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Nicholas Machiavel’s Prince. Translated out of Italian into English; By E[dward]. D[acres]

Nicholas Machiavel’s Prince. Translated out of Italian into English; By E[dward]. D[acres]

MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ First edition in English of one of the great books of the Renaissance and a classic of political philosophy. Machiavelli, long a diplomat for the Florentine Republic, was personally acquainted with many of the great leaders of the Renaissance including Lorenzo de Medici (the dedicatee of Il Principe), Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian, Catherine Sforza, and Piero Soderini. In 1502 he was sent as the Florentine envoy to the court of Cesare Borgia, duke of Valentinois. In Borgia he found an audacious and strong willed leader capable of deception and violence to achieve his ends, yet a man who appeared at all times both controlled and diplomatically prudent. Borgia provided the model for Machiavelli’s ideal prince, Valentino. His book addressed the problem of the unification of a self-reliant Italy. “It was Machiavelli’s intense preoccupation with this problem– what a state is and how to found one in existing circumstances– which caused the many riddles of his speculative writings He was by no means indifferent to private virtue but in the realm of politics he postponed morals to political expediency” (Britannica 11th ed.). “The Prince is far more than a book of directions to any one of the many Italian princelings. Machiavelli founded the science of modern politics on the study of mankind. Politics was a science to be divorced entirely from ethics, and nothing must stand in the way of its machinery. Many of the remedies he proposed for the rescue of Italy were eventually applied. His concept of the qualities demanded from a ruler and the absolute need of a national militia came to fruition in the monarchies of the seventeenth century and their national armies” (Printing and the Mind of Man 63). Machiavelli is universally regarded as one of the great thinkers in political philosophy. At the same time, Machiavelli’s name has entered everyday usage, connoting sinister machinations and the dark side of politics and power. His name was a familiar part of the English language even in Shakespeare’s time, for Hamlet says “I’ll put the murderous Machiavel to school.” Macaulay wrote, “Out of his [Niccolo Machiavelli’s] surname they have coined an epithet for a knave, and out of his Christian name a synonym for the devil.” Contemporary English gilt-ruled sheep. Some contemporary marginalia and highlighting. Some wear to spine. Fine.
The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York

The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York, assembled at Poughkeespsie, on the 17th June, 1788. To deliberate and decide on the Form of Federal Government recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia, on the 17th September, 1787. Taken in short hand

HAMILTON, ALEXANDER ET AL. First edition. This rare volume documents Alexander Hamilton’s heroic efforts to secure New York’s ratification of the Constitution. In September 1787 the General Convention in Philadelphia sent the proposed Constitution to the states for ratification. One of the most contentious battlegrounds was New York. Without its ratification the new nation would be crippled from the outset. Alexander Hamilton, leader of the New York Federalists, laid the groundwork for his campaign by publishing a series of Federalist papers in newspapers beginning in October 1787. But by June 1788 he saw that the effort was in trouble. Hamilton wrote to James Madison, “the more I can penetrate the views of the anti-federal party in this state, the more I dread the consequences of the non adoption of the Constitution by any of the other states, the more I fear an eventual disunion and civil war.” When the New York convention commenced that month, ratification was in jeopardy: Anti-Federalist delegates out-numbered Federalists 47 to 20. An experienced and eloquent courtroom advocate, Hamilton marshaled every argument available to the Federalists. In these speeches Hamilton presents in detail the central themes of the debate: balance of powers, federalism, the bicameral legislature, representation and apportionment, the power of the executive, defense, and so on. This rare volume presents many of the speeches of Hamilton, John Jay and other Federalists, as well as those of George Clinton and the other anti-Federalists. REVISED BY HAMILTON FOR PUBLICATION. “From a letter in the Lamb papers (NYHS) it appears probable that at least Hamilton, Jay and Lansing revised their speeches, though Francis Childs, the reporter, virtually in his preface says that no such revision took place.” (P.L. Ford, Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States). Thanks to Hamilton’s efforts, New York ratified the Constitution by a vote of 30-27. This rare volume represents a pivotal moment in the establishment of the new nation. VERY RARE. Only two other examples (the Streeter copy and a rebound copy with library stamps) appear in the auction records of the past century.
Experiments and Observations in Soaring Flight. Offprint from: Journal of the Western Society of Engineers 8 [misprinted “III” on front wrapper]

Experiments and Observations in Soaring Flight. Offprint from: Journal of the Western Society of Engineers 8 [misprinted “III” on front wrapper], no. 4 (August, 1903).

WRIGHT, WILBUR Original wrappers. Remnant of label on wrapper. Light wear. Near fine. FIRST EDITION, offprint issue. Presentation copy with the stamp of the Wrights’ advisor, mentor, and chief promoter, aviation pioneer Octave Chanute. Chanute was the most important figure in aviation from 1890 to 1910. This is the first account of the Wrights’ experiments with motorized gliders. After the glider trials of 1901, the Wrights constructed a wind tunnel in Dayton used for a series of tests of over 200 wing and bi-plane combinations. The men then built a new glider, equipped with a vertical rear rudder which offset the twisting movements caused by the warping of the wings. This report describes the nearly one thousand trial flights made during the summer of 1902 with this superior machine. The machine functioned well. Wilbur declared, “the machine seemed to have reached a higher state of development than the operators” (p. 8). The second objective of the 1902 experiments was “to obtain data for the study of scientific problems involved in flight” (p. 10). Both goals were realized during the six months following the presentation of this report. On December 17, 1903, the Wright Brothers made the first motorized flight in history at Kill Devil Hills, south of Kitty Hawk. Provenance: 1. Octave Chanute (1832-1910), civil and aeronautical engineer, advisor of the Wright brothers (presentation stamp “With respects of O. Chanute, consulting engineer,” on front wrapper). 2. Wilhelm Kress, Vienna, with his stamp. Kress was an Austrian engineer whose flying machines were among the most promising of the pre-Wright era. Dibner Heralds of Science 185.
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World (Gulliver’s Travels) by Lemuel Gulliver

Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World (Gulliver’s Travels) by Lemuel Gulliver

SWIFT, JONATHAN FIRST EDITION. This is an outstanding untouched example of Teerink’s A edition, the true first edition, preceding the AA and B editions. As Sir William Temple’s secretary at Moor Park, the young Swift had access to many travel accounts in Temple’s library. A frequent reader of such books during his formative years, Swift began working in 1714 on his own fictional account of the travels of Martin Scriblerus. The success of Robinson Crusoe (1719) helped spur on the writing of the book, a satire not only of travel narratives but of many aspects of eighteenth-century life including politics, science, commerce, and society. By the 1720s that work had become Gulliver’s Travels. In March 1726 Swift came to England for the first time since 1714, bringing the manuscript of Gulliver’s Travels. “To preserve his anonymity, Swift dealt with Motte by post and through intermediaries. It has always been assumed that political prudence was the main reason for Swift’s so carefully preserving the secret of his authorship. Certainly Swift enjoyed the thought (whether real or illusion) of writing dangerously” (Lock, “The Text of Gulliver’s Travels”). The author returned to Dublin even before the parcel had been delivered to the publisher. Although it was rumored that Swift was the author, he maintained the fiction that he knew nothing of the authorship in his conversation and correspondence. Motte hurried the book into print, using five printers who took different sections of the text. The initial printing (Teerink A) sold out within one week, and two additional editions (AA and B) soon followed. Gulliver’s Travels was an immediate success, and the book has remained one of the enduring classics of English literature. Thomas Gay wrote that “from the highest to the lowest it is universally read, from the Cabinet Council to the Nursery.” The influence of Gulliver’s Travels has been vast. The terms Lilliputian, Brobdingnagian, and Yahoo have entered the language. The book inspired countless sequels, adaptations, parodies, and imitations worldwide in print, comics, cartoons, television, stage, and film. The wildly imaginative book became a source of inspiration for authors from Voltaire to Orwell, and it is one of the few works of fiction of its time that is still widely read for pleasure. A fine, unrestored copy of Gulliver’s Travels is a cornerstone of any collection of the greatest books in English literature. Teerink 28 (A edition). Rothschild 2104-6. Printing and the Mind of Man 289. Grolier/English 42. Two volumes. Second state of portrait as usual. Contemporary paneled calf. One joint cracked, another slightly cracked, a few minor flaws, but an unusually fine set. Calf case.
Autograph Letter Signed to James T. Fields

Autograph Letter Signed to James T. Fields

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL In this wonderful letter to his close friend and publisher James T. Fields, Nathaniel Hawthorne discusses the presentation copies of Our Old Home, which was scheduled to be published three days later on September 19, 1863. Hawthorne writes, “Dear Fields, On the other page is the list of presentation people; and (with four [altered from three] copies bestowed when I saw you) it amounts to twenty-four, which your liberality and kindness allow me . I held my pen suspended over one or two of the names, doubting whether they deserved of me so especial a favor as a portion of my heart and brain. I have few friends. Some authors, I should think, would require half the edition for private distribution . Your friend, Nathl Hawthorne.” This remarkable letter explains the rarity of inscribed presentation copies of Our Old Home (none at auction in at least 40 years): Hawthorne arranged for these presentation copies to be distributed directly by the publisher. Presumably these are the copies inscribed “From the author” in a clerk’s hand. The recipient of this letter, James T. Fields (of the celebrated publishing firm Ticknor and Fields), was one of Hawthorne’s closest friends and greatest influences. Hawthorne once told Fields, “I care more for your good opinion than for that of a host of critics, and have excellent reason for so doing; inasmuch as my literary success, whatever it has been or may be, is the result of my connection with you.” It was Fields who convinced Hawthorne to transform The Scarlet Letter from a short story into a novel in 1850. Late in the author’s life, after publishing a series of Hawthorne’s essays in The Atlantic Monthly, Fields persuaded the author to collect them in the book published as Our Old Home in 1863. Hawthorne died the following year, and Fields served as his pallbearer alongside Emerson, Holmes, Alcott, Whipple, and Longfellow. This is a splendid letter reflecting Hawthorne’s famously reclusive nature and explaining the rarity of inscribed copies of Our Old Home.
Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait

Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait

DARWIN, CHARLES CHARLES DARWIN ON SEXUALITY AND THE TRANSMISSION OF HEREDITARY CHARACTERISTICS. The recipient of this letter, pioneering pelvic and abdominal surgeon Lawson Tait (1845-1899), is one of the fathers of gynecology. He corresponded extensively with Darwin from 1870 until the naturalist’s death in 1882. Tait actively promoted Darwinism in the medical community, and Darwin in turn quoted Tait’s 1869 paper “Law of Natural Selection” in The Descent of Man (1871). In January 1877 Tait sent Darwin an extract from his forthcoming Diseases of Women. In that work Tait observed that “one of the greatest practical results of the discovery by Mr. Darwin of the descent of man from the animals” is that sexual instincts (or “passions”) are among the “most necessary as well as the most prevalent” of all instincts in humans. In this fascinating letter Darwin reacts to Tait’s writing, stating, “I sh[oul]d be glad to give any criticisms, but I have none to make & agree with what you say — There is, however, one trifling point on which I differ; viz. that I believe the high value of well-bred males is due to their transmitting their good qualities to a far greater number of offspring than can the female.” This letter, written a few years after The Descent of Man, provides a fascinating glimpse of Darwin’s views on sexuality and the transmission of hereditary characteristics. Provenance: Sotheby’s 24 July 1978, lot 225 (“Property of a Lady”).
The Generall Historie of Virginia

The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: with the names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their first beginning Ano: 1584 to this present 1626

SMITH, JOHN First edition, third issue. This is an outstanding copy of a foundational work of American history, from the library of the Calverts, the original Proprietors and colonial governors of Maryland. Folio. Engraved title page (Sabin’s third state), folding plate with map of Ould Virginia (fourth state), folding map of Virginia (tenth state), folding map of the Summer Isles (third state), and folding map of New England (Sabin’s eighth state), expertly mounted repairing a few old tears. This copy without the errata occasionally found pasted to foot of final page. Title a little soiled, minor stains. 17th-century blind-tooled calf, red morocco label, minor repairs, later endpapers. Half morocco case. A fine, fresh copy. This American classic is “the foundation of England’s knowledge of America during the early period of colonization” (PMM). John Smith was one of the original settlers of the Jamestown colony and a member of its governing council. After exploring the region for a year, Smith returned to find the settlement failing. “Although he is best known as the man who stepped in to force the disoriented Jamestown colonists to save themselves, his contribution as historian and theorist was also extremely important” (ANB), most notably his Generall Historie of Virginia. The Generall Historie of Virginia contains Smith’s eyewitness accounts of the founding of Jamestown, his capture and rescue through the intercession of Pocahontas, his time spent in Virginia (1606- 1609), and his explorations of the New England coast (1610-1617). The work comprises six books as follows: 1) the first settlement of Virginia, and the subsequent voyages there to 1605, 2) the land and its Indian inhabitants, 3) Smith’s voyage and the settlement of Jamestown, from December 1606 to 1609, plus two pages reprinting laudatory verses addressed to Smith from The Description of New England, with a few lines of introduction by Smith beginning: “Now seeing there is thus much Paper here to spare,” 4) Virginia from the planting of Point Comfort in 1609 to 1623, 5) the history of the Bermudas (or Summer Isles) from 1593 to 1624, followed by verses also reprinted from the Description, and 6) the history of New England from 1614 to 1624. There was one edition of the text. Over the period of its sale, the title page was updated to reflect the year as well .0as the accession of Charles I, whose portrait appears on this title. The copper plates of the four excellent maps were also altered, adding names and changing details. The Generall Historie of Virginia contains some of the most important American maps ever published including Smith’s map of Virginia (“one of the most important printed maps of America ever produced and certainly one of the greatest influence”) and his map of New England (“the foundation map of New England cartography, the one that gave it its name and the first devoted to the region”) (Burden). This is a magnificent colonial American association copy in a period binding. This book is from the library of the Calvert family, the original Proprietors of Maryland. It bears the bookplate of Benedict Leonard Calvert (1700-1732), restored Proprietary Governor of Maryland and son of Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore. This copy may descend from George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore, who sailed from Newfoundland to Virginia in 1629. His son Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, was granted the charter for Maryland by Charles I in 1632. In 1715, the Crown restored proprietary rights to Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore. His son Benedict Leonard Calvert, whose bookplate is in this volume, was named governor of Maryland by his brother, the 5th Lord Baltimore. Benedict Leonard Calvert died at sea in 1732 on his return voyage to England. A superlative colonial provenance: Benedict Leonard Calvert (1700-1732), restored Proprietary Governor of Maryland and son of Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore (bookplate reading: “The Honble Benedict
Purchas his Pilgrimes in five bookes [with:] Purchas his Pilgrimage.

Purchas his Pilgrimes in five bookes [with:] Purchas his Pilgrimage.

PURCHAS, SAMUEL FIRST EDITION of this celebrated collection of travels accounts in English, “one of the fullest and most important collections of early voyages and travels in the English language” (Church). This is the rare first issue of volume I with the engraved title page dated 1624 (usually it is dated 1625) and with the offending passages concerning the Dutch (easily recognized by the presence of the p. 704 headline ‘Hollanders lying devices, to disgrace the English,” which was then changed to ‘Amboyna taken by the Dutch. Ingratitude. Boasting’). This extraordinary undertaking, which extended Hakluyt’s Principal Navigations (London, 1598), contains accounts of more than 1200 voyages of discovery and exploration. Many of these accounts were previously unpublished in any language; scores of others are here published for the first time in English. The set includes many of the accounts of the courageous men who had recently explored and begun to settle the New World. Among the hundreds of voyages related are those of Columbus, Da Gama, Cortés, Pizarro, Magellan, and Cabot. English explorations including those of Drake and Hawkins, the Jesuit explorations of China and Japan, the Portuguese voyages to the East Indies, and the explorations of the East India Company. The exploration of the New World is one of the focal points of this set, the greatest English work on exploration of the seventeenth century. Part of volume three and all of volume four are devoted to voyages to America. A CLASSIC OF EXPLORATION LITERATURE. The Age of Exploration contains some of the most exciting and dramatic tales of human achievement and adventure. The compilations of Ramusio and Hakluyt in the sixteenth century, and Purchas in the seventeenth century, form the foundation of a collection of great exploration books. LANDMARK MAPS. “The six original maps which Purchas uses are all of prime importance” (Wallis). The Pilgrimes contains several important maps of America including: John Smith’s Map of Virginia, which Smith made available to his friend Samuel Purchas. This is “one of the most important printed maps of America ever produced and certainly one of the greatest influence. [It] inspired much interest in the fledgling Virginia colony, influencing considerably its eventual success” (Burden). This is the first printed map of the whole extent of the Chesapeake Bay based upon personal experience. The present example is in state 8, one of three states associated with the Purchas publication. Smith’s map is “the most important map to appear in print during the period of early settlement and the one map of Virginia that has had the greatest influence upon map making for the longest period of time” (Coolie Verner, “The First Maps of Virginia, 1590-1673”). The Henry Briggs map of North America, the first in English to show California as an island. One of the most important English maps of North America, this is the first map to name Hudson’s Bay and the Hudson River. William Alexander’s map of the Northeast, showing the coast from Massachusetts to Newfoundland. This is the first map to record many place names and is a “map of great importance” (Burden). Roe’s map of Northern India, the earliest English map of Mogul territories, was the standard map of the reion for nearly a century. Saris’s map of China correctly shows Korea as a peninsula and may be the earliest map of China from Chinese sources to have be published in Europe, according to Skelton. Please inquire for a full description.
A Discourse of Trade from England unto the East-Indies: answering the diverse objections which are usually made against the same [bound with other works]

A Discourse of Trade from England unto the East-Indies: answering the diverse objections which are usually made against the same [bound with other works]

MUN, THOMAS FIRST EDITION. Mun served on the board of the East India Company from 1615 until his death in 1641. This is his first publication. In the Discourse on Trade (1621), Mun defends the company against charges of depleting England’s bullion stock—and thus its wealth—by sending it to the East Indies in exchange for goods. Mun, also known for England’s Treasure by Foreign Trade, published in 1664, years after his death, was the leading theorist of mercantilism. In the Discourse, Mun argued that the temporary export of gold and silver resulted in a net expansion of wealth through the growth of international trade. In Mun’s view, the trading universe was essentially a coherent and mutually supporting community. Too much frugality at home would restrict foreign purchases of English good, he warned, for if the English did not use foreign goods, foreigners would not have the wherewithal to buy English ones and there would be no sale abroad. . . [Mun presents a] succinct and compelling explanation of the dynamics of growth through commercial expansion” (Appleby, Economic Thought and Ideology in 17th-Century England). VERY RARE. No copies appear in the auction records since 1979. This is one of a handful of copies to appear for sale in this century. Mun’s Discourse is bound with 3 other rare 17th-century tracts on trade: “the earliest example of corporation publicity” WHEELER, JOHN. A Treatise of Commerce wherein are shewed the commodities arising by a well ordered and ruled trade, such as that of the Societie of Merchants Adventurers is proved to be. London: John Harrison, 1601. Wheeler’s Treatise of Commerce is “the earliest example of corporation publicity” and “an important milestone in the development of marketing. It represents the characteristically medieval theory of the trade monopoly, bolstered by monarchical authority and jealously guarded against competition” (Hotchkiss). This is the second edition, preceded by the even more rare Middleburgh edition of the same year. Wheeler was secretary to the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which controlled the trade of cloth between England and the continent. This book is a response to the Privy Council’s granting of trade privileges to the Company’s rival Hanseatic League cities of Hamburg and Stade. Wheeler argues for the superiority of the Company over unorganized traders, extolling the Company’s beneficial effects such as increasing exports, cheapening imports, and raising customs revenue. HANDBOOK FOR TRADERS [BROWNE, JOHN.] The Merchants Avizo, or instructions very necessary for their sonnes and servants, when they first send them beyond the sea, as to Spaine, and Portugale, and other countries. Written by a wel-willer to youth, I.B. merchant in Bristoll. London: Richard Whitaker, 1640. The Merchants Avizo, first published in 1589, provides information about Spanish, Portuguese, and French weights, measures, and money, as well as commodities including pepper, cloves, cinnamon, sugar, oils, and wine. THE WEST INDIES TRADE DALBY, THOMAS. An Historical Account of the Rise and Growth of the West-India Collonies and of the great advantages they are to England, in respect to trade. London: Joseph Hindmarsh, 1690. FIRST EDITION. Merchant Sir Thomas Dalby published his Historical Account after a failed attempt to repeal the new sugar duty with threatened the West Indies trade. Dalby advocates the creation of a common factory and bank of credit to facilitate the trade. 18th-century calf. Fine condition., The 17th-century economics tracts that survive in private hands have almost invariably been broken out of volumes like this and rebound. This exceptional collection, including Mun’s celebrated Discourse on Trade and other important early economics and trade texts, is a rare survival.
Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en General

Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en General, traduit de l’Anglois

CANTILLON, RICHARD Contemporary armorial calf, spine gilt, red morocco label. A few small spots. Fine. First edition of the book that is, “more emphatically than any other single work, the cradle of political economy” (Jevons). Published posthumously, Cantillon’s Essay on the Nature of Trade in General was cited by Adam Smith, Condillac, Quesnay, Harris, Postlethwayt, and many others. It is “the most systematic treatment on economic principles before the Wealth of Nations” (Roll), and Cantillon is the “founding father of modern economics” (Rothbard). Born in Ireland, Cantillon was active in banking in Paris for years. A man among boys in business, he made a fortune from John Law’s scheme. “Bankers fell like autumn leaves in Paris between 1717 and 1720, and as Higgs remarks, ‘Their losses were probably very heavy in 1720 and much of them went into Cantillon’s pocket’” (New Palgrave). He successfully defended himself in numerous lawsuits brought by victims of the Mississippi Bubble, but he eventually deemed it prudent to depart for England. In 1734 he was murdered by his recently-dismissed cook, who evidently robbed him and burned his house down, destroying his manuscripts among other things. While in Paris, Cantillon had written the Essai in English and translated it into French for a friend. That friend arranged for its publication more than two decades later in 1755. Cantillon covers, in analysis far surpassing that of his contemporaries, currency, foreign exchanges, banking, credit, and the international specie flow mechanism (which Schumpeter hailed as “almost faultlessly described”). He made pioneering contributions to what was later known as the Malthusian theory of population, the theory of the allocation of surplus, and the distinction between market price and natural price as an integral part of an entire economic model. In the Essai Cantillon coined the term entrepreneur, which he observed “entails bearing the risk of buying at certain prices and selling at uncertain prices” (Cuervo). This is a splendid copy of this founding work of modern economics. Provenance: François-Alexandre, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, with arms in gilt on boards and stamp on title.
De la Democratie en Amerique

De la Democratie en Amerique

TOCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS DE Four volumes. Near contemporary quarter blue morocco. Folding map after Tocqueville by Bernard. Some browning and foxing. An excellent set. FIRST EDITIONS. Famed Harvard constitutional scholar Harvey Mansfield called Democracy in America “at once the best book ever written on democracy and the best book ever written on America.” The most influential commentary on America in the nineteenth century, Democracy in America was based on Tocqueville’s travels in the United States in 1831 and 1832. Tocqueville came to America to study the American prison system on behalf of the French government. After completing his official duties in the east, he toured the West and the South, visiting Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Alabama, the Carolinas, Virginia, and Washington, D. C. The book resulting from these investigations is generally considered the 19th century’s most insightful commentary on the development of our unique American culture and political system. Tocqueville declared, “Democratic nations care but little for what has been, but they are haunted by visions of what will be; in this direction their unbounded imagination grows and dilates beyond all measure Democracy, which shuts the past against the poet, opens the future before him.” Fewer than 500 copies of the first part were published. The second part (1840) was issued concurrently with the eighth edition of the first part, helping to explain why quality matched sets are so difficult to obtain today. The book was an immediate success, and more than fifty editions were published in French and English in the nineteenth century. For nearly two centuries it has provoked endless discussion and been an inspiration for countless commentaries on American democracy. Finely bound matched sets of the first edition are difficult to locate.
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Ergebnisse eines mathematischen Kolloquiums, unter Mitwirkung Kurt Gödel und George Nobeling. Herausgegen von Kurt Menger. Heft 1-8.

VON NEUMANN, JOHN, ET AL “one of the great seminal works of the century” — Goodwin A rare complete run of first editions of the proceedings of the celebrated Vienna Colloquium. This landmark collection of papers in mathematical economics includes John von Neumann’s famed 1937 general equilibrium paper, “the greatest paper in mathematical economics that was ever written” (E. Roy Weintraub) and “one of the great seminal works of the century” (Richard Goodwin). The Vienna Colloquium, run by the mathematician Karl Menger in the 1930s, brought together leading thinkers in mathematics, the physical sciences, philosophy, statistics, and economics. The resulting series of publications contains “path-breaking papers by Menger, Gödel, Tarski, Wald, Wiener, John von Neumann, and many others” (IIT Menger website). This is a complete run of numbers 1-8. The rare final three numbers contain the four seminal papers on mathematical economics by Schlesinger, Wald (two papers), and von Neumann. “The starting signal for the development that would bring a profound transformation to mathematical economics was given by Schlesinger. In the first paper on economics of the Colloquium presented on March 19, 1934 he raised a question aimed at the center of Walrasian theory Schlesinger suggested a modification of Leon Walras’s (and Gustav Cassel’s) equations that soon turned out to be essential. Immediately after that correct formulation was given, Wald proved the existence of a GE [general equilibrium] (also on March 19, 1934), and, at the next session of the Colloquium, on November 6, 1934, established existence under much weaker conditions. His two papers, providing the first proofs of existence for a GE, marked an important moment in the history of mathematical economics” (Gérard Debreu, “Economics in a Mathematics Colloquium”). “John von Neumann’s famous 1937 paper, appearing in the final number, is “Über ein ökonomisches Gleichungssystem und eine Verallgemeinerung des Brouwerschen Fixpunktsatzes” (“On a System of Economic Equilibrium and the Generalization of Brouwer’s Fixed Point Theorem”). This paper has been called “the greatest paper in mathematical economics that was ever written” (Weintraub, J. Economic Literature, 1983). It precipitated what Moroshima called a veritable “von Neumann Revolution” in general equilibrium, capital and growth theory. Through this paper and his work on the theory of games, von Neumann had enormous influence on the subject of economics, though he wrote only three papers in the field. “The expanding economy model, von Neumann (1937), consisted of two parts: first the input-output equilibrium model that permits expansion; and second the fixed point theorem. The linear input- output model is a precursor of the Leontief model of linear programming as developed by Kantorovich and Dantzig, and of Koopman’s activity analysis. This paper, together with A. Wald (1935) [also in this volume] raised the level of mathematical sophistication used in economics enormously. Many current younger economists are high-powered applied mathematicians, in part, because of the stimulus of von Neumann’s work. His influence will persist for decades and even centuries in economics” (New Palgrave). Complete sets of the Ergebnisse eines mathematischen Kolloquiums are rare, though runs of the first few numbers (lacking the great mathematical economics papers) do appear from time to time. The rarity of the later numbers may be connected with the Anschluss, the German annexation of Austria in March 1938, which drove leading intellectuals from Europe and seems to have led to the suppression of the publication in Vienna. The only complete set to appear for public sale in recent years brought £37,500 at Christie’s in November 2014. Many current younger economists are high- powered applied mathematicians, in part, because of the stimulus of von Neumann’s work. His influence will persist for decades and even centuries in economics” —New Palgrave
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

CARROLL, LEWIS FIRST EDITION, second (i.e., American) issue, comprising sheets of the suppressed 1865 printing of Alice with new title-page. 42 illustrations by John Tenniel. Original red cloth. Spine very slightly darkened, very minor wear to spine ends, small spot on back cover, hinges tender. A handsome copy. Half morocco case. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is the most frequently quoted book in the world, after the Bible and the works of Shakespeare. Alice has been translated into more than 150 languages and gone through many hundreds of editions and countless stage and screen adaptations. “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its hardly less famous sequel Through the Looking Glass (1872), although ostensibly written for children are unique among ‘juveniles’ in appealing equally if not more strongly to adults. Written by an Oxford don, a clergyman, and a professional mathematician, they abound in characters—the White Knight, the Red Queen, the Mad Hatter, Humpty Dumpty—who are part of everybody’s mental furniture. And the philosophic profundity of scores, if not hundreds, of these characters’ observations, long household words wherever English is spoken, gains mightily from the delicious fantasy of their setting” (PMM). On July 4, 1862, the Rev. Charles Dodgson (“Lewis Carroll”) first told the story of Alice while on a river expedition with a fellow Oxford don and the three Liddell sisters, Alice, Edith, and Lorinda. The story’s namesake, Alice, asked for a written version of the tale, and Dodgson gave it to her for Christmas 1864. On seeing that manuscript, “Alice’s Adventures Underground,” friends encouraged him to expand the story into a book. In a letter to a friend Dodgson joked that the title might be taken to mean “instruction about mines,” and suggested the alternatives “Alice among the elves/goblins” or “Alice’s hour/doings/adventures in elf-land/wonderland.” “This second issue comprises those copies of the first edition still unbound when Lewis Carroll decided in July 1865 to cancel the edition. In 1866 the copies on hand were sold to Appleton and [1000] new title-pages were printed at Oxford, replacing the originals. The binding was evidently done in England, duplicating that for the first issue except in the substitution of Appleton’s name for Macmillan at the foot of the spine and in the omission of a binder’s ticket. Textually the Appleton issue agrees with the Macmillan 1865, the only difference being the cancel title-page” (Robert N. Taylor, Lewis Carroll at Texas: The Warren Weaver Collection). This is a very handsome copy of a beloved and much-read book, far superior to the worn and repaired copies usually encountered.
The Discovery

The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke: and An Essay towards the Topography and Natural History of that important Country: to which is added The Adventures of Col. Daniel Boon, one of the first settlers

FILSON, JOHN [DANIEL BOONE] FIRST EDITION. A classic of the early American frontier, this is the first book on Kentucky and the first published biography of Daniel Boone, dictated by the legendary frontiersman himself. “Boone’s international fame was secured with the publication of ‘The Adventures of Col. Daniel Boon’ in John Filson’s Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke in 1784 and its subsequent translation and reprinting in France and Germany the next year” (ANB). While Filson has clearly improved Boone’s spelling and diction, this narrative provides an exciting firsthand view of the exploration and settlement of the old frontier. Boone’s riveting tale concludes, “I can now say that I have verified the saying of old Indian who signed Col. Henderson’s deed. Taking me by the hand, at the delivery thereof, Brother, says he, we have given you a fine land, but I believe you will have much trouble in settling it—My footsteps have often been marked with blood. ” “Boone’s significance to American history and culture is hard to overestimate, for in a very real sense it is impossible to discuss the frontier without discussing Boone. Historically and imaginatively, perhaps no single individual is more central to the frontier experience. [Boone is] the prototype of the frontier hero” (ANB). This is a rare untrimmed copy of a classic of the American frontier. The map called for on the title-page was printed separately in Philadelphia by Tenoor Rook and is virtually never found with the text (none since the Hoe copy, last sold in 1921). Modern calf. Without map as always; H3,4 with long closed tears into text. An excellent untrimmed copy. Provenance: the Siebert copy, Sotheby’s, New York, 21 May 1999, lot 297.
Le Juif Errant

Le Juif Errant

SUE, EUGENE First edition of Sue’s The Wandering Jew. This is the rare first edition in book form, preceding the far more common illustrated and popular editions that soon followed. Sue’s Le Juif Errant, a classic of French nineteenth-century popular fiction, was written at the height of the age of Balzac, Dumas, and Hugo. According to Sue’s novel the Huguenot Rennepont family lost its wealth during the French Catholic persecution. What little remained was entrusted to the Jewish banker Samuel who, with his heirs, turned the money into a fortune over 150 years. The terms of the arrangement called for the descendants to meet at a certain address in Paris in 1832 to divide the inheritance. This book is the story of the seven remaining members of the family and the efforts of the Jesuits to eliminate them and claim the fortune for themselves. The old Jewish banker appears at the novel’s end proclaiming an end to the curse of the Wandering Jew. “Eugene Sue wrote his Juif Errant in 1844. From the latter work most people derive their knowledge of the legend” (Jewish Encyclopedia). The medieval story of the Wandering Jew describes a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to his crucifixion, saying, “Go on more quickly.” Jesus replied, “I go, but thou shalt wait till I return,” thereby condemning the man to roam the earth until the Second Coming. Oral tradition, song, and popular literature perpetuated the long-lived anti-Semitic legend and described supposed sightings of the Wandering Jew. “Sue was, like Dumas, an improviser, and possessed remarkable fecundity and invention. To these qualities add the instinct for portraying the weird and the terrible, and it is not hard to understand why he was popular in his day, and retains a good share of that popularity still” (Warner). The first edition is rarely encountered in a contemporary binding complete with all half-titles. Only one set appears in the auction records of the past twenty-five years. Ten volumes in five. Complete with half-titles. Contemporary half calf. Light rubbing, some foxing. A very good, untouched set.
Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]

Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]

ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES Contemporary mottled calf, spine gilt, tan leather label. A fine, fresh, wide-margined copy in a very well-preserved binding. Half morocco case. FIRST EDITION, type B, the definitive authorized version. Observing in his opening words that “man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains,” Rousseau offered this work as a yardstick with which to judge existing governments. He argued that the central problem is to “find a form of association which can defend and protect with all the power of the community the person and possessions of each associate, and by which each person unites himself with all, but only obeys himself and thereby remains as free as before.” “The Contrat Social remains Rousseau’s greatest work . . . his fundamental thesis that government depends absolutely on the mandate of the people, and his genuine creative insight into a number of political and economic problems, give his work an indisputable cogency. It had the most profound influence on the political thinking of the generation following its publication . . .” (Printing and the Mind of Man 207). Before publication Rousseau expressed dissatisfaction with the title-page and objected to its vignette in particular. The publisher offered an alternative title-page with a large vignette and with the phrase “Du Contract [sic] Social” moved to the half-title. At the same time, Rousseau suppressed a concluding passage on civil marriage. The requested changes were made, and thus only a handful of copies survive with the type A title-page. David Hume wrote to Rousseau on the publication of this work, “Of all the men of letters in Europe, since the death of Montesquieu, you are the person whom I most revere, both for the force of your genius and the greatness of your mind.” The book remains the bible of popular sovereignty, egalitarian government and, above all, the preservation of individual liberty within civil society. The Contrat Social was an immediate sensation, and both the original publisher and several pirates brought out additional printings in 1762. Fine copies of the first edition in contemporary bindings are now scarce. Printing and the Mind of Man 207.
This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande

This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande, as Well of Woodlande, as of Lande in the Felde and Comptynge the True Nombre of Acres of the Same. [edited by Thomas Paynell.]

BENESE, RICHARD FIRST EDITION of “the first English textbook on geometrical land-measurement and surveying” (Buisseret, Monarchs, Ministers, and Maps). The book focused on practical methods calculating everything from the amount of stone needed to pave a chamber floor to the size of a pasture or field” marking “the beginning of a new interest in measuring not just the assets of the land, but the land itself” (D. K. Smith, Cartographic Imagination in Early Modern England). In this landmark in the history of surveying, Richard Benese described for the first time in English how to calculate the area of a field or an entire estate. Noting that sellers tended to exaggerate the size of a property whereas buyers were inclined to underestimate it, he advised the surveyor to approach the task in a careful and methodical manner: “When ye shall measure a piece of any land ye shall go about the boundes of it once or twice, and [then] consider well by viewing it whether ye may measure it in one parcel wholly altogether or else in two or many parcels.” Measuring it in “many parcels,” he explained, was necessary when the field was an uneven, irregular shape; by dividing it up into smaller, regular shapes like squares and oblongs and triangles it became easy to calculate accurately the total area. The distances were to be carefully measured with a rod or pole, precisely 16 1/2 feet long, or a cord. And finally, the surveyor was to describe the area in words, and to draw a plat showing its shape and extent. “Like the maps, this interest in exact measurement was also new. Until then, what mattered was how much land would yield, not its size. When William the Conqueror instituted the great survey of England in 1086, known as the Domesday Book, his commissioners noted the dimensions of estates in units like virgates and hides, which varied according to the richness of the soil: a virgate was enough land for a single person to live on, a hide enough to support a family, and consequently the size shrank when measuring fertile land, and expanded in poor, upland territory. Other Domesday units like the acre and the carrucate were equally flexible, but so long as land was held in exchange for services, the number of people it could feed and so make available to render those services was more important than its exact area. Accurate measurement became important in 1538 because beginning in that year a gigantic swath of England-almost half a million acres-was suddenly put on sale for cash.” (New York Times 1 Dec 2002). Benese’s Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande marks an epoch, the widespread idea of land as private property. Under the feudal system, land was generally owned by the king. Everyone else, from duke and baron to vassal and villein, was a tenant exchanging goods and services for land rights. “During the sixteenth century a large part of the property of Europe was suddenly wrested from one privileged group and handed over to a new one. The Church was expropriated; the lands of feudal magnates, who opposed both capitalism and the new religion, and the ancient demesne lands of the Crown, were transferred by forced sale to the new ruling class” (Schlatter, Private Property, the History of an Idea). Suddenly land became widely available to capitalists. This sea change in the world’s economic order required that real estate dealings be put on a rational economic basis, and Benese’s book marks that new era. “If there is a single date when the idea of land as private property can be said to have taken hold, it is 1538. In that year a tiny volume was published with a long title that began, This boke sheweth the maner of measurynge of all maner of lande. In it, the author, Sir Richard Benese, described for the first time in English how to calculate the area of a field or an entire estate . . . PLEASE INQUIRE FOR MORE DETAILS
A Tale of Two Cities

A Tale of Two Cities

DICKENS, CHARLES Original red cloth (first binding). Joints very slightly tender, light soiling. A very handsome copy in original, unrestored condition. Half morocco case. FIRST EDITION, FIRST BINDING, FIRST PRINTING (with page 213 mis-numbered 113 and sig. b present on the list of illustrations, points that were corrected in later copies of this edition). A Tale of Two Cities is one of Dickens’s greatest and most-quoted novels. “The force of the novel springs from its exploration of darkness and death but its beauty derives from Dickens’s real sense of transcendence, from his ability to see the sweep of destiny . . . this is what emerges most clearly from one of his shortest and most powerful novels” (Ackroyd). Dickens was emotionally vested in this great novel. He wrote, “It has had complete possession of me; I have so far verified what is done and suffered in these pages as that I have certainly done and suffered it all myself.” The quality and strength of the prose is some of the finest he was ever to produce, for example, “It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to, than I have ever known.” This is the best copy we have seen. The novel’s serialization in Dickens’s weekly All the Year Round reduced the demand for the book and parts issues, and thus collectible copies are scarce. Provenance: Mrs. J. Insley Blair, Sotheby’s, New York, 3 December 2004, lot 140.
Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa; including a sketch of sixteen years’ residence in the interior of Africa

Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa; including a sketch of sixteen years’ residence in the interior of Africa

LIVINGSTONE, DAVID Colored lithographed folding frontispiece of Victoria Falls, engraved portrait, 23 wood-engraved or lithographed plates, 2 folding maps. Contemporary red half calf and marbled boards. Rebacked preserving spine. Foxed. Cloth case FIRST EDITION. Presentation copy inscribed by the author: “Mrs Clare with the kindest regards of David Livingstone.” Livingstone lived many years in South Africa and made three great expeditions, the first described in this book 1853-56, and the others in 1858-64 and 1865-73. “David Livingstone, perhaps the greatest of the African explorers discovered the Zambesi River at Secheke and followed it northwards, eventually reaching the west coast of Africa at Luanda, Angola, and the east coast at Quelimane, Mozambique. In 1855 he discovered the great falls of Zambesi and named them the Victoria Falls” (PMM). Livingstone’s accomplishments in African exploration and geography are almost unequaled. He covered about a third of the Continent from the Cape to the Equator and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. This volume describes Livingstone’s first and greatest expedition (1853-56) in which, among many other things, he discovered the great falls of the Zambesi and named them Victoria Falls. Europeans had never before seen much of the vast territory that Livingstone covered. “The geographical results of his journeys were of supreme importance, and made it possible to fill in great stretches of the maps of Central Africa which hitherto had been blank” (PMM). A detailed account of his years of African exploration, during which he “investigated the geology, botany, and natural history of the country he traversed,” Livingstone’s Missionary Travels “thoroughly reflects the man and is delightful reading” (DNB). Provenance the celebrated collection of Haskell Norman, with his bookplate, Christie’s New York, 29 October 1998, lot 1173. Norman 1377. Exhibited: this very copy was exhibited at the original 1963 Printing and the Mind of Man exhibition (IPEX). Printing and the Mind of Man 341.
Trip to the Moon

Trip to the Moon

ARMSTRONG, NEIL.) VERNE, JULES. A Trip to the Moon signed by Neil Armstrong. 58 pp. Original wrappers. Several leaves stained, some wear. Printed on pulp paper. No. 36 of The Arm Chair Library, a ten cent weekly. Half morocco case. Signed by Neil Armstrong, first man to walk on the moon. This classic of science fiction, turned into scientific fact by Armstrong and the Apollo 11 mission, was first published as De la Terre à la Lune in 1865. Verne’s reputation as the inventor of the science fiction novel rests primarily on From the Earth to the Moon. Verne’s novel, set in post-Civil War America, presents the tale of the development and financing of a grand scheme to launch a manned vehicle to go to the Moon. The book was eerily accurate in its predictions concerning the feat. Verne described a three-man crew launched from Florida in a cylindro-conical vehicle called the Columbiad (Apollo 11’s was the Columbia). Like Apollo 11, the vehicle used retrorockets, the men experienced weightlessness, and they returned from the Moon and ultimately splashed down in the Pacific. During his return from the Moon, Neil Armstrong spoke to the people of Earth, stating in part, “A hundred years ago, Jules Verne wrote a book about a voyage to the Moon. His spaceship, Columbia, took off from Florida and landed in the Pacific Ocean after completing a trip to the Moon. It seems appropriate to us to share with you some of the reflections of the crew as the modern-day Columbia completes its rendezvous with the planet Earth and the same Pacific Ocean tomorrow ” Verne underscored his emphasis on science when he compared his work with that of H. G. Wells: “I do not see the possibility of comparison between his work and mine. We do not proceed in the same manner. It occurs to me that his stories do not repose on a very scientific basis. I make use of physics. He invents. I go to the moon in a cannon-ball, discharged from a cannon. Here there is no invention. He goes to Mars in an airship, which he constructs of a metal which does not obey the law of gravitation. Ça c’est très joli but show me this metal. Let him produce it.” “I’m sure we would not have had men on the Moon if it had not been for Wells and Verne” (Arthur C. Clarke). “[Verne’s] first books, the shortest, Around the World and From the Earth to the Moon, are still the best in my view. Over the last forty years, they have had an influence unequalled by any other books on the children of this and every country in Europe” (Leon Blum, 1905). A wonderful association item linking the giants of literary and real space travel.
Wanderings in West Africa from Liverpoool to Fernando Po

Wanderings in West Africa from Liverpoool to Fernando Po

BURTON, RICHARD F. Two volumes. Original purple-brown cloth. Folding map as frontispiece to Volume I, plate of the JuJu House as frontispiece to Volume II. Spines a touch sunned, light wear, but an excellent set. First edition. This is Burton’s first book on his years in West Africa including detailed accounts of his amazing adventures inland. “Newly married and needing employment, Burton approached the Foreign Office for a consular position, hoping for the post at Damascus. Instead, he was offered the consulship at Fernando Po, a small, unhealthy island in the Bight of Biafra on the west African coast. When he accepted the position on 27 March 1861 he requested to retain his commission in the Bombay army, but he was struck from the list, thereby losing not only his half pay but also any prospect of a pension or sale of his commission, an action about which he always complained bitterly. Burton did not permit Isabel to accompany him to Fernando Po, which he described as ‘the very abomination of desolation’. He slipped away from the post at every opportunity for excursions on the African mainland or to meet Isabel in the Canaries or England. Although he loathed Fernando Po, he worked continuously at his writing with Wanderings in West Africa and Abeokuta and the Cameroons Mountains both appearing in 1863″ (ODNB). Burton originally intended to issue the book anonymously, and a few copies are known with no name on the spine, but most often they are as here, credited to “R. F. Burton F.R.G.S.” on the spine and just “a F.R.G.S.” on the title page. This pseudonym “may have been a slap at the Royal Geographical society, for Burton was at odds with the organization’s leadership at the time over the matter of the Nile’s sources. The acerbic dedication was ‘to the true friends of Africa – not the “Philanthropist” or to Exeter Hall’” (Casada)
Collection of papers of John M. Bailey

Collection of papers of John M. Bailey, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, concerning the convention

DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, Chicago, 1968). More than 50 items. Good condition, organized in plastic sheets in an old red vinyl three-ring binder. The 1968 Democratic National Convention of 1968, held in Chicago, was a landmark event in American political history. John M. Bailey of Connecticut, who had helped to orchestrate Johnson’s landslide victory in 1964, oversaw the contentious presidential campaign of 1968, in which Robert Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, Eugene McCarthy, and others sought the Democratic nomination. This collection of papers to and by longtime Democratic National Committee Chairman John M. Bailey includes: • Eugene McCarthy, 3-page telegram requesting an opportunity appear before the Committee to present his argument that “the administration’s course in Vietnam is dangerous and wrong.” • Various papers by the McCarthy campaign concerning its goals and requesting information concerning officers, seating, and other logistical matters at the convention. In the end the party was less than helpful to the McCarthy campaign, instead unifying behind Humphrey. These papers help to reveal the struggles of the McCarthy campaign to present its dissenting views. • Convention press kit containing biographies, maps, flyers, and a poster. • Correspondence concerning credentials and passes. • Correspondence and press releases concerning the status of the campaign, ranging from state delegates voicing their concerns to a copy of Bailey’s memorandum to the White House reporting on developments state-by-state. • Copies of a letter signed by Kennedy two weeks before his assassination with a note stating that his family agreed to its distribution. The 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago saw protests and riots outside the convention and a bitterly contested fight inside the convention hall ultimately leading to the nomination of Hubert Humphrey, who lost to Nixon in November.
Liberty’s Torch in Madison Square Park

Liberty’s Torch in Madison Square Park

STATUE OF LIBERTY, Central Park.). Gelatin silver print. 11 x 14 in. Tear and crease at upper left. Newly and handsomely framed using archival materials. The torch of the Statue of Liberty was exhibited in Madison Square Park, New York to raise funds for the statue’s completion. The torch remained in the park from 1876 through 1882. “Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politician Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to American independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples. He may have been minded to honor the Union victory in the American Civil War and the end of slavery. Due to the troubled political situation in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the Americans provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. “The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, in 1876, and in New York’s Madison Square Park from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened due to lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World started a drive for donations to complete the project that attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was constructed in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe’s Island. The statue’s completion was marked by New York’s first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland” (Wikipedia). Eccentric tycoon and collector Benjamin Richardson rode in George Washington’s carriage in the parade.
Original Brady Photograph Maquette “President and Cabinet.”

Original Brady Photograph Maquette “President and Cabinet.”

LINCOLN & HIS CABINET.) Mathew Brady Studio. 16 x 18 in. Maquette comprised of nine excellent carte-de-visite-size albumen prints of Lincoln and his cabinet, each with a manuscript caption, the group above a scalloped paper label reading “President and Cabinet,” all mounted Institute address, Lincoln himself acknowledged Brady’s influence, on board. Minor discoloration to mount, otherwise fine. Mathew Brady and Abraham Lincoln. This splendid original Mathew Brady work of art celebrates Lincoln and his Team of Rivals at the height of the Civil War. Mathew Brady and his gallery created this superb maquette using the best possible examples of its finest portraits of Lincoln and his cabinet. Brady then photographed the piece and published it in much-reduced size as a carte de visite group portrait for sale to the public. The resulting carte de visite appears in Ostendorf’s Lincoln’s Photographs on p. 275. The nine Mathew Brady portraits making up this maquette are: Abraham Lincoln, President Hannibal Hamlin, Vice President William Seward, Secretary of State Edward Bates, Attorney General Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War Montgomery Blair, Postmaster General Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy William Pitt Fessenden, Secretary of the Treasury John P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior The famous Lincoln portrait at the top is Ostendorf O-84, made by Brady in Washington on Friday January 8, 1864. The maquette was made between July and November 1864. Fessenden succeeded Salmon P. Chase as Treasury Secretary on July 5, 1864, and Edwin Bates resigned as Attorney General in November 1864.
A Superb Collection of Photographs of Italy

A Superb Collection of Photographs of Italy

ITALY.) Alinari A superb set of monumental early photographs of Italy by Fratelli Alinari of Florence, the world’s oldest photography firm. Large folio (20 x 25 in.). Two volumes. Contemporary quarter calf. 134 albumen prints, mounted on heavy paper, each with manuscript caption. Various sizes, from 16½ x 21½ in. mammoth prints to several 3 x 4 in. prints. Some foxing, almost exclusively limited to margins of mounting paper. Some wear to binding, but a very handsome volume, with the photographs generally in fine condition. Magnificent photographs from masters of the genre. Fratelli Alinari, founded in Florence in 1852, is the world’s oldest photography firm. The three Alinari brothers pioneered the use of the camera for reproducing artwork and architecture from the great Italian galleries for public consumption. They are also known for their advocacy of the photographic portrait and for their photographs of Italian buildings and monuments. “The Alinaris were called to all the most important exhibits of the age. The Alinari images played a fundamental role in the perception and knowledge of the Italian work of art” (Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography). In these two volumes, the Alinaris have focused on the architecture of the great cities of Italy. They capture the neoclassical elements of building façades and interiors as well as other city structures with exquisite detail and precision. They approach each subject from a unique perspective chosen to capture and draw attention to its most intriguing features – from the monumental Duomo and Campanile (dome and belltower) in Florence, to the balustrades of the Rialto Bridge in Venice, to the arches and columns of a cathedral doorway in Verona. Volume I is devoted to Venice, including the Palais Ducal, St. Mark’s Place, and the Grand Canal. Volume II contains images of Florence, Pisa, Bologne, Padua, and Verona, including landscapes, architectural views, and occasional reproductions of famous works of art. These two volumes present an opportunity to acquire superb, early large-format images of Italy’s most famous buildings and settings in extraordinary high-quality prints by the most famous photographer in the field.
Photograph portrait of Lincoln and his sons Willie and Tad at their home in Springfield

Photograph portrait of Lincoln and his sons Willie and Tad at their home in Springfield, Illinois

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Whipple, J. A. Albumen print (13 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 in.), original printed mount with Whipple imprint and title “Home of Abraham Lincoln,” early erroneous inscription “Original photograph made in 1858 or 1859.” Minor wear and soiling, crease at upper right. Abraham Lincoln at his home in Springfield. “Lincoln stands on the terrace of the only house he ever owned. He called it his ‘little brown cottage’ and bought it for $1500 in 1844 from the Reverend Charles Dresser, an Episcopal rector who had married the Lincolns in 1842. Here Lincoln’s sons Eddie, Willie, and Tad were born, and here he was living when elected President” (Ostendorf). Lincoln stands with his sons Willie and Tad, who is barely visible behind a post. Lincoln left Springfield for Washington on February 11, 1861. In his farewell address, he told the people of Springfield, “My friends, no one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this parting. To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I now leave, not knowing when, or whether ever, I may return, with a task before me greater than that which rested upon Washington. Without the assistance of the Divine Being who ever attended him, I cannot succeed. With that assistance I cannot fail. Trusting in Him who can go with me, and remain with you, and be everywhere for good, let us confidently hope that all will yet be well. To His care commending you, as I hope in your prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.” The photographer, John Adams Whipple (1822-1891) was a pioneering American photographer and inventor who owned a successful photography studio in Boston. “Whipple was instrumental in the development of the glass negative/paper positive process in America” (Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography). Lincoln was chosen as the Republican nominee for the presidency on May 18, 1860. Whipple journeyed to Illinois that summer to photograph the rising political star at his home in Springfield. This rare large-format print bears Whipple’s imprint and address. Large-format photographs of Abraham Lincoln and his family are rare. Ostendorf, Lincoln’s Photographs O-38.
The President

The President, General McClellan and Suite on the Battle-Field of Antietam

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Gardner, Alexander. Albumen silver print (7 x 9 in.), original printed mount with neat identifications of the figures in pencil. Surface lightly cleaned, mount trimmed at edge. A handsome example with the original printed Brady mount with title, copyright notice, “Gardner, Photographer,” “M. B. Brady, Publisher,” and date October 3, 1862. This photograph of Lincoln at Antietam is one of the best-known images of the Civil War. The Battle of Antietam, fought on September 17, 1862, was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history. The Confederate withdrawal was sufficiently heartening for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which had been withheld awaiting a victory. Two weeks later Lincoln came to survey the Maryland battlefield, to see the troops, and to confront George McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, who had failed to pursue Lee’s army. Soon after the engagement, Alexander Gardner and other photographers working for Mathew Brady came to the battlefield, capturing the carnage in dozens of photographs and then documenting Abraham Lincoln’s tour of the battlefield on October 3. In an unprecedented exhibition, Mathew Brady displayed Gardner’s Antietam photographs in New York. “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our dooryards and along the streets, he has done something very like it. At the door of his gallery hangs a little placard, ‘The Dead of Antietam ’” (New York Times, October 20, 1862). Not long after Brady’s Antietam exhibition, Gardner struck out on his own, establishing his own gallery in Washington. Lincoln would sit for him more than any other photographer. The photograph shows, from left to right: Colonel Delos B. Sacket, Captain George Monteith, Lieutenant Colonel Nelson B. Sweitzer, General George W. Morell, Colonel Alexander S. Webb (Chief of Staff, 5th Corps), General George B. McClellan, Scout Adams, Dr. Jonathan Letterman (Army Medical Director), unidentified soldier, President Abraham Lincoln, Colonel Henry J. Hunt, General Fitz-John Porter, Joseph C. G. Kennedy, Colonel Frederick T. Locke, General Andrew A. Humphreys, and Captain George Armstrong Custer (Ostendorf p. 107). This is a classic photograph of Abraham Lincoln with the troops in the field, bearing the imprints of Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner, the two most important figures in Civil War photography. Ostendorf, Lincoln’s Photographs: A Complete Album O-62
Photograph of Alexandra “Xie” Kitchin

Photograph of Alexandra “Xie” Kitchin

DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE [LEWIS CARROLL] Albumen print (4 x 5 3⁄4 in.), cabinet card mount. Inscribed in various hands: “Xie” (ink), “H.H.,” “Age 7,” and “presented by Lewis Carroll” (pencil). Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll, who took up photography in 1856, was one of the most accomplished Victorian amateur photographers. He is most famous for his portraits of girls. On seeing one of his child portraits, Tennyson agreed to sit for him, saying, “You, I suppose, dream photographs.” Beginning in 1856 Dodgson took about three thousand negatives, mostly portraits, over the span of about twenty-five years. He mastered the difficult techniques of the collodion process and devoted himself to art and composition, achieving results equaling those of the best professionals of his day. “The apparently contradictory aspects of his personality, artistic and imaginative on the one hand, and pedantically careful on the other, became the mainspring of his creative output, both as Charles Dodgson, the photographer, and as Lewis Carroll, children’s author” (Taylor, in Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography). Xie (pronounced “Ecksy,” for Alexandra) was one of the most notable of Dodgson’s photographic subjects. She is now thought to have been six when this photograph was taken. Xie posed for Dodgson from age four until she turned sixteen. “Another of Lewis Carroll’s early favourites, was Miss Alexandra (Xie) Kitchin, daughter of the Dean of Durham. Her father was for fifteen years Censor of the unattached members of the University of Oxford, so that Dodgson had plenty of opportunities of photographing his little friend” (Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll). “His most frequent and favourite sitter was Alexandra Kitchin, better known by her pet name of ‘Xie.’ Over the years he photographed her more often and in a wider variety of costumes and settings than any other person” (Taylor). “With the exception of four pictures displayed at the 1858 annual exhibition of the Photographic Society of London, Dodgson had never exhibited his pictures, which were only known to a narrow circle of friends and acquaintances” (Fringier, “Out of Focus: A Portrait of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson” in Strange Sisters: Literature and Aesthetics in the Nineteenth Century). This is a splendid, representative example of Dodgson’s portraits of children, from the collection of his close friend Henry Holiday (see Provenance). Provenance: Henry Holiday, with his monogram on verso. Holiday, who illustrated The Hunting of the Snark, was a close friend of Dodgson. An album of Dodgson photographs belonging to Holiday is now at Princeton. Taylor & Wakeling, Lewis Carroll, Photographer 1891.
A collection of 11 photographs including 8 superb photographs of Castillo San Marcos

A collection of 11 photographs including 8 superb photographs of Castillo San Marcos, the oldest military structure in the continental United States and 3 of the Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine first built in 1565 and rebuilt in the 1790s

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA.) Unknown photographer. Eleven albumen prints (6 x 8 in.), mounted and captioned in a contemporary hand. Very good condition. This remarkable collection of early Florida photographs documents two of the most important early structures in Florida history: the fort Castillo de San Marcos and the Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine. Built in 1672 the fort is the only extant 17th-century military structure in the continental United States. The church, located in the oldest parish of the United States (founded in 1565), was built in the 1790s. The eight photographs of Castillo San Marcos are: 1. Interior of Fort St. Marco. South West Corner showing entrance to Indian Prison. Old Well in the foreground. St. Augustine. Fla. 2. Interior of Fort St. Marco Showing entrance to Chapel. St. Augustine. Fla. 3. Interior of Fort St. Marco. Southeast Corner showing entrance to Dungeons. Chapel on the left. St. Augustine. Fla. 4. Fort St. Marco. South Front. Showing Drawbridge and Moat. St Augustine. Fla. 5. Doorway. Fort St. Marco. St. Augustine. Fla. 6. Entrance to Fort St. Marco. St. Augustine. Fla. 7. General view of South Front, Lunette Battery, and Moat, from parapet. Fort St. Marco, The Bay. Anastatia island, and Lighthouse in the distance. St. Augustine. Fla. 8. South Front from Parapet Fort St. Marco. Showing Drawbridge and Moat. St. Augustine Fla. The three photographs of the Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine read: 1. Catholic Church. St. Augustine. Fla. 2. Catholic Church. The oldest church on the continent of America. St. Augustine. Fla. 3. Catholic Church. St. Augustine. Fla. Protecting St. Augustine Florida (the oldest continuously occupied European settlement within the United States and near the site of Ponce de León’s first landing in 1513) the Castillo San Marco was built while the Spanish Empire controlled Florida. Construction of the masonry fort began in 1672 after a devastating raid on the city by the British privateer Robert Searles. Over the centuries, Spain, Great Britain, the United States, and the Confederate States of America all controlled the fort. Several times over the course of its history the fort was used as a military prison. During the American Revolutionary war, the prisoners included Christopher Gadsden, the Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina and a delegate to the Continental Congress. Beginning in 1862 the United States used the fort as a military prison for Native Americans for several decades. One of the images shows the jail that was used for their confinement while another shows dungeons that were presumably used for the same purpose. In later years members of Geronimo’s band of Apache warriors, including women, children, and Geronimo’s wife were imprisoned. Ledger Art, a prominent art form among Plains Native Americans, began at the fort. Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine is located in the oldest parish in the United States, having been founded in 1565. In 1586 Francis drake destroyed the first church, built in 1565. In 1566 Martín de Argüelles was born in the parish, the first recorded birth of a child of European ancestry in what is now the continental United States. DATING. The photographs showing the Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine allow us to date the entire group, which are on identical mounts and have captions in the same hand. Due to the presence of a side chapel built in 1873, the absence of the rectory built in 1875, and the presence of a stonewall destroyed in 1875 we ascribe a likely date to the series of ca. 1874. The photographs display consistent tones, dimensions, mounts, inscriptions, and aging across the collection. These images appear to be unrecorded. We have made a comprehensive online survey of photographic collections of the time and place, consulted the Library of Congress’s digital archives, and queried area historical societies.
Tender is the Night

Tender is the Night

FITZGERALD, F. SCOTT Original pictorial wrappers made by the publisher from the dust jacket. Some restoration to rear wrapper affecting the right margin of the jacket copy, marginal stain to p. 27, light spotting to endpapers, else very good. FIRST EDITION, the extremely rare advance issue in wrappers. Fitzgerald considered Tender is the Night, his fourth and final novel, to be his masterpiece, surpassing The Great Gatsby. Following an initially lukewarm reception, the novel’s reputation has steadily risen. Ernest Hemingway later observed that “Tender is the Night gets better and better.” The novel is now acclaimed as one of the great works of modern American literature. The author’s first novel in nine years, following The Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night tells the story of the rise and fall of a glamorous couple, the psychiatrist Dick Diver and his wife Nicole, who is one of his patients. At the time Joyce’s wife Zelda was hospitalized for schizophrenia. The advance issue of Tender is the Night is one of the great Fitzgerald rarities Of Fitzgerald’s eight novels, this is the only one for which advance copies were issued. “They are complete texts – not dummies – and were probably intended for use as review copies and salesman’s copies. The Scribner’s records indicate that five hundred copies were ordered, but it is unlikely that that many copies were distributed because it is so rare: three institutional copies have been located [Virginia, Pierpont Morgan, and the Bruccoli Collection at the University of South Carolina] . These are the most collectible copies of Tender is the Night in terms of priority and rarity” (Bruccoli and Baughman, F. Scott Fitzgerald in the Marketplace). The book has been the subject of stage, screen, theater, television, and ballet adaptations. Very rare: leading Fitzgerald bibliographer and collector Matthew Bruccoli located only three copies. Only two examples appear in the auction records of the past fifty years. Provenance: Henry Barnard Strong, with bookplate. Strong was member of the Yale class of 1922 and a member of Skull & Bones. Gerald Murphy, the model for Dick Diver in Tender is the Night, was likewise a Skull & Bones man.
The History and Practice of the High Court of Chancery

The History and Practice of the High Court of Chancery

MARSHALL, JOHN.) Gilbert, Sir Geoffrey. FIRST EDITION of this law book from the library of John Marshall, signed twice (on the front free endpaper and on the front cover). The most important chief justice in the history of the United States Supreme Court, John Marshall was one of the great figures in the establishment of our judicial, legal, and political system. John Marshall rose quickly from frontier log cabin beginnings (albeit from one of Virginia’s leading families) to become one of the most respected statesmen in America. After serving for a year as secretary of state under John Adams, Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a post he held from 1801 to 1835. Over those 35 years he transformed the Court, established the power of judicial review, and helped define the Constitution for future generations, making the third branch co-equal with the executive and legislative branches. As Story wrote, “Your expositions of constitutional law enjoy a rare and extraordinary authority. They constitute a monument of fame far beyond the ordinary memorials of political and military glory. They are destined to enlighten, instruct, and convince future generations; and can scarcely perish but with the memory of the constitution itself” (Story, Commentaries). As a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, Marshall chaired a committee in 1787 to amend the act establishing the High Court of Chancery in Virginia. It is likely that Marshall used this very book, Gilbert’s Chancery, in preparing to reform the law, which had been written by Thomas Jefferson ten years before (see Beveridge, Life of John Marshall I: 224-25). Gilbert (1674-1726) was an important English jurist whose writings were widely read by the Founders. For example, Jefferson owned five of his books. Gilbert ultimately rose to the position of Chief Baron of the Exchequer of England in 1725. His Chancery was an enormously influential book: “all other works on equity, which have subsequently appeared may be, in some sense, considered as modifications of Lord Gilbert’s treatise” (Isaac Grant). Contemporary tan calf, red morocco label. Light browning. Joints neatly reinforced. A handsome copy. Fine half morocco case. This rare book from John Marshall’s library is an outstanding legal and constitutional history association copy.
The Frugal Housewife

The Frugal Housewife, or Complete Woman Cook: Wherein the art of dressing all sorts of viands, with cleanliness, decency, and elegance, is explained in five hundred approved receipts to which are prefixed various bills of fare, for dinners and suppers in every month of the year; and a copious index to the whole

CARTER, SUSANNAH FIRST AMERICAN EDITION. This is the second cookbook printed in America, preceded only by the similarly rare The Compleat Housewife printed in Williamsburg in 1742. Carter’s Frugal Housewife was one of the “enduring classics in the American marketplace, reprinted in American cities into the 1830s” (Snell). Printed from the London edition with alterations, The Frugal Housewife strongly influenced the first cookery book by an American author, Amelia Simmons’s American Cookery (1796). Simmons copied entire passages almost word for word from Carter. This first American edition of The Frugal Housewife, printed without a date, was advertised by Edes & Gill in the Boston Gazette as “this day Published” on 2 March 1772. Edes & Gill are best remembered as the most important printers in Boston during the American Revolution. In 1773, one year after publishing this cookbook, they and their newspaper, the Boston Gazette, played a crucial role in sparking the Boston Tea Party. For this cookbook they turned to another patriot, Paul Revere, famed as a silversmith and engraver. Paul Revere engraved two plates on copper to illustrate this work. Revere referred to his work in his Day Book on January 20, 1772, where he wrote: “Mesr. Edes & Gill Dr. To Engraving a Copper plate for coocrey [sic] Book & 500 prints 2-14-0.” Revere evidently engraved a single plate of copper with both illustrations. A FABULOUS PROVENANCE. This book bears the apparently otherwise unknown book label of Sally Parsons dated 1774. Women’s book labels on American books of this interest and period are of the greatest rarity. VERY RARE. No copy appears in the book auction records of the past 100 years, apart from an example lacking nine leaves including the title. In 1954 Goodspeed’s offered a copy with a portion of the title in facsimile—the only copy we have traced in the trade. Only four research libraries have copies (Library of Congress, Harvard, Brown, and American Antiquarian Society) and the 1772 Frugal Housewife is lacking from almost all of the great cookery collections. Seven copies are known worldwide. 12mo. [12], 166 of 168 pp., final leaf O6 in facsimile. 2 engraved plates. 18th-century sheep. Spine rubbed, front hinge starting at top. Light toning, small tear without loss to title. Generally in excellent condition, a remarkable survival, especially given the subject matter. Provenance: Sally Parsons 1774, with book label reading “The Property of Sally Parsons. 1774.” with decorative border on front paste-down.
An album of 20 excellent views of Niagara Falls

An album of 20 excellent views of Niagara Falls

NIAGARA FALLS, New York. 20 albumen prints including 9 mammoth plate (16 x 20 in.) photographs, mounted. Half green morocco, gilt-stamped on the upper board “Niagara Falls.” Binding worn but sound and attractive. Early German inscription on front pastedown, translated as follows: “From the estate of Uncle Erdwin and Aunt Tony Amsinck. The pictures are from the year 1867. (see their photo on the third-to-last page) Page 10, on the top left.” Slight staining, occasional foxing or fading to images. An outstanding album containing beautiful and unusual images including, as its final image, one of the most remarkable North American photographs of the period. This unique artistic photograph album is linked to three historically important Niagara Falls photographers: George Barker (a Canadian by birth who owned studios in both London, Ontario, and the Niagara Falls region), Platt D. Babbitt (with whom Barker is known to have worked), and Samuel J. Mason (a prominent portraitist and landscape photographer). The combination of their skills and the extraordinary vistas of the American and Canadian Niagara Falls has resulted in an album of photographs of great beauty. Further study is needed to make direct attributions for many of the photographs in the album. Evidence suggests that many are by George Barker, but because a studio fire destroyed his archive in 1870, except his stereoviews, certain attribution is difficult. Several of the photographs show the suspension bridge connecting Ontario to New York, while others are unusually large and high quality photographs of Niagara Falls themselves. Photographs of Niagara Falls are not uncommon because the natural wonder has long attracted artists, admirers and visitors, but albums of this high quality, great beauty and large format are now rare. The final photograph, a particular highlight, is the impressive seemingly moonlit photograph, attributed to George Barker. This magnificent photograph compares favorably with the work of any of the great European or North American photographic artists of the period.
Autograph letter signed to Reverend John McVickar of Columbia University

Autograph letter signed to Reverend John McVickar of Columbia University

JEFFERSON, THOMAS 1 page. 4to. Integral blank with address panel in Jefferson’s hand and with his franking signature. Old folds. Excellent condition. Jefferson and the study of political economy: “No country on earth requires a sound intelligence of it more than ours ” In this fine unpublished letter, written just months before his death, Jefferson observes that he no longer reads books as demanding as those on political economy, adding, “I rejoice nonetheless to see that it is beginning to be cultivated in our schools.” John McVickar, the recipient of this letter, was one of the first professors of economics in America. As the first Professor of Moral Philosophy and Political Economy at Columbia University, he published a new annotated edition of John Ramsay McCulloch’s Outlines of Political Economy, which was to serve as a fundamental economics text for his students. He sent Jefferson a copy of the book on March 12, 1826, observing that Jefferson’s own writings touching on political economy are referred to in the work. McVickar added, “The zeal with which you always entertain schemes of public utility has emboldened me to break in upon the dignified retirement of your closing years” Thanking McVickar for the book, Jefferson observes, “Long withdrawn from the business of the world, and little attentive to its proceedings, I rarely read anything requiring a very strenuous application of the mind and none requires it more than the subject of political economy. I rejoice nonetheless to see that it is beginning to be cultivated in our schools. No country on earth requires a sound intelligence of it more than ours. The rising generation will I hope be qualified to act on it understandingly, and to correct the errors of their predecessors.” This is an exceptional Jefferson letter discussing the intellectual pursuits of his final year and commenting on the importance of the study of economics.
Scientific manuscript of a course of studies at Collège de la Trinité

Scientific manuscript of a course of studies at Collège de la Trinité,

Astronomy This fascinating scientific manuscript dating to the 1660s documents the state of scientific knowledge and education in France in the years following Galileo’s trial and the Church’s prohibition of Copernican theory. The manuscript comprises three parts: Physics (De Corpore naturali inspecie seu Mondo Coelo and Elementis, Generatione and corruptione rerum Meteorisque, etc), Magnetism (Tractatus de Magnete, Historia Magnetis), and Astronomy (of Praxibus Astronomicis, Systema Copernici explicatur, etc). The Astronomy section includes discussions of the world systems, especially that of Copernicus, and the names of Galileo, Gassendi, Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and others appear. The Magnetism section incudes mentions of Gassendi, Maignan, Descartes, Galileo, and Kircher, all of whom made vital contributions to the field in the seventeenth century. The Church declared heliocentrism to be heretical in 1616, and in the following years the Jesuits, especially astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli, were at the forefront of efforts to oppose the theory. This manuscript was evidently written at a Jesuit institution. The writer refers frequently to authors commonly cited by Jesuits. Copernican theory (admitted to be the “ingenious Copernican system”) is opposed by the theories of Riccioli. A sample calculation in the Astronomy section states “Hic Lugduni” (here in Lyon). These facts combine to suggest that the manuscript is by a teacher or student at the Jesuit Collège de la Trinité in Lyon. The organization is consistent with university textbooks of the seventeenth century, particularly with the use of “disputationes, abjectiones, quaestiones and reponsiones.” The manuscript’s clean lines and careful organization and orthography suggest that these are a teacher’s lecture notes. The Collège de la Trinité had a long tradition of excellence in the sciences, especially astronomy, with faculty including Honoré Fabri (1608-1688) and Claude Francois Milliet Dechales (1621-1678). The Jesuit teachers of science at the Collège de la Trinité at this period include Dechales, Pierre Port (1660-1661), Jean Bertet (1661-1665) and Pierre Violet (1665-1667) (see François de Dainville, Revue d’histoire des sciences et de leurs applications, 1954). An astronomical observatory was built at the school in 1701. The manuscript can be dated with some accuracy. A reference to the year 1662 appears in an astronomical calculation. The text refers to Bullialdus’s Astronomia Philolaica (1645) and Morin’s Tables Rodolphines (first published in 1650). This fine manuscript merits further study and publication. Its astronomical diagrams make it ideally suited for an exhibition on the Copernican controversy. Provenance: engraved bookplate with the coat of arms of Anne-Joseph d’Azincourt (1644-1689) (see Martin & Meurgey, Armorial du Pays de Tournus, 1920, and Marchand, Blazons du Bourgogne, 1975- 2001). Anne-Joseph of Azincourt, born in 1644 in Tournus, was a lawyer and jurist and alderman of the city of Dijon in 1687. Anne-Joseph d’Azincourt was the son of Charles d’Azincour, médecin ordinaire to Henri II of Condé c. 1645. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Professor Owen Gingerich in analyzing this manuscript.
Autograph letter signed “Freud” on cigars to an unidentified correspondent “Honored Sir and Dear Brother.”

Autograph letter signed “Freud” on cigars to an unidentified correspondent “Honored Sir and Dear Brother.”

FREUD, SIGMUND FREUD’S CIGARS. In this fine letter Sigmund Freud asks a friend visiting Holland to bring back his beloved Dutch cigars, writing in small part, “Although I could just as well rely on your taste, in case you get to The Hague and make the purchase there, I’ll give you the address Hagen Spinecka and the brand Soberanos (1400 [presumably a series of the Soberanos brand] 15 dozen). The enclosed 60 florin note is to cover this purchase.” In turn-of-the-century Vienna, the Austrian government maintained strict control over the tobacco industry, and Freud relied on friends to bring him the cigars he smoked endlessly. Freud, who was rarely seen without a cigar, smoked twenty each day for most of his life. When Freud nephew Harry declined a cigar at age 17, the great man declared, “My boy, smoking is one of the greatest and cheapest enjoyments in life, and if you decide in advance not to smoke, I can only feel sorry for you” (Gay, Freud: A Life for Our Time). Freud said late in life that cigars have “served me for precisely fifty years as protection and a weapon in the combat of life I owe to the cigar a great intensification of my capacity to work and a facilitation of my self-control” (Cohen, Freud on Coke). Freud’s close friend Hanns Sachs remarked that Freud “was so fond of smoking that he was somewhat irritated when men around him did not smoke. Consequently nearly all of those who formed the inner circle became more or less passionate cigar-smokers” (Sachs, Freud: Master and Friend). Freud’s cigars played a role in his psychoanalytic practice. Raymond De Saussure, a psychoanalyst who was himself analyzed by Freud in the 1920s, recalled the special role of the cigar in connecting the patient to his analyst sitting just out of view: “One was won over by the atmosphere of [Freud’s] office, a rather dark room, which opened onto a courtyard. Light came not from the windows but from the brilliance of that lucid, discerning mind. Contact was established only by means of his voice and the odor of the cigars he ceaselessly smoked” (Ruitenbeek, ed., Freud As We Knew Him). One year after writing this letter, Freud mentioned his enjoyment of Dutch cigars while vacationing in Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps. He hailed “the “the glorious air, the water, the Dutch cigars, and the good food, all resembling an idyll as closely as one can get in this Central European hell.” Freud’s attachment to Dutch cigars was so great that he once observed that “there are plenty of fine cigars [in Holland]. In fact, I have sometimes thought of settling in Holland for that reason” (Puner, Sigmund Freud: His Life and Mind). This letter is a wonderful relic of the life of Sigmund Freud, who is famously said to have declared, “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.
Sketches of the Life

Sketches of the Life, Writings, and Opinions of Thomas Jefferson, Selections of Private Correspondence.

JEFFERSON, THOMAS--VAN BUREN, MARTIN.) Rayner, B.L. 556 pp. Engraved portrait of Jefferson; engraved view of Monticello. Contemporary or original sheep, rebacked and recornered preserving spine. Foxed, Some staining and wear. A rare association copy of the first biography of Jefferson. FIRST EDITION. An outstanding Democratic Party association copy. Inscribed and signed as president by Martin Van Buren to Mr. & Mrs. O’Neil, dated Oct 30, 1838. Van Buren served as president from 1837 to 1841 following his terms as vice president (1833-37) and secretary of state (1829-31) under Andrew Jackson. The most influential figure in the Democratic Party after Jackson, Van Buren built the modern Democratic Party, leading it to dominance in the Second Party system era. This is the first full-length biography of Thomas Jefferson. Rayner published this laudatory biography, which includes selections from Jefferson’s correspondence and other writings, just six years after Jefferson’s death. A revised edition was published as The Life of Thomas Jefferson (Boston, 1834). Jefferson was one of the founders of the “Democratic-Republican” party, the forerunner of the modern Democratic party which Van Buren led to dominance a generation later. Books signed by Martin Van Buren are rarely seen in the market. This biography of Thomas Jefferson, signed by Van Buren as president, must be considered one of the most desirable Van Buren books to appear for sale in many years.
The Descent of Man

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

DARWIN, CHARLES Two volumes. Original green cloth. Minimal repair to head of spine. A near fine set. FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, with the uncorrected text in Vol. I and with the list of errata on the verso of the title-page in Vol. II. Freeman observes that “there are important textual differences” between the two issues of the first edition. One of these, later rectified with the removal of long passages from the second issue, is pointed out in the first issue’s inserted slip referring to “a serious an unfortunate error, in relation to the sexual differences of animals.” This is the work in which Darwin applied his theory of evolution by means of natural selection to man, a subject he had avoided for the decade following the publication of On the Origin of Species. The word “evolution” appears here for the first time in any of Darwin’s works (it was incorporated the following year in the sixth edition of the Origin). Darwin observed that man’s extinct ancestors would have to be classified among the primates, a statement that was misinterpreted in the popular press and caused a furor surpassed only by that of the Origin. Darwin wrote, “The time will before long come when it will be thought wonderful, that naturalists, who were well acquainted with the comparative structure and development of man and other animals, should have believed that each was the work of a separate act of creation.” Freeman 937
Mammoth Plate Portrait of Abraham Lincoln

Mammoth Plate Portrait of Abraham Lincoln

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM) Alexander Gardner Albumen print (18 1⁄2 x 15 in.), gold-ruled mount (22 x 18 in.) with Gardner’s imprint. Mount and print with minor soiling and foxing. A rare survival. A classic mammoth portrait of Abraham Lincoln, showing the President just days before he delivered the Gettysburg Address. A giant of American photography, Alexander Gardner is credited with introducing the large-format Imperial portrait to the United States while working as a staff photographer for Mathew Brady. Gardner left Brady’s employ in early 1863, and his studio quickly rivaled Brady’s for the quality and extent of its war and portrait photography. Gardner first photographed Lincoln as president-elect while working for Brady, and he went on to take Lincoln’s portrait more than any other photographer. Lincoln sat for Gardner on several occasions, usually visiting his studio on Sunday to avoid crowds. Lincoln sat for this splendid large-format portrait on Sunday, November 8, 1863. His private secretaries John Hay and John Nicolay joined him. Hay noted in his diary that “We had a great many pictures taken some of the Prest. the best I have seen.” Ostendorf notes that this portrait, one of five made that day, “emphasized Lincoln’s long, lanky legs.” Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863, just eleven days after this portrait was made. The large-format Gardner portrait is rare and much sought-after. Another example was sold at Sotheby’s on October 5, 2011, lot 43, for $98,500. Only a handful of copies survive, several of which are trimmed and cropped. We are not aware of any other uncropped example in private hands. This mammoth photograph, in original condition with the Gardner mount and imprint, is a rare and important survival. Provenance: descended in the family of Colonel Oliver Perry Taylor, of the 161st Ohio Volunteer Infantry, sold Cowan’s, 4-5 December 2008. Early inscription on verso with erroneous final sentence: “Abraham Lincoln. Sunday Morning Febry 26th 1865. Presented to O. P. Taylor by Dr. Chas. Gentrick then residing at Washington). The last photograph of Lincoln – only six copies were printed when the negative was accidentally broken.” Ostendorf, Lincoln’s Photographs O-79.
Illustrated autograph manuscript journal of his tour of the United States

Illustrated autograph manuscript journal of his tour of the United States, including the Indian Territories and Dodge City

WILD WEST.) MARKHAM, ALBERT HASTINGS, Capt. A FAMED ENGLISH EXPLORER IN THE WILD WEST. Albert Hastings Markham (1841-1918), of the Royal Navy, is best known for his role in the British Arctic Expedition of 1875-76, which achieved a Farthest North. This tremendous illustrated manuscript journal details Markham’s adventures in the Old West. His journey takes him from Liverpool to New York by Cunard steamer, then to Wisconsin to see his mother, who had emigrated there, and on to St Louis. He continues into Indian Territory, traveling by rail and then stage to Fort Sill. For four weeks, accompanied by two Indians, he hunts buffalo and cougar, wolves and turkeys. His journal is filled with fascinating stories of his interactions with Indians and his adventures and misadventures on the prairie. He then makes his way, with the assistance of the Caddoc Indians, to Camp Supply, from which he took the stagecoach to Dodge City. Approaching Dodge he was joined by a party of “cow boys” armed with “six shooters,” and he stayed with them at the camping site outside Dodge City known as Soldiers’ Graves, or Bear Creek, Station. Dodge City was established in 1872, just five years before Markham’s arrival, and it quickly became the “cowboy capital,” attracting the great lawmen and gunfighters including Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, and Doc Holliday. Markham notes that Dodge “enjoys the reputation of being the rowdiest of all rowdy western towns” and that it “contains a population of about 600 people – the houses are all wooden, and the majority of them are either saloons or dancing houses.” He marvels at “the sink of iniquity, the perfect ‘hell upon earth’ that Dodge City really is.” “Like Sodom & Gomorrah it would be difficult to find half a dozen virtuous people residing there!” Markham has a taste for adventure and an ear for great stories, and he soaks up what he learns from the “cow boys” he meets. The following passage gives a taste of the manuscript: “shortly after crossing the Cimarron we passed what is called a ‘cow camp’, that is a camp composed of ‘cow boys’ or ‘herders’ in attendance on a herd of cattle which they are driving from Texas to Kansas. This camp belonged to a party of 26 ‘cow boys’ and ‘bull whackers’, who had arrived thus far with 7,000 head of cattle. As we were jogging quietly along we were called in peremptory fashion to halt, when a couple of the roughest looking fellows I ever saw in my life each armed with a Winchester repeating rifle and a ‘six shooter’, and each carrying a saddle, intimated their intention of taking passage with us as far as Dodge! Our waggon was pretty crowded as it was but the driver thinking it better policy to acquiesce to their demand and thus avoid a brawl, consented to carry them on ” Approx. 360 pages on ruled paper; 10 watercolors; ephemera; correspondence. This illustrated manuscript, containing vivid tales of the American West by a keen observer with a taste for adventure, is worthy of exhibition and publication. The manuscript is extensively illustrated with inserted watercolors, ephemera, and correspondence. Details are on our website.
Commentaries on the Laws of England

Commentaries on the Laws of England

BLACKSTONE, WILLIAM 4to. Four volumes. Two tables (one folding) in volume two. Contemporary mottled calf, spines gilt, red and black morocco labels. Joints of first volume cracked but secure, minimal repairs to joints, minor wear and foxing. A splendid, tight set in a wonderful period binding. First edition of Blackstone’s Commentaries, a monument of the Anglo-American legal and political system and one of the key influences on the thought of the Founding Fathers and the shaping of the Constitution. “All our formative documents—the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Federalist Papers, and the seminal decisions of the Supreme Court under John Marshall—were drafted by attorneys steeped in Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England. So much was this the case that the Commentaries rank second only to the Bible as a literary and intellectual influence on the history of American institutions” (Robert Ferguson). Blackstone’s impact on American political and legal thinking was profound and immediate. In 1775 Edmund Burke observed that nearly as many copies of Blackstone’s Commentaries had been sold in America as in England. Thomas Jefferson observed that Blackstone’s Commentaries were “the most lucid in arrangement which had yet been written, correct in its matter, classical in its style, and rightfully taking its place by the side of the Justinian institutes.” A set of Blackstone’s Commentaries is a cornerstone of any library of the history and thought of the Founding Fathers. Fine copies in original bindings are virtually unobtainable. This splendid set, in a shimmering gilt-tooled calf binding of the period, is worthy of the greatest libraries. Provenance: Sir John Cust (1718-1770), speaker of the House of Commons from 1761-1770, with his bookplate. The 1793 edition of Blackstone’s Commentaries noted that “Sir John Cust was the last speaker who addressed the throne in the language of diffidence.” Printing and the Mind of Man 212. Grolier 100 English Books 52. [with] BLACKSTONE, WILLIAM. A Discourse on the Study of the Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1758. Contemporary marbled wrappers, inscribed “Duplicate.” A fine, untrimmed copy. First edition. This is Blackstone’s inaugural lecture as the first Vinerian Professor of English Law, delivered in October 1758. The lecture, which emphasizes the value of the study of law at university, has been called a “sensible, spirited, and manly exhortation to the study of law” (Sheppard, History of Legal Education in the United States). Rare: no other copies appear in the auction records of the past forty-five years. This is an excellent, untrimmed copy.
The Monroe Doctrine: Message from the President of the United States

The Monroe Doctrine: Message from the President of the United States, to Both Houses of Congress, at the Commencement of the First Session of the Eighteenth Congress. December 2, 1823. Printed by order of the Senate. 15 pp. [with] Documents Accompanying the Message of the President

Monroe, James FIRST EDITION IN BOOK FORM of the Monroe Doctrine, preceded only by the newspaper printings. The Monroe Doctrine marks the first American declaration of its place as a world power and has long been a cornerstone of American foreign policy. Concerned about the intervention of European powers in the New World, and objecting to Russia’s aggressive stance in the Northwest, James Monroe declared in his State of the Union Address on December 2, 1823, that “The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” He added that any such interventions could not be viewed “in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.” For nearly two centuries the Monroe Doctrine has shaped American foreign policy, and it remains the most famous document of American foreign relations. In 1845 James Polk advised Congress that the principle should be strictly enforced and used it as an essential underpinning of American westward expansion. Many 19th-century presidents continued to cite the doctrine culminating in Theodore Roosevelt’s assertion of the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin America. John F. Kennedy cited the Monroe Doctrine as a basis for its confrontation with the Soviet Union in the Cuban Missile Crisis. He declared: “The Monroe Doctrine means what it has meant since President Monroe and John Quincy Adams enunciated it, and that is that we would oppose a foreign power extending its power to the Western Hemisphere, and that is why we oppose what is happening in Cuba today. That is why we have cut off our trade. That is why we worked in the Organization of American States and in other ways to isolate the Communist menace in Cuba. That is why we will continue to give a good deal of our effort and attention to it.” Virtually every president since Kennedy has cited the Monroe Doctrine as the basis for American actions in the Western Hemisphere. Examples of the Monroe Doctrine with the accompanying Documents are rarely seen in contemporary bindings without library markings. Grolier 100 Influential American Books 33. Our Documents: 100 Milestone Documents From the National Archives 66.