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Letters Concerning the English Nation

Mr. De Voltaire contemporary full calf, spine with 5 raised bands, title in gilt on morocco label, and decorative gilt motifs, upper and lower board with gilt rules., Letters on the English (or Letters Concerning the English Nation; French: Lettres philosophiques) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain). It was published first in English in 1733 and then in French the following year, where it was seen as an attack on the French system of government and was rapidly suppressed. Most modern English-language versions are based on a translation of the French text rather than Voltaire’s English one. In some ways, the book can be compared with Democracy in America by Alexis De Tocqueville, in how it flatteringly explains a nation to itself from the perspective of an outsider, as Voltaire’s depictions of aspects of English culture, society and government are often given favourable treatment in comparison to their French equivalents.François-Marie Arouet (1694 ? 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day., Size : 8vo., , Previous owners name in period hand. , P. Title, blank, preface (7), contents (5), dedication (2), 1-253, blank, index (18).

Novels of the Sisters Bronte: Jane Eyre (2vols.), Shirley (2vols.), Villette (2vols.), The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (2vols.), The Professor, Wuthering Heights, Agnes Grey, The Life of Charlotte Bronte (by E.C.Gaskell; introduction and notes by Temple Scott and B.W.Willett)

Anne Bronte; Emily Bronte; Charlotte Bronte Edition : Thornton Edition. Edited by Temple Scott., contemporary green gilt cloth boards, flat spine, title in gilt on spine, spine with decorative motifs, uncut., Charlotte Brontë (1816 ? 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels became classics of English literature. She enlisted in school at Roe Head in January 1831, aged 14 years. She left after one year to teach her sisters, Emily and Anne, at home, returning in 1835 as a governess. In 1839 she undertook the role as governess for the Sidgwick family, but left after a few months to return to Haworth where the sisters opened a school, but failed to attract pupils. Instead they turned to writing and they each first published in 1846 under the pseudonyms of Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell. Her first novel The Professor was rejected by publishers, her second novel Jane Eyre was published in 1847. The sisters admitted to their Bell pseudonyms in 1848, and by the following year were celebrated in London literary circles.Emily Jane Brontë (1818 ? 1848) was an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature. Emily was the third-eldest of the four surviving Brontë siblings, between the youngest Anne and her brother Branwell. She published under the pen name Ellis Bell.Anne Brontë (1820 ? 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family. She published a volume of poetry with her sisters (Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, 1846) and two novels. Agnes Grey, based upon her experiences as a governess, was published in 1847. Her second and last novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, which is considered to be one of the first sustained feminist novels, appeared in 1848. Like her poems, both her novels were first published under the masculine pen name of Acton Bell. Partly because the re-publication of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall was prevented by Charlotte Brontë after Anne’s death, she is not as well known as her sisters. However, her novels, like those of her sisters, have become classics of English literature.As children, they became interested in writing from an early age, initially as a game which later matured into a passion. At the centre of the children’s creativity were twelve wooden soldiers which Patrick Brontë gave to Branwell at the beginning of June 1826. These toy soldiers instantly fired their imaginations and they spoke of them as the Young Men, and gave them names. However, it was not until December 1827 that their ideas took written form, and the imaginary African Kingdom of Glass Town came into existence, followed by the Empire of Angria. Emily and Anne created Gondal, an island continent in the North Pacific, ruled by a woman, after the departure of Charlotte in 1831. In the beginning, these stories were written in little books, the size of a matchbox (about 1.5 x 2.5 inches?3.8 x 6.4 cm), and cursorily bound with thread. The pages were filled with close, minute writing, often in capital letters without punctuation and embellished with illustrations, detailed maps, schemes, landscapes, and plans of buildings, created by the children according to their specialisations. The idea was that the books were of a size for the soldiers to read. The complexity of the stories matured as the children’s imaginations developed, fed by reading the three weekly or monthly magazines to which their father had subscribed, or the newspapers that were bought daily from John Greenwood’s local news and stationery store., Size : 8vo., , Volume : 12 volumes.

Lecons Pour Les Enfans De Trois A Huit Ans?

Anna Laetitia Barbauld contemporary cloth over board, title in gilt on morocco label on flat spine., Lessons for Children is a series of four age-adapted reading primers written by the prominent 18th-century British poet and essayist Anna Laetitia Barbauld. Published in 1778 and 1779, the books initiated a revolution in children’s literature in the Anglo-American world. For the first time, the needs of the child reader were seriously considered: the typographically simple texts progress in difficulty as the child learns. In perhaps the first demonstration of experiential pedagogy in Anglo-American children’s literature, Barbauld’s books use a conversational style, which depicts a mother and her son discussing the natural world. Based on the educational theories of John Locke, Barbauld’s books emphasise learning through the senses.Anna Laetitia Barbauld (/b??r?bo?ld/, by herself possibly /b??r?bo?/, as in French, née Aikin; 1743 ? 1825) was a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and author of children’s literature. A "woman of letters" who published in multiple genres, Barbauld had a successful writing career at a time when women rarely were professional writers. She was a noted teacher at the Palgrave Academy and an innovative writer of works for children; her primers provided a model for pedagogy for more than a century. Her essays demonstrated that it was possible for a woman to be publicly engaged in politics, and other women authors such as Elizabeth Benger emulated her. Barbauld’s literary career spanned numerous periods in British literary history: her work promoted the values of the Enlightenment and of sensibility, while her poetry made a founding contribution to the development of British Romanticism. Barbauld was also a literary critic. Her anthology of 18th-century novels helped to establish the canon as it is known today. , Size : 16vo, Volume : Vol.3 and 4 only. , Translated to French

Treasure Island

Robert Louis Stevenson Edition : First Canadian Edition., contemporary morocco, title in gilt on spine, flat spine with decorative gilt compartments. Author?s initials in gilt lettering on upper board. , Treasure Island is an adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of ?buccaneers and buried gold.? Its influence is enormous on popular perceptions of pirates, including such elements as treasure maps marked with an ?X,? schooners, the Black Spot, tropical islands, and one-legged seamen bearing parrots on their shoulders. Treasure Island was originally considered a coming-of-age story and is noted for its atmosphere, characters, and action. It is one of the most frequently dramatized of all novels. It was originally serialized in the children’s magazine Young Folks from 1881 through 1882 under the title Treasure Island, or the mutiny of the Hispaniola, credited to the pseudonym "Captain George North". It was first published as a book on 14 November 1883, by Cassell & Co.Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 ? 1894) was a Scottish novelist and travel writer, most noted for Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and A Child’s Garden of Verses. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel widely, in defiance of his poor health. As a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island. His travels took him to France, America and Australia, before he finally settled in Samoa, where he died. A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson attracted poor critical favour for most of the 20th century, though his reputation later revived, and he is currently ranked as the 26th most translated author in the world., Size : 12mo

The Golden Bough A Study in Magic and Religion

Sir James George Frazer Edition : Abridged Edition. , contemporary blue cloth over board, title in gilt on flat spine, upper board decorated with gilt floral motif., The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion (retitled The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion in its second edition) is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer. The Golden Bough was first published in two volumes in 1890; in three volumes in 1900; and in twelve volumes in the third edition, published 1906?15. It has also been published in several different one-volume abridgments. The work was aimed at a wide literate audience raised on tales as told in such publications as Thomas Bulfinch’s The Age of Fable, or Stories of Gods and Heroes (1855). The influence of The Golden Bough on contemporary European literature and thought was substantial.Frazer attempted to define the shared elements of religious belief and scientific thought, discussing fertility rites, human sacrifice, the dying god, the scapegoat, and many other symbols and practices whose influences had extended into 20th-century culture. His thesis is that old religions were fertility cults that revolved around the worship and periodic sacrifice of a sacred king. Frazer proposed that mankind progresses from magic through religious belief to scientific thought. Frazer’s thesis was developed in relation to J. M. W. Turner’s painting of The Golden Bough (Frontispiece), a sacred grove where a certain tree grew day and night. It was a transfigured landscape in a dream-like vision of the woodland lake of Nemi, "Diana’s Mirror", where religious ceremonies and the "fulfillment of vows" of priests and kings were held. The king was the incarnation of a dying and reviving god, a solar deity who underwent a mystic marriage to a goddess of the Earth. He died at the harvest and was reincarnated in the spring. Frazer claims that this legend of rebirth is central to almost all of the world’s mythologies. Frazer claims that this legend of rebirth is central to almost all of the world’s mythologies.Sir James George Frazer was a Scottish social anthropologist and folklorist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. His most famous work, The Golden Bough (1890), documents and details the similarities among magical and religious beliefs around the globe. Frazer posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science. The study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. Except for visits to Italy and Greece, Frazer was not widely travelled. His prime sources of data were ancient histories and questionnaires mailed to missionaries and imperial officials all over the globe. Frazer’s interest in social anthropology was aroused by reading E. B. Tylor’s Primitive Culture (1871) and encouraged by his friend, the biblical scholar William Robertson Smith, who was comparing elements of the Old Testament with early Hebrew folklore. Frazer was the first scholar to describe in detail the relations between myths and rituals. His vision of the annual sacrifice of the Year-King has not been borne out by field studies. Yet The Golden Bough, his study of ancient cults, rites, and myths, including their parallels in early Christianity, continued for many decades to be studied by modern mythographers for its detailed information., Size : Small 4to,

The Ego And The ID

Sigmund Freud Edition : Revised and Newly Edited by James Strachey., dust jacket over contemporary red cloth over board, title in gilt on flat spine, title in red on upper board of the dust jacket and spine., The Ego and the Id (German: Das Ich und das Es) is a prominent paper by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. It is an analytical study of the human psyche outlining his theories of the psychodynamics of the id, ego and superego, which is of fundamental importance in the development of psychoanalysis. The study was conducted over years of research and was first published in 1923. The Ego and the Id develops a line of reasoning as a groundwork for explaining various (or perhaps all) psychological conditions, pathological and non-pathological alike. These conditions result from powerful internal tensions?for example: 1) between the ego and the id, 2) between the ego and the superego, and 3) between the love-instinct and the death-instinct. The book deals primarily with the ego and the effects these tensions have on it. The ego?caught between the id and the super-ego?finds itself simultaneously engaged in conflict by repressed thoughts in the id and relegated to an inferior position by the superego. And at the same time, the interplay between the love instinct and the death instinct can manifest itself at any level of the psyche. The outline below is an exegesis of Freud’s arguments, explaining the formation of the aforementioned tensions and their effects.Sigmund Freud; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 1856 ? 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud’s work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939., Size : 8vo, Translated from Germ Dust jacket with a tear on the front, the title on the spine is upside down. A very good example.

Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions.

Charles Mackay contemporary pebbled decorative cloth boards, blind tooling on upper and lower boards, title in gilt on flat spine, spine with gilt decorative motifs., The subjects of Mackay’s debunking include alchemy, crusades, duels, economic bubbles, fortune-telling, haunted houses, the Drummer of Tedworth, the influence of politics and religion on the shapes of beards and hair, magnetisers (influence of imagination in curing disease), murder through poisoning, prophecies, popular admiration of great thieves, popular follies of great cities, and relics. Present-day writers on economics, such as Michael Lewis and Andrew Tobias, laud the three chapters on economic bubbles.Vol (I) The first volume begins with a discussion of three economic bubbles, or financial manias: the South Sea Company bubble of 1711?1720, the Mississippi Company bubble of 1719?1720, and the Dutch tulip mania of the early seventeenth century. According to Mackay, during this bubble, speculators from all walks of life bought and sold tulip bulbs and even futures contracts on them. Allegedly, some tulip bulb varieties briefly became the most expensive objects in the world during 1637. Mackay’s accounts are enlivened by colorful, comedic anecdotes, such as the Parisian hunchback who supposedly profited by renting out his hump as a writing desk during the height of the mania surrounding the Mississippi Company. Two modern researchers, Peter Garber and Anne Goldgar, independently conclude that Mackay greatly exaggerated the scale and effects of the Tulip bubble, and Mike Dash, in his modern popular history of the alleged bubble, notes that he believes the importance and extent of the tulip mania were overstated.Vol (2) Mackay describes the history of the Crusades as a kind of mania of the Middle Ages, precipitated by the pilgrimages of Europeans to the Holy lands. Mackay is generally unsympathetic to the Crusaders, whom he compares unfavourably to the superior civilisation of Asia: "Europe expended millions of her treasures, and the blood of two million of her children; and a handful of quarrelsome knights retained possession of Palestine for about one hundred years!"Witch trials in 16th- and 17th-century Western Europe are the primary focus of the "Witch Mania" section of the book, which asserts that this was a time when ill fortune was likely to be attributed to supernatural causes. Mackay notes that many of these cases were initiated as a way of settling scores among neighbors or associates, and that extremely low standards of evidence were applied to most of these trials. Mackay claims that "thousands upon thousands" of people were executed as witches over two and a half centuries, with the largest numbers killed in Germany and Spain.Charles Mackay (1814 ? 1889) was a Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist, and songwriter, remembered mainly for his book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds., Size : 8vo, Volume : Two volumes.

Civilization and Its Discontents .

Sigmund Freud Edition : Third edition. , contemporary green cloth board, title in gilt on flat spine., Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. It was written in 1929 and first published in German in 1930 as Das Unbehagen in der Kultur ("The Uneasiness in Civilization"). Exploring what Freud sees as the important clash between the desire for individuality and the expectations of society, the book is considered one of Freud’s most important and widely read works, and one of the most influential and studied books in the field of modern psychology. Freud enumerates what he sees as the fundamental tensions between civilization and the individual. The primary friction, he asserts, stems from the individual’s quest for instinctive freedom and civilization’s contrary demand for conformity and repression of instincts. Freud states that when any situation that is desired by the pleasure principle is prolonged, it creates a feeling of mild contentment. Many of humankind’s primitive instincts (for example, the desire to kill and the insatiable craving for sexual gratification) are clearly harmful to the well-being of a human community. As a result, civilization creates laws that prohibit killing, rape, and adultery, and it implements severe punishments if these rules are broken. Thus our possibilities for happiness are restricted by the law. This process, argues Freud, is an inherent quality of civilization that gives rise to perpetual feelings of discontent among its citizens. Freud’s theory is based on the notion that humans have certain characteristic instincts that are immutable. These include, most notably, the desires for sex, and the predisposition to violent aggression towards authority figures and sexual competitors, who obstruct the individual’s path to gratification.Sigmund Freud (1856 ? 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud’s work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939., Size : 8vo., Translated from Germ

La Pologne, Historique, litteraire, Monumentale et Pittoresque,?

Leonard Borejko Chodzko Period ¼ crimson morocco with matching marbled boards, title in gilt on flat spine, spine with decorative gilt motifs., Text in French. Leonard Borejko Chod?ko (1800?1871) was a Polish historian, geographer, cartographer, publisher, archivist, and activist of Poland’s post-November-1830-Uprising Great Emigration. Chod?ko was educated at the University of Vilnius, where he was a member of the Philomaths, a secret organization established in 1816 by Vilnius University students including Adam Mickiewicz, Tomasz Zan and Józef Je?owski. From 1826 he lived in Paris. During France’s July 1830 Revolution, he served as aide-de-camp to General La Fayette., Size : 4to., , Illustrated with 57 plates in the first volume, 58 plates in the second volume, and 55 plates in the third volume. The illustrations are on historical scenes, costumes; portraits, picturesque sites, buildings, castles and fortresses; and maps., Volume : 3 volumes., P. Vol (1), half title (with engraved illustration), blank, title, prospectus, table (2 leaves), introduction (1-4), 5-480; Vol (2), half title (with engraved illustration), blank, title, blank, table (2 leaves), 1-480; Vol (3), half title (with engraved illustration), blank, title, blank, table (2 leaves), 1-480. A fine and handsome set in contemporary early binding, text and plates are clean and crisp.