnetic moment of one Bohr magneton" (Instituut-Lorentz, Leiden". Commentary by Bohr follows their paper. WE ALSO OFFER THE FIRST ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THIS PAPER SEPARATELY: Uhlenbeck & Goudsmit "Spinning Electrons and the Structure of Spectra" Nature 117 No. 2938 pp. 264-265, February 20, 1926. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 4to. 1092 pp. Very small institutional stamp on the title page; very slight ghosting at the spine from the removal of a label. Tightly bound in contemporary leather and marbled boards . Gilt-lettered at the spine. Clean and bright throughout. Indexed. Near fine.
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On the best means for conducting meteorological observations in different places and climates, so as to produce some uniformity in the modes of obtaining and summing up the results 1821", The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Volume 57, pp. 81-83, 1821

Howard, Luke Complete volume. FIRST EDITION OF A SHORT PAPER BY LUKE HOWARD WHO IN 1802 SEMINAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO METEOROLOGY. Howard was a British chemist and amateur meteorologist. "In 1802, Luke Howard (1772 - 1864) made a fundamental contribution to weather forecasting by proposing the first standard nomenclature for clouds, proposing Latin names that are still in use today such as "cirrus," "cumulus," "stratus," and "nimbus," and combinations such as "cumulostratus." His insight was that clouds have many individual shapes but few basic forms. Howard's nomenclature has been updated and improved many times since he first presented it, but it is still in use today" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). "After delivering his 1802 paper, Howard he became something of a sensation. Within a decade his classification was in general use throughout Western Europe and not only scientists, but poets like Shelley and Goethe were praising him for his contribution to language.Because of his many contributions to the emerging science of meteorology, in the same year that this paper was published, Howard was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, the highest honor his peers could confer" (Cloudman's Cloud History). Howard's insight was that "clouds have many individual shapes but few basic forms" (Hamblyn, The Invention of Clouds). In addition to the Latin terms he selected, he also introduced intermediate and compound modifications, such as cirrostratus and stratocumulus - these to accommodate the transitions that occur between forms. As well, Howard identified the importance of clouds in meteorology: "Clouds are subject to certain distinct modifications, produced by the general causes which affect all the variations of the atmosphere; they are commonly as good visible indicators of the operation of these causes, as is the countenance of the state of a person's mind or body" (Howard). ALSO INCLUDED: This volume also includes many mentions and responses of Oersted and Ampère's 1820 work. The key role of Oersted's and Ampère's 1820 electromagnetic experiments in the construction of the concept of electric current marked the beginning of a revolution in the understanding of electromagnetism, providing the first connection between what had been thought to be two very different physical phenomena. Among the many related works: Hatchett, C. "On the Electro-Magnetic Experiments of MM. Oersted and Ampere", Philosophical Magazine 1821, vol. 57, No. 273, p. 40-47. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 8vo. 476pp. 4 plates and tables throughout. Original marbled paper boards are present, but have been reinforced at the spine and around to about 1.5 inches on the front and rear boards with tan buckram. While there are no interior ex-libris markings, the spine is hand-lettered and includes two call numbers at the foot. The hinges are reinforced inside and the volume is now tight and solidly bound. The interior, save for the endpapers, is very clean. Good + condition.
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Gravitational Waves in General Relativity" in Nature, Vol. 186, pp. 535, 1960

Bondi, Hermann FIRST EDITION, full volume, OF A "SEMINAL" HERMANN BONDI PAPER PRESENTING "A NEW APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF GENERAL RELATIVITY" (Mädler, Bondi-Sachs Formalism, 2). Bondi's new approach was based upon the outgoing null rays along which the waves traveled. In 1957 Bondi firmly established the physical reality of gravitational waves. [We offer this paper separately]. Gravitational waves, or ripples in the fabric of spacetime, were first predicted by Einstein's 1916 general theory of relativity. While Bondi's paper established their physical reality, two papers from the early 1960s - the one offered here and another that we offer separately-- put "their physical properties such as energy and momentum flux on a rigorous mathematical footing" that had been lacking (Denef, Science, Feb. 2016). In February 2016, the September 2015 detection of gravitational waves - waves first predicted by Einstein over a hundred years ago - was announced. "The Bondi-Sachs formalism of General Relativity is a metric-based treatment of the Einstein equations in which the coordinates are adapted to the null geodesics of the spacetime. It provided the first convincing evidence that that mass loss due to gravitational radiation is a nonlinear effect of general relativity and that the emission of gravitational waves from an isolated system is accompanied by a mass loss from the system. The asymptotic behaviour of the Bondi-Sachs metric revealed the existence of the symmetry group at null infinity, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group, which turned out to be larger than the Poincare group" (ibid., 1). NOTE: We offer other works by Bondi separately. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. Full volume. 4to (Quarto). A few small interior 'Aquatic Research Center' stamps; minimal; no exterior markings at all. 10.5 x 8 inches (263 x 200mm). [xci], 1076, [4]. In text illustrations and photos throughout. Tightly bound in half blue calf, gilt-lettered. Lightly rubbed edges. The endpapers are toned, but otherwise the interior is very bright and clean throughout. Near fine.
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On the Magnetic Phenomena Produced by Electricity" (Davy, pp. 7-19) AND "Further researches on the magnetic phenomena produced by Electricity; with some new experiments on the properties of electrified bodies in their relations to conducting powers and temperature" (Davy, pp.425-439) WITH "On the Nerves; Giving an Account of Some Experiments on Their Structure and Functions, Which Lead to a New Arrangement of the System" (Bell, pp. 398-424) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 111, 1821 PARTS I AND II

Davy, Humphry; Bell, Charles Bound full volume, FIRST EDITION OF HUMPHRY DAVY'S RESEARCH PROVING THAT ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE VARIES WITH TEMPERATURE. Davy's research "proved a difference in the conducting-power of metals and the decrease of that power as their temperature rose" (Royal Society). ALSO INCLUDED: 1st EDITION OF CHARLES BELL'S "SEMINAL" PAPER DESCRIBING THE ANATOMY OF THE LONG FACIAL NERVE & ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE UNILATERAL FACIAL PALSY THAT NOW BEARS HIS NAME - BELL'S PALSY & BELL'S NERVE (Shelley, Historical Perspectives, 1, 2013, 85). HUMPHRY DAVY: In 1821 and in these papers, Sir Humphry Davy not only clearly proved the differences existing between the conducting power of different materials and its dependence with temperature, but also found the relation of this power to the other physical variables such as weight, surface and length of the conducting body, as well the conditions of electro-magnet action. Together, the papers demonstrate "a series of experiments to determine the relations of different conductors to the magnetism produced by electricity, Davy found that induced magnetism was not affected by the electrification of the magnetized metal, or by its agitation in the case of liquid mercury in a glass tube, or by whatever was used to conduct the electricity. "Furthermore, Davy realized that there was a limit to the quantity of electricity that a wire could transmit. When exceeded, the wire would turn red hot or fuse and the flow of electricity would stop or severely diminish. Davy conducted experiments to determine how the limit varied by the temperature, mass, surface, length, and induced magnetism of the wire. Davy found that conductivity of metallic bodies "was lower in some inverse ratio as the temperature was higher," whether the heat was caused by the electricity or by an external flame. Using water to cool wires of different metals, Davy found that silver was the best conductor, followed by copper, lead, gold, zinc, tin, platinum, palladium, and iron, that the longer the wire, the less it would conduct, that the more massive the wire, the more it would conduct, and that the shape of the wire didn't matter" (Sharp, 1821 Electric Conductivity). CHARLES BELL: Bell' paper has long been considered the first description of idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19 th century. This "seminal paper published in.1821 dwelt on the intricacy of nerves, both structure and function, principles of arrangement (anatomical details), with experiments in animals and clinical observations; went on to describe a section on the facial nerve, which then he referred to as 'exterior respiratory nerve of the face' (Bell's nerve). His 1821 paper did provide a brief but unmistakable description of facial paralysis of lower motor neuron type. He clearly separated it from the palsy of upper motor neuron lesions, although this terminology was not then in use. His account of the upturning of the globe (Bell's phenomenon) was graphic and important, and received more attention from Gowers and later Kinnier Wilson than his account of facial palsy" (Shelley). ALSO INCLUDED: Hutton, Charles, "On the mean density of the Earth" pp. 276-292. ALSO: Herschel, "On the Aberrations of Compound Lenses and Object-glasses" pp. 222-268. CONDITION: Complete. 4to. 30 plates. Handsomely rebound in calf; 5 raised spine bands; red & black morocco spine labels. Some toning at the page edges (not impacting text); minor foxing to rear endpapers. Otherwise very clean throughout. Near fine.
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The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication

Darwin, Charles Two volume FIRST AMERICAN EDITION of "ONE OF DARWIN'S MOST INFLUENTIAL AND WIDE-RANGING BOOKS. IT IS ALSO HIS LONGEST AND MOST DETAILED WORK" (Freeman, The Works of Charles Darwin, 879). It is also "the only section of Darwin's big book on the origin of species which was printed in his lifetime and corresponding to its first two intended chapters" (ibid). Darwin's intent was "to provide overwhelming evidence for the ubiquity of variation" (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography). "This work is notable not only for Darwin's prodigious amassing of facts concerning artificial selection of traits to demonstrate an analogy for natural selection. It also advances his hypothesis of pangenesis and gemmules, as the agents of the inheritance of characteristics" (DSB). Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis, "here expounded for the first time" (Freeman). Was the by "means of which [he] tried to frame an explanation of hereditary resemblance, inheritance of acquired characters, atavism, and regeneration. It was a brave attempt to account for a number of phenomena which were beyond the bounds of scientific knowledge in his day, such as fertilization by the union of sperm with egg, the mechanism of chromosomal inheritance, and the development of the embryo by successive cell division. His hypothesis of pangenesis could not therefore give a permanently acceptable account of the multitude of phenomena it was designed to explain. It was, however, a point of departure for particulate theories of inheritance in the latter nineteenth century' (DSB, Freeman). "Other chapters consider "the amount and nature of the changes which animals or plants have undergone whilst under man's dominion", employing observations of inheritance within a species in an effort to understand the causes of variability" (ibid). While, as said, Darwin's two volumes "were intended to provide overwhelming evidence for the ubiquity of variation" they also "incidentally answer[ed] Lyell and Gray, who maintained that variations had not occurred purely by chance but were providentially directed. Darwin showed that breeders indeed selected from a vast array of minute random variations. He gave numerous instances of the causes of variability, including the direct effect of the conditions of life, reversion, the effects of use and disuse, saltation, prepotency, and correlated growth" (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography). CONDITION & DETAILS: Two volumes. Complete. 8vo (18.7 x 12.2 cm). Vol. I: [6], x, [494], 14 Vol. II: [4],viii, [568], 12. Solidly bound in original publisher's green cloth; gilt-lettered at the spine. Scuffing at the edges with minor chipping at the head and foot of the spine. Clean and bright throughout both volumes. Very good.
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Zoological Philosophy: An Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals,1914. A CLASSIC IN THE LITERATURE OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY WITH SIGNIFICANT PROVENANCE

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste [Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck] FIRST ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF LAMARCKIAN EVOLUTIONARY THEORY - "A CLASSIC IN THE LITERATURE OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY" (Printing and the Mind of Man, 262), this copy bearing the ownership stamp of John Zachary Young, the English zoologist and neurophysiologist described as "one of the most influential biologists of the 20th century" (Wikipedia; Lichtman and Sanes, "Translation Neuroscience," Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 3485-3487). [Note that we offer one of Young's important works separately]. Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck (1744 - 1829) was a "French naturalist best known for his classification of invertebrates and his introduction of evolutionary theories. Lamarck's theory of evolution, or "Lamarckism," asserts that life forms arise by a continuous process of gradual modification. To explain this process he proposes that animals pass on to their offspring useful traits and characteristics acquired during their lifetimes" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). First published in French in 1809 as Philosophie Zoologique, this work is the most extensive and complete presentation of Lamarck's theories. The first two parts restate and elaborate upon his 1802 work on evolution "which attributes evolution to two factors: the tendency of species toward increasing complexity, and the influence of the environment, which he considered responsible for these variations from the norm. The third part contains the most important additions to the earlier theories. In this section Lamarck deals in great detail with the problem of a physical explanation for the emergence of higher mental facilities . "Lamarck's breakthrough was tying a progressive development of higher mental facilities in a physical way to structural development of the nervous system . Higher mental faculties could emerge precisely because they were a product of increased structural complexity . For Lamarck one of the most important events in the evolutionary process was the development of the nervous system, particularly the brain, because at that point animals began to form ideas and control their movements' (Dictionary of Scientific Biography). This work is fully titled: Zoological Philosophy, An Exposition of Considerations Relating to the Natural History of Animals; The Diversity of Their Organisation and the Faculties Which They Derive From It: The Physical Causes Which Maintain Life Within Them and Give Rise to Their Various Movements; Lastly, Those Which Produce Feeling and Intelligence in Some Among Them. "Although Darwin initially disparaged Lamarck's work, he later amended his opinion, stating in the 'Historical Introduction' to the third edition of On the Origin of Species that Lamarck 'first did the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability of all change in the organic as well as in the inorganic world being the result of law, and not of miraculous intervention'" (London: 1861, p. xiii). CONDITION & DETAILS: Provenance: Bears a few ownership stamps reading "J. Z. Young, Magdalen College, Oxford". John Zachary Young contribution to neurobiology was stunning: "He was the first to recognize something that would have revolutionize the treatment of those injured in battle: the ability for regrowth in the damaged nerves of squid and octopi" (Lichtman and Sanes). Complete. 8vo. [9 x 6.25 inches].[xcii], 410, [4]. Solidly bound in publisher's original green cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine; slight scuffing and rubbing at the edge tips; small closed tear at the foot of the spine. Clean throughout.
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The Bakerian Lecture. On the mechanism of the eye" (Young, pp. 23-88; Read Nov. 27, 1800) WITH "Observations Tending to Investigate the Nature of the Sun, in Order to Find the Causes or Symptoms of Its Variable Emission of Light and Heat; With Remarks on the Use That May Possibly Be Drawn from Solar Observations" (Herschel, pp. 265-318; Read April 16, 1801) AND "Additional Observations Tending to Investigate the Symptoms of the Variable Emission of the Light and Heat of the Sun; With Trials to Set Aside Darkening Glasses, by Transmitting the Solar Rays through Liquids; And a Few Remarks to Remove Objections That Might Be Made against Some of the Arguments Contained in the Former Paper" (pp. 354-362; Read May 14, 1801) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Volume 91, Parts I & II, 1801. YOUNG’S IMPORTANT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS & HERSCHEL’S PAPERS, THE FIRST SPECULATION THAT THE SUN’S BRIGHTNESS MIGHT VARY & AFFECT THE CLIMATE ON EARTH

Young, Thomas WITH Herschel, William FULL VOLUME 1ST EDITION of THOMAS YOUNG'S IMPORTANT 1801 PAPER, "THE MOST IMPORTANT TREATISE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS PUBLISHED UP TO THAT TIME (Hirschberg/Blodi V, 22). The paper "includes the first description of astigmatism [defects of the eye or lens] with measurements and optical constants" (Garrison-Morton 1487). Young's paper houses 6 folding plates engraved by Basire. ALSO included: 1st EDITION of Wm. HERSCHEL'S PAPERS DEMONSTRATING THAT WHEAT PRICES CORRELATE WITH THE SUNSPOT CYCLE & THAT SOLAR INTENSITY VARIES WITH SUNSPOT ACTIVITY. Herschel's paper is routinely cited in papers on global warming. "The versatile [Thomas] Young is regarded as one of the greatest of all scientists" and the father of physiological optics (Garrison 1486). He did pioneering work in a wide variety of fields, here "on the mechanism of the eye". The majority of the paper concerns "the measurement, origins and effects of accommodation. Young measured refraction and accommodation with his own variation of [an earlier] optometer. He considered the different possible origins of accommodation and confirmed that it was due to change in shape of the lens rather than to change in shape of the cornea or an increase in axial length. He also described the astigmatism of his own eye. In addition to the work in accommodation and astigmatism, he dealt with many other aspects of visual and ophthalmic optics, such as biometric parameters, peripheral refraction, longitudinal chromatic aberration, depth-of-focus and instrument myopia" (Atchison, JOV, 2010, p. 16). Young's paper "provided the best account up to that time of the eye's optical system, including refraction by the cornea and the surfaces of the lens. He built a device, an optometer, for determining the eye's state of focus, making it possible to prescribe appropriate correction lenses. His main contribution, however, was to show that accommodation, the eye's focusing mechanism, was not the result of changes to the curvature of the cornea, nor to the length of the eye, but was due entirely to changes in the shape of the lens, which he described with impressive accuracy" (Phil Trans 350th Anniversary Celebration, 2015). Helmholtz believed Young "was one of the most acute men who ever lived, but had the misfortune to be too far in advance of his contemporaries. They looked on him with astonishment, but could not follow his bold speculation [and it wasn't until much later that they] came to appreciate the force of his arguments and the accuracy of his conclusions " (ibid). HERSCHEL: In these 1801 papers Herschel is the first to speculate "that the Sun's brightness might vary and affect the climate on Earth. Herschel correctly [notes] that the Sun's activity, measured in terms of sunspots, influences the Earth's climate" (RAS). (Wenner, History of Physics). Herschel knew that sunspot activity varies over time [see his 1795 work offered separately] but lacked measurements of Earth temperatures over time.to test this hypothesis directly. "However he reasoned that crop yields should positively correlate with temperature and market prices should drop under conditions of high crop output.Herschel [compared] the available historical wheat price data in Adam Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations against sunspot activity, and found that wheat prices tended to be higher during time periods with fewer sunspots. "This led him to reason that high sunspot activity might lead to a 'deficiency of the solar beams'" -- that the number of sunspots would be indicative of the amount of the Sun's energy received by the Earth, and that that energy would affect the amount of wheat produced, thus affecting the price (Wenner, History of Physics). Two plates with Herschel's drawings of sunspots. CONDITION: London. Full volume, complete. Parts I & II. 4to. 33 plates. Faded stamp on the rear of the title page. Handsomely rebound in aged calf. 5 raised bands at the spine. Red and black gilt-lettered morocco spine labels. Bright & clean. Fine.
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Memoir on a portion of the lower jaw of the Iguanodon, and on the remains of the Hylæosaurus and other Saurians, discovered in the Strata of Tilgate Forest, in Sussex" (Mantell, pp. 131-151) WITH "Additional Note on the Contraction of Voluntary Muscle in the Living Body" (Bowman pp. 69-72) WITH "On a Cycle of Eighteen Years in the Mean Annual Height of the Barometer in the Climate of London, and on a Constant Variation of the Barometrical Mean According to the Moon’s Declination" (Howard, pp. 277-280) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Volume 131, 1841

Mantell, Gideon; Bowman, William; Howard, Luke Full volume 1st editions of 3 important papers, MANTELL'S 2nd MAJOR PAPER ON THE IGUANODON; BOWMAN'S's CLASSIC PAPER ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLES; & ONE OF A NUMBER OF LUKE HOWARD'S PAPERS "WHICH TRANSFORMED THE SCIENCE OF METEOROLOGY" (Wikipedia). MANTELL'S PAPER: Gideon Mantell "is best known for his discovery of the first dinosaur ever to be described properly - a momentous event" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, IX, 87). Mantell published three major papers on his Iguanodon, the first in 1825, the 1941 paper offered here, and the last, the 1848 paper inclusive of the most complete description. In 1822, Mantell discovered the teeth of a giant reptile in West Sussex. "In 1825 he was shown teeth of the modern lizard iguana, and he saw that his fossil teeth were similar but much larger. That same year, Mantell announced, described, and named his discovery in the first of the 3 papers. It was eventually pointed out that the teeth resembled those of an iguana, only much larger, which suggested to Mantell that he call his creature an Iguanodon" (Linda Hall Library). By 1841 and in the paper offered, Mantell had begun to conceptualize the iguanodon as "a gigantic herbivorous reptile bulky and massive as an elephant. [its] limbs must have been proportional to its body.the less bulky forelegs were adapted for seizing plants and pulling down branches" (Dean, Mantell, 233). Mantell's "bold but well-considered speculations animated Iguanodon with a degree of physiological and behavioral specificity unmatched by any other saurian then known" (DSB). In a startling finale to the 1848 paper, Mantell reidentified a specimen presented in the 1841 paper as part of the lower jaw of a young iguanodon. BOWMAN PAPER: William Bowman published two "classical descriptions[s] of the striated muscle," this being the second (Garrison & Morton 542). It is "the foundation of the current understanding of striated muscle structure. Bowman succeeded in establishing the true architecture of striated muscle fibres.explaining and eradicating alternative erroneous concepts in the process - but also in correctly describing the basic microstructural changes associated with contraction" (Frixione, Muscle microanatomy and its changes during contraction, JMRC, 2006). HOWARD PAPER: "Howard has been called 'the father of meteorology' because of his comprehensive recordings of weather in the London area from 1801 to 1841", these being the last of those works, and his nomenclature system for clouds (WP). In this paper, Luke Howard, "truly states, ascertained beyond controversy, that a periodical revolution takes place, bringing alternate warmth and coldness through successive trains of seasons in our variable climate" (ibid). Howard had written two other accounts of the climate of London, in 1818 and 1833. In those, "Howard gave a view of the series of changes embraced by the cycle which it is his present object [in the paper offered] to illustrate, on the basis which his observations then seemed to present, of alternate periods of seven of heat. He then admits.the probability of spaces between these successive periods not agreeing with this rule and answering to the 'intercalations' of an imperfect calendar. Having since pursued the subject further, he finds 'these spaces or interposed years to be necessary parts of the scheme at large, which now resolves [he shows in this paper] into a cycle of 18 years in which our seasons appear to pass through their extreme changes in respect of warmth and cold, wet and dryness" (ibid; Howard, 277). CONDITION: London. Full volume, complete. 27 plates. Faded stamp on the title page. Handsomely rebound in aged calf. 5 raised bands at the spine. Red and black gilt-lettered morocco spine labels. Bright & clean. Fine.
Company (HAND PRINTED FOLIO EDITION. SCARCE PERSONAL COPY SIGNED BY SAMUEL BECKETT

Company (HAND PRINTED FOLIO EDITION. SCARCE PERSONAL COPY SIGNED BY SAMUEL BECKETT, THE ARTIST & PRINTMAKER DELLAS HENKE & BOUND BY THE INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED CONSERVATOR, WILLIAM (Bill) ANTHONY)

Beckett, Samuel SCARCE PERSONAL COPY OF SAMUEL BECKETT'S NOVELLA "COMPANY" SIGNED BY SAMUEL BECKETT, THE ARTIST & PRINTMAKER DELLAS HENKE & BOUND BY THE INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED CONSERVATOR, WILLIAM (Bill) ANTHONY. Signed documentation authenticating Anthony's binding and that the volume is from Anthony's personal collection is included. This edition was published under Anthony's direction at the Iowa Center for the Book where Bill worked for the majority of his career. This printing appears in Kelly and Hutner, A Century for the Century: Fine Printed Books from 1900 to 1999, 89). Only "fifty-two copies [were printed], press-numbered 1/52 through 52/52, and 9 un-numbered author's, artist's, and printers' proofs" (Company). This volume is one of those nine particularly rare printings. Printed by hand on dampened Arches paper by Cheryl Miller, L. J. Yanney, Kim Merker, and Cynthia Rymer, included are 13 folio plates. The frontispiece is hand-colored. Other fine bindings by Anthony are in private collections and libraries, including the British Library, London; the Lily Library, Indiana University; and the Newberry Library, Chicago. "The spectrum of his work was broad, encompassing edition binding, fine binding, and conservation" (Verheyen, William Anthony, Fine Binder). Company is a novella by Samuel Beckett. "In it, a man lies on his back in the dark, musing about the nature of existence and in particular, his own life. While there are several reminiscences about the narrator's own life (and these seem to have an autobiographical air about them), the main concern seems to be that of the paradox of consciousness itself and the nature of reality. If one is conscious about oneself and comments on the self from within the self, then where is the true location of the self? Is the mind that examines the self the true 'self' or is the 'self' that is the subject of mind the true self. The mind can set itself aside from and examine the body that houses it, the presumed 'soul' contained somewhere within it, or indeed any other manifestation of self that the mind cares to focus on. Company seems to ask: 'what is the locus of the self and how should a person proceed in relation to that amorphous and dynamic entity?' This relates to Plato's Plato's paradox of the third man argument in which a third self (and then another, and another ad infinitum) is required to explain how a man and the form of man are both man, and so on. "Company illustrates clearly the dilemma of the modern 20th century human, an existential crisis in which God is dead and life's 'purpose' seems entirely arbitrary. Beckett's solution in Company is to suggest that a plain acceptance of one's temporality is needed in order properly to function. However, far from being hopeless, such a life is hopeful in that its design is one's own responsibility and not that of some god or fate. Company is a call to action for those who accept the hard facts. 'Get on with it,' might be a fitting summation" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Folio. 14 x 11.25 inches. Housed in a simple blue cloth case. Printed by hand on dampened Arches paper by Cheryl Miller, L. J. Yanney, Kim Merker, and Cynthia Rymer, included are 13 folio plates. The frontispiece is hand-colored. Pristine condition.
Caroline Herschel: "An Account of a New Comet" Read Nov. 7

Caroline Herschel: "An Account of a New Comet" Read Nov. 7, 1793, (C. Herschel, p. 1); WITH William Herschel: "Observations of a quintuple Belt on the Planet Saturn" Read Dec 19, 1793, (W. Herschel, pp. 28-32); "Account of Some Particulars Observed During the Late Eclipse of the Sun", Read Jan 9, 1794, (W. Herschel pp. 39-48); "On the Rotation of the Planet Saturn upon its Axis", Read Jan. 23, 1794, (W. Herschel, pp. 48-66); WITH Benjamin Thomson, Count of Rumford: "An Account of a Method of Measuring the Comparative Intensities of the Light Emitted by Luminous Bodies" Read Feb. 6, 1794, (Rumford, pp. 67-106); "An Account of Some Experiments Upon Coloured Shadows", (Rumford, pp. 107-119); WITH William Morgan: "On the Method of Determining, from the Real Probabilities of Life, the Values of Contingent Reversions in Which Three Lives are Involved in the Survivorship" Read May 15th, 1794,( Morgan, pp. 223-261) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Volume 84, 1794 Parts I & I

Herschel, Caroline; Herschel, William; Rumford, Count; Morgan, William FIRST EDITIONS OF A NUMBER OF IMPORTANT LATE 18th c. PAPERS. 20 copperplates. CAROLINE HERSCHEL made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. Herschel was the first woman to discover a comet - in fact 8 of them, 6 of which bear her name. The only reason the comet she notes in the paper included in this volume is that, understandably unknown to her, the comet had been discovered two weeks earlier by Charles Messier. In addition to her contributions in relation to comets, Herschel made many of the original discoveries of the clusters and nebulae in the Herschel catalog. Herschel was the first woman officially recognized in a scientific position, the first salaried female astronomer, and the first woman to receive honorary membership into Britain's prestigious Royal Society. Her brother was William Herschel; she made many discoveries working with her brother and many in her own right. WILLIAM HERSCHEL. "Astronomers have been working to determine the length of Saturn's day since William Herschel published "On the rotation of the Planet Saturn upon its Axis" included in this volume. The determination of Saturn's rotation rate by using visible atmospheric features was notably difficult because un-like Jupiter, well-defined features in Saturn's atmosphere are rare" (Dowling). Herschel's value was 10h 16m, a number remarkably close to the present 10h14m value. "In November 1793, Herschel recorded more and more features in the southern summer hemisphere - a 'quintuple belt', probably consisting of the dark SEB in Saturn's tropics and two dusky temperate belts at higher southern latitudes. [From those records, Herschel] used a series of observations of any heterogeneous features in Saturn's belts between November 1793 and January 1794, selecting pairs of similar features at two different times to estimate the rotational period of Saturn. [Herschel's results in the 2nd Saturn paper included here] were guided by his earlier deduction of a ring rotation period of 10.5 hours, and over many trial solutions arrived at an estimate of 10 hours, 16 minutes and 4 seconds around 15-30 minutes off from the current (variable!) rotation rate being measured by the Cassini spacecraft. [Anna] Alexander's book [on Saturn] notes how incredible this result is, given that Herschel was using very slight differences in intensity in 'ill-defined stretches of belts'" (Planetary Weather, April 2013). RUMFORD: Both Rumford papers included here relate to his work in photometry, the measurement of light - in this case, intensity and shadow. Rumford's purpose in doing so was practical: he wanted to find a more economical method of lighting. For the purposes of these papers and in order to compare the intensity of light from different sources, Rumford designed a photometric head within which two identical rods were placed inches from a screen. The blackened rods cast shadows on the screen which then corresponded to two light sources. The design of his photometer allowed him to present particularly accurate results on both shadows and light intensity. His work in the field is well-respected: "The earliest, and still in many ways the best, description of coloured shadows produced experimentally is that of Rumford [1794]" (Haldane, 612.843). WILLIAM MORGAN: Morgan was a "British physician, physicist, and statistician who is considered the father of modern actuarial science" (WP). The paper included here is one of a number of influential ones. Interestingly, Morgan is also widely considered "the most influential British advocate of American independence" (Howes P586). CONDITION: 4to. 20 copperplates Nearly invisible blind stamp on the title page and a few pages. Handsomely rebound in calf; 5 raised spine bands; red & black morocco spine labels. Some toning at the page edges (not impacting text); otherwise very clean throughout. Near fine.
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Möglichkeit neuer Elemente und ihre Bedeutung für die Astrophysik", Astronomische Nachrichten 253 (4). pp. 93-108, 1934

Mohorovicic [Mohorovi i ], S [Stjepan] FIRST EDITION, bound full volume, of Stjepan Mohorovi i 's prediction of the existence of positronium. "Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium. The system is unstable: the two particles annihilate each other to predominantly produce two or three gamma-rays, depending on the relative spin states" (Wikipedia). Stjepan Mohorovi i (1890-1980) was a Croatian physicist, geophysicist and meteorologist. He is "often called "'he father of positonium'" because of this, his most significant work. It was experimentally discovered and confirmed in 1951 by Martin Deutsch and became known as positronium. Mohorovi i in his paper also calculated spectra of positronium and predicted the existence of positronium in stars because of which he suggested the identification of possible spectral lines of positronium in spectra of stars. He was searching for spectra of positronium in the sky, but unsuccessfully. Positronium lines were first identified in lab in 1975 by Canter et al. and in outer space in spectra of Crab Nebula 1984 by J. E. McClintock" (ibid). CONDITION: 4to. (11 x 9 inches; 275 x 225mm). Plates and in-text illustrations throughout. Bearing the armorial bookplate of Wellesley College; no library spine markings. Solidly bound in maroon cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Minor minor rubbing at the edge tips. Clean throughout. Very good condition.
Contributions to the Medical Sciences in Honor of Dr. Emanuel Libman

Contributions to the Medical Sciences in Honor of Dr. Emanuel Libman, Volumes I, II, & III, 1932. SIGNED PRESENTATION COPY WITH LENGTHY INSCRIPTION TO THE JEWISH SCHOLAR LOUIS FINKELSTEIN

Libman, Emanuel Presentation copy, with Libman's signed, letter-length inscription to "Finkelstein" on the front free endpaper of Vol. I. "Finkelstein" is highly likely to be Louis Finkelstein as they were concurrent members of The Committee for the Establishment of an International Academy of Sciences in Jerusalem (see Barsky, Zellig Harris, 106). Finkelstein "was a Talmud scholar, an expert in Jewish law, and a leader of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and Conservative Judaism" (Wikipedia). The inscription reads: "July 1st, 1933. Dear Finkelstein, It gives me much pleasure to follow your kind request to inscribe my name in these Anniversary Volumes. At the same time I want to express my high regard for you and my appreciation of your friendship. [Signed] Emanuel Libman. Published to mark the 60th birthday of Libman, 147 contributions are included, among those MAUDE ABBOT, ALEXIS CARREL, LEROY CRUMMER, ALBERT EINSTEIN (Boni 213), JONAS & JULIUS FRIEDENWALD, FIELDING GARRISON, SIR THOMAS HORDER, ARTHUR HURST, CHARLES & WILLIAM MAYO, KARL SUDHOFF, F. PARKES WEBER, PAUL WHITE. "In medical history [Finkelstein's] name will probably always be associated with endocarditis in general, with the bacteria-free stage of endocarditis and with his description with Dr. Benjamin Sacks of a new form of endocarditis which he called atypical verrucous endocarditis, now termed the Libman-Sacks disease. Notable as were his achievements in bacteriology and pathology, he will be remembered by many physicians for his extraordinary knowledge of internal medicine and its literature, and his brilliance as a diagnostician" (Oppenheimer, In Memoriam, NY Academy Medical, Feb. 1947, 116). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete three volume set. 4to. Frontispiece portrait, 1 color plate. Original blue cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Minor scuffing at the edge tips. Very good condition.
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A Theory of Electrons and Protons" in Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, Vol. 126, 1930, pp. 360-365

Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice FIRST EDITION OF DIRAC'S PREDICTION OF ANTI-MATTER and the introduction of the dynamical view of the vacuum, a discovery fundamental to the later development of quantum theory. In this paper Dirac postulates that all states of negative energy are occupied, beginning to transform the way physicists viewed empty space. After Dirac's 1928 publication of his relativistic wave equation for the electron, the Dirac equation, it became clear that his equation led to many strange consequences. The problems clearly arose from the equation's formal solutions with negative energy, the implication that electrons should exist in states of negative as well as positive energy. Were Dirac dealing with classical physics this would not have been an issue, but in the new physics the negative energy could not simply be dismissed as nonphysical. His equation was highly successful, but the difficulty of negative energy states remained. In this paper and in November 1929 Dirac "came up with a bold assumption. He simply postulated [in this paper] that all states of negative energy are occupied. "Since electrons obey Pauli's exclusion principle, electrons with positive energy find no free negative-energy state to which they could transit. Stability is restored but at a price: One has to assume the existence of infinitely many negative-energy electrons [the Dirac Sea]. It carries an infinite charge and yet does not affect the world, except for one aspect. An electron can be 'lifted' out of the sea by a photon with an energy of more than the size of the energy gap into the positive-energy region. "It leaves behind an unoccupied state, called a hole, which behaves like a positively charged electron with positive energy. The quantum theory of similar holes had already been developed for atoms whose outer shell was nearly completely occupied with only a single electron missing, and good use had been made of the concept to explain chemical bonds. "This postulate provided a way out but it ALSO predicted the existence of electrons with positive charge.Dirac simply made the assumption that the particle with positive charge was the well-known proton and that the large difference in mass (the proton at 2000 times as heavy as the electron) might possibly be explained by the fact that the electric forces within the sea were not taken into account. The paper offered here predicted the existence of antimatter, but it also transformed the way physicists' contemplate the nature of 'empty space' - as it is not really empty, physicists refer to it as 'a vacuum.' "In Dirac's proposal, the vacuum is full of negative-energy electrons. This makes the vacuum a medium, with dynamical properties of its own.photons can interact with the vacuum. One thing that can happen is that if you shine a light on the vacuum, providing photons with enough energy, then a negative-energy electron can absorb one of these photons, and go into a positive-energy solution. The positive-energy solution would be observed as an ordinary electron, of course. But in the final state there is also a hole in the vacuum, because the solution originally occupied by the negative-energy electron is no longer occupied" (Wilczek, IJMP, 19, 2004, p. 55). Dirac's dynamical view of the vacuum (first presented here) is fundamental to quantum theory because it enables the positron to be treated as a 'real' particle rather than the absence of a particle and makes the vacuum the state in which no particles exist instead of an infinite sea of particles. ALSO: Gamow's "Mass Defect Curve and Nuclear Constitution" describing Gamow's liquid drop model of the atom & Mott's "The Wave Mechanics of x-Ray Tracks". CONDITION & DETAILS: 8vo. pp. 728. Ex-libris with 3 small interior stamps and none on the spine. Handsomely and tightly bound in half-calf over marbled paper; 5 raised bands at the spine; gilt-lettering. One scuff to the front board with a bit of missing paper. Bright, clean throughout. Very good+.
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On the Proper Motion of the Solar System" (Galloway, ) EXTRACT from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 137, pp. 79-109, Read on April 15, 1847; Published 1848

Galloway, Thomas FIRST EDITION, EXTRACT OF THE EARLIEST DEFINITIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM; Thomas Galloway was a Scottish mathematician; this paper was the most important of his career and won him the prestigious Royal Medal. The 'Proper motion of the Solar System' is a phrase used to describe the absolute motion of the Solar System through deep space toward or away from the 'fixed stars.' Galloway's paper presented the results of his calculations for determining the direction of the proper motion of the solar system from the apparent proper motions of stars in the southern hemisphere. (The 'proper motion of the stars' refers to the change in position of the stars relative to the Earth over the course of many years, as measured in seconds of arc per year.) Galloway "used Gauss' method of least squares and principle of least constraint to attribute individual motion components to each star and our Solar System to develop his equations for the motion of 300 southern hemisphere stars" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). Galloway drew his data from a comparison of the observations made in the 1750s by Lacaille at the Cape with the observations of Johnson and Professor Henderson at St. Helena and the Cape in the 1830s. CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Taylor and Francis, Printers to the Royal Society. Complete extract. (11.5 x 9.25 inches; 288 x 231mm). pp. 49-109; In-text illustrations throughout and tables. Bright and clean throughout the text. Very good condition.
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Self-consistent field, including exchange and super-position of configurations, with some results for oxygen" OFFPRINT from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Number 790, Volume 238, pp. 229-247, 24 July 1939

Hartree, D.R. [Douglas Rayner]; Hartree, W.; Swirles, Bertha FIRST EDITION OFFPRINT OF DOUGLAS HARTREE'S DEVELOPMENT OF THE "SELF-CONSISTENT FIELD METHOD TO THE CALCULATION OF ATOMIC WAVE FUNCTIONS OF POLYELECTRONIC ATOMS" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, VI, 147). "Hartree played a fundamental role in the field of twentieth-century numerical analysis and its application to theoretical physics" (ibid). "The mid- to late 1920s was a time of great change and excitement in theoretical physics, and Hartree was becoming a well-known figure in the field. When news of Erwin Schrödinger's work on wave mechanics reached Cambridge, Hartree was ideally placed to make a contribution.His experience of numerical integration of differential equations, gained during his ballistics work in World War I, was invaluable. Hartree was able to develop and apply numerical techniques to the solution of increasingly complex atomic structures" (ibid). By 1939 and with the publication of this paper, Hartree made "his chief contribution to science. his development of powerful methods of numerical mathematical analysis, which made it possible for him to apply successfully the so-called self-consistent field method to the calculation of atomic wave functions of polyelectronic atoms, that is, those which in the neutral condition have more than one electron surrounding the nucleus. These calculations involved the numerical solution of the partial differential equations of quantum mechanics for many-body systems subject to the usual boundary conditions. From the atomic wave functions it is possible to calculate the average distribution of negative electric charge as a function of distance from the nucleus. If the distribution has been correctly found for all the electrons in the atom under study, the electric field due to this distribution should lead to the original distribution, in which case the field is called self-consistent" (ibid). Note that one of the co-authors, Bertha Swirles, was a British physicist who carried out research on quantum theory, particularly in its early days. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 4to. (12 x 9 inches, 300 x 225mm). Continuously paginated 229-247. Very light stamp of Yale Medical Library on the front wrap; armorial bookplate on rear of front wrap followed by a small paste on "Ex-Libris Harvey Cushing", the pioneering neurosurgeon for whom the library is named. Bound in original paper wraps with a bit of minor aging. Tightly bound. Pristine throughout. Very good.
Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a Giant Impact" (Canup

Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a Giant Impact" (Canup, pp. 1052-1055) WITH "Making the Moon From a Fast-Spinning Earth: A Giant Impact Followed by Resonant Despinning" ( uk, pp. 1047-1052 in Science 338, 6110, November 22, 2012

Canup, Robin WITH uk, M.; Stewart, S. T. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF TWO IMPORTANT PAPERS ON THE GIANT-IMPACT THEORY, THE CURRENTLY FAVORED SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS FOR THE FORMATION OF THE MOON. The Giant-Impact Theory is also know as the Giant-Impact Hypothesis, the Big Splash, and the The Impact. "The giant impact believed to have formed the Earth-Moon system has long been accepted as canon. However, a major challenge to the theory has been that the Earth and Moon have identical oxygen isotope compositions, even though earlier impact models indicated they should differ substantially" (Phys Org Web Portal, 17 October 2012). The significance of Canup's paper is that it "accounts for this similarity in composition while also yielding an appropriate mass for Earth and the Moon" (ibid). Motivated by the work of others on the early dynamical history of the Moon, Robin Canup, working at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, CO, developed new models that involve much larger impactors than were previously considered. In the new simulations, both the impactor and the target are of comparable mass, with each containing about 4 to 5 times the mass of Mars. The near symmetry of the collision causes the disk's composition to be extremely similar to that of the final planet's mantle over a relatively broad range of impact angles and speeds, consistent with the Earth-Moon compositional similarities. The new impacts produce an Earth that is rotating 2 to 2.5 times faster than implied by the current angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, which is contained in both the Earth's rotation and the Moon's orbit" (PHYS ORG, New Model, Oct. 17, 2012). WITHBOUND: This paper by Dr. Matija uk,SETI Institute, and Dr. Sarah T. Stewart at Harvard University proposed that the angular momentum of the early Earth was larger than the present day system. If so, different types of impact events could generatea lunar disk from the same materials that formedthe young Earth's mantle. After the impact, an orbital resonance transferred angular momentum away from the Earth-Moon system to reach the present day value" (Stewart, Origin of the Earth and Moon, Web Portal). In other words, in addition to the impacts identified in Canup's paper, uk and Stewart show that impacts involving a much smaller, high-velocity impactor colliding into a target that is rotating very rapidly due to a prior impact can also produce a disk-planet system with similar compositions. "The ultimate likelihood of eachimpact scenariowill need to be assessed by improved models of terrestrial planet formation, as well as by a better understanding of the conditions required for the evection resonance mechanism" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original wraps, complete. 8vo. Fine condition. Pristine.